Diagnosing Behavioral Problems in Organization An important part of any performancemanagement system this process is used toidentify and diagnose the cause is ofbehavioral or performance problems.
Diagnosis Organizational BehaviorHow to manage people in an organization with a systematic way It helps predicting employee behavior, shaping them and removing undesired behavior.
Diagnosis of Behavioral Problems in an OrganizationDefine Expected or Described Actual Desired Behavior Behavioral Patterns GAP: What change in behavior is desired? Why does GAP exist? Skills / Ability /Motivation Knowledge Role Resources Expectecation Selection /…Next Slide Recruitment Process Leader/Team Coaching Leader/Team Coaching Orientation Training & Process Development Performance Process Review Process
Inducement Satisfaction Motivation System Expectancy: Perceived Equity: Perceived Reward tie between ERB and Fairness Play Conditional Task Feedback Task Task Variety Autonomy, Significance, Identity, Challenge Conditional SocialManagerial Affirmation of Worth Feedback Validating Self Concept Conditional Social Social Affirmation of Worth Feedback Validating Self Concept
Process Model of Performance DiagnosisThe process of problem solving in terms of solving performance problems can be comprised of three major stages: Problem identification, diagnosis, and solution generation. This process can be expanded to include solution choice, development of an implementation plan, and monitoring and feedback of a plan, sections below will describe the first three stages of this process.
Stages of the BehavioralProblem Solving Process
Problem Identification• Identification of specific behavior (either dysfunctional or wish for changes)• Identifies specific group of employees’ behavior is in question, and justifies the importance of changing that behavior.• The key outcome of the Problem Identification Stage is the specification of the Behavioral Gap (also called the Performance Gap), which is the difference between expected/desired employee behavior and actual/observed employee behavior.
Problem Identification ... Con’tNote: It is important to refrain from the attribution of causes of the Behavioral Gap in this stage of the problem solving process. Likewise, these problems should not be defined in terms of attitudes, personality, or other variables that you believe are causing the Behavioral Gap
Diagnosis• Problem solver identifies the potential causes of Bahavioral Gap• Starts with a First level Diagnosis – used to determine which of the four fundamental causes of performance is attributable to the performance problem (Motivation, Skills, Role Perception, or Resources).Note: This diagnosis may reveal that the Behavioral Gap is a function of more than one of these fundamental causes.
Diagnosis ... Con’t• The Second Level Diagnosis attempts to uncover the root causes of the first level cause. – For example, if it is determined that the first level cause of the Behavioral Gap is low motivation, than the second level diagnoses would attempt to determine the root causes of low motivation.• Most successful managers use complex theories of motivation to help them with this part of the analysis.
Solution Generation• Lists a number of potential solutions to our behavioral problem which should be aimed directly at changing the behavior specified in the behavioral gap and should be consistent with the causes outlined in the diagnosis stage.
Solution Choice• Chooses alternative solutions• Considers cost-effectiveness, likelihood of success, ease of implementation, the level of disruption to other systems, and likely effect on other organizational stakeholders
Solution Evaluation• Asks questions such as: – Were the right people involved? – Were the mental models used in our process accurate? – Did the process we used have an adverse effect on the solution chosen? – What can we do next time to insure a better result?
What is Perception?• Came from the Latin Perceptio, percipio• How we see the world around us• Process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information.• The result or product of perceiving Note: act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind. Understanding
Perceptual Selection• Perceptual Selection selectivity of which stimuli to perceive people perceive (only) a small fraction of the stimuli to which they are exposed• Two major factors that affects the selection: 1. Previous experience 2. motives at the time
Perception and Work Behavior• People make trait distinctions between occupations as well as classes• (1) Organizational and structural factors influence behaviour and in other ways modify the information that actors have about each other• (2) Cognitive and motivational limits on the ability to process information do not allow actors to correct adequately for biased source of their information• Impressions of co-workers and managers are not solely based on their abilities and dispositions, but are instead heavily influenced by the roles they play.
Principles in Personal Leadership• Success in your personal growth will be defined by your success in personal leadership. 3 Major Pillars of Personal Leadership Attitude Aptitude Altitude
Attitude • The manner in which you approach any situation is crucial to the results that you ultimately achieve. • Your attitude determines your mindset, it is the foundation on which your responses sit. The attitude you choose to have will determine how effective you are.3 Things that we must believe to maintain a positive attitude Believe in Choice Believe in Believe in Possibilities the Future
Aptitude• determines how well you do something• the level of your abilities that will sustain the fire in your attitude 3 things required to have high aptitude Keen Awareness Mentorship Practice
Altitude• heights to which you can grow• is fuelled by your attitude and aptitude. Individuals who consistently move to the next level all have to focus on these 3 things Desire Intent Follow Through
Intellegence Defined• abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, reas oning, learning, planning, emotional intelligence and problem solving.
General Intelligence by Charles Spearman• Intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.
Primary Mental Abilities by Louis L. Thurstone• Seven different primary mental abilities 1. Verbal comprehension 2. Reasoning 3. Perceptual speed 4. Numerical ability 5. Word fluency 6. Associate memory 7. Spatial visualization
Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner• describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures.• A classical model to understand and teach many aspects of human intelligence, learning style, personality and behavior.
Multiple Intelligences … Con’t• The ten multiple intelligences Gardner described are: Intelligence Type Capability and Perception Visual-spatial Image & Space Verbal-linguistic Word & Language Bodily-Kinesthetic Body Movement Control Logical-mathematical Logic & Numbers Interpersonal Other’s Feelings Intra personal Self-Awarness Musical Music, Sound, Rhythm Naturalistic Instinct & Natural Environment Spiritual-Existential Religion & the “Ultimate” Issue Moral Ethics, Humanity, Value of Life
Multiple Intelligences … Con’t• The theory represents a definition of human nature from a cognitive perspective. (how we perceive, how we are aware of things)• This provides absolutely pivotal and inescapable indication as to people’s preferred learning styles, behavioral and working styles, and their natural strengths.
Triarchic Theories of Intelligence by Robert Sternberg• "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life."• proposed what he refers to as successful intelligence, which is comprised of three different factors: – Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. – Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. – Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.
VAK (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic)• " Learning style model developed by Fernald, Keller, Orton, Gillingham, Stillman and Montessori.• It is a multi-sensory approach to learning and teaching was originally concerned with the teaching of dyslexic children and other learners for whom conventional teaching methods were not effective.• Gardner’s Theory is one way of looking at thinking styles; VAK is another. • Visual – seeing and reading • Auditory – listening and speaking • Kinesthetic – touching and doing
Theories of Learning• Learning – Learning is any change in content or organization of long term memory or behavior – It is the key to Consumer Behavior• Classical Conditioning – Based on the association of a stimulus and response – Most common in low involvement situations – Also known as Pavlovian Conditiong• Operant Conditioning – Based on reward/punishment to desired response – Use of free samples is highly effective – Also known as Instrumental Learning
Theories of Learning … Con’t• Iconic Rote Theory – Association between two concepts in the absence of conditioning – Particularly useful in low/medium involvement purchase• Vicarious Learning/Modeling – Learning by observation – Useful in both high and low involvement purchase• Reasoning/Analogy – Also known as Cognitive Learning – Is a problem solving process associated with goal achievement
Factors Affecting Learning• Importance of Information• Message involvement• Mood• Reinforcement• Punishment• Repetition• Imagery• Related aspects – Forgetting – cessation of the stimulus – Extinction – self choice of an individual
Memory• It is the total accumulation of the prior learning experience• Short Term Memory – That portion of the memory which is currently active or in use – Has limited capacity to store information and sensation – Two basic types of information processing • Elaborative Activities – use of previously stored experiences, activities, values, attitudes, beliefs and feelings to interpret and evaluate information. • Maintenance Rehearsals – continuous repetition of information – Is dependent on • Concepts • Imagery
Memory … Con’t• Long Term Memory – Is an unlimited permanent storage – Can be roughly divided into 4 parts • Semantic Memory – basic knowledge and feeling an individual has about a concept. • Episodic Memory – Memory of events in which an individual participated. (Nostalgia) • Schematic Memory – is a complex web of association developed by breaking down of information into smaller pieces of related information linked together. • Script Memory – memory of how action sequence should occur. Necessary for consumers to shop effectively.
Appendix12 different theories on how people learn
Constructivitism• a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in.• Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mental models,” which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.
Behaviorism• a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind.• define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions.
Piaget’s Developmental Theory• Swiss biologist and psychologist Jean Piaget (1896- 1980)• based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures–in other words, mental “maps,” schemes, or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or her environment.
Brain-Based Learning• based on the structure and function of the brain.• As long as the brain is not prohibited from fulfilling its normal processes, learning will occur.
Multiple Intelligences• Howard Gardner,• suggests there are at least seven ways that people have of perceiving and understanding the world.• Gardner labels each of these ways a distinct “intelligence”–in other words, a set of skills allowing individuals to find and resolve genuine problems they face.
Right Brain/Left Brain Thinking• the structure and functions of the mind suggests that the two different sides of the brain control two different “modes” of thinking.• suggests that each of us prefers one mode over the other.
Communities of Practice• views learning as an act of membership in a “community of practice.”• seeks to understand both the structure of communities and how learning occurs in them.
Control Theory• the theory of motivation proposed by William Glasser• contends that behavior is never caused by a response to an outside stimulus. Instead, the control theory states that behavior is inspired by what a person wants most at any given time: survival, love, power, freedom, or any other basic human need.
Observational Learning• also called social learning theory,• occurs when an observer’s behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model.• An observer’s behavior can be affected by the positive or negative consequences–called vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment– of a model’s behavior.
Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition• asserts that culture is the prime determinant of individual development.• - Humans are the only species to have created culture, and every human child develops in the context of a culture. Therefore, a child’s learning development is affected in ways large and small by the culture–including the culture of family environment–in which he or she is enmeshed.