Photograms and darkroom procedure
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  • 1. Photograms and Darkroom Procedure
  • 2. What is a Photogram?
    • A photogram is a type of contact print, made without the use of a camera or negative.
  • 3.
    • A photogram is created by placing objects on light sensitive material and then exposing it to light.
  • 4.
    • Henry Fox Talbot experimented with making botanical images by placing botanical specimens and lace on top of light sensitive material in a printing frame, exposing this to light, and then washing out the unexposed light sensitive material.
  • 5.
    • In the 1920’s photograms became popular with artists such as Man Ray and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy.
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. What Kinds of Things Can be Used to Create a Photogram?
    • Two-dimensional objects that block some or all of the light like cut paper, drawings, writing, transparencies can be used along with three-dimensional objects.
    • Objects can be opaque, blocking light completely, semi-transparent, blocking only some of the light, or completely transparent like a plastic water bottle.
    • try to go beyond the items readily on hand, such as keys, coins, ipods, etc.
    • Explore organic materials like leaves, cotton, rocks or sand. Investigate liquids captured in plastic bags and drawing on transparency or paper.
  • 11. Process
    • Begin in the white light with a sheet of plexiglass.
    • Use tape or a marker to define the printing area (the size of your light sensitive material). Now arrange your composition on the plexiglass.
    • When you are satisfied with your composition, move into the darkroom and place your plexiglass with objects on top of the light sensitive material.
    • Make sure your photo paper fits inside your defined area.
    • Expose with white light from an enlarger, overhead light, flexible desk lamp, or pen light.
    • Process the paper as normal.
  • 12.
    • Evaluation the Results:
    • Have you created a dynamic composition?
    • Did you explore a variety of objects to create a unique photogram?
    • Did you properly expose your photogram?
    • Has your photogram been properly processed?
  • 13. Processing Photographic Paper
  • 14. Step 1: Developer (Dektol)
    • Place paper in the developer tray
    • Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged
    • Rock the edge of the tray to agitate the paper – to ensure there are no bubbles
    • Process for 60seconds
  • 15. Step 2: Stop Bath
    • Carefully remove the paper from the developer using tongs
    • Allow it to drip for 7 seconds.
    • Place the paper in the stop bath tray
    • Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged
    • Rock the edge of the tray to agitate the paper – to ensure there are no bubbles
    • Process for 30seconds
  • 16. Step 3: Fixer
    • Carefully remove the paper from the stop bath using tongs
    • Allow it to drip for 7 seconds.
    • Place the paper in the fixer tray
    • Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged
    • Rock the edge of the tray to agitate the paper – to ensure there are no bubbles
    • Process for 5 minutes
  • 17. Step 4: Water Rinse
    • Carefully remove the paper from the fixer using tongs
    • Allow it to drip for 7 seconds.
    • Place the paper in the water bath
    • Gently tap edges with tongs to ensure paper is fully submerged
    • Allow running water to rinse the print for at least 5 minutes
    • Dry print
  • 18. Your Assignment
    • Create a photogram that evokes a very specific mood or feeling, and exemplifies a dynamic composition
  • 19. Grading Criteria
    • Dynamic Composition
    • Creation of mood or feeling
    • Creativity
    • Craftsmanship
      • Proper exposure
      • Proper processing (no stains, etc)
    • Complete, on time, and dry