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Brodmann's areas of the cerebral cortex
 

Brodmann's areas of the cerebral cortex

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Functional areas of the cerebral cortex

Functional areas of the cerebral cortex

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    Brodmann's areas of the cerebral cortex Brodmann's areas of the cerebral cortex Presentation Transcript

    • FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OFTHE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Dr.Mohammed Sadiq Azam Postgraduate, Prof.Siraj’s unit, M:I Deccan College of Medical Sciences
    • BRAIN - ANATOMY
    • BRAIN - ANATOMY
    • BRAIN - ANATOMY
    • BRAIN – FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
    • HISTOLOGYSix layers:I: Molecular layerII: External granular layerIII: Small pyramidal cell layerIV: Internal granular layerV: Large pyramidal cell layerVI: Layer of fusiform orpolymorphic cells
    • SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
    • SENSORY HOMUNCULOUS
    • SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX• SSA 1 & SSA 2• Amorphsynthesis – forgets one half
    • MOTOR CORTEX
    • MOTOR HOMUNCULOUS
    • MOTOR AREAS
    • ROLE OF BRAIN STEM IN MOTORFUNCTION:• Way station for “command signals”• Important in movement & equilibrium• Reticular nuclei and vestibular nuclei• Vestibular nuclei: M, K, S
    • VISUAL CORTEX
    • VISUAL CORTEX
    • VISUAL CORTEX
    • CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS• EOM:• Medial & Lateral recti• Inferior & Suerior recti• Superior & Inferipr oblique• MLF
    • CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS• Fixation eye movements • Voluntary fixation mechanism • Involuntary fixation mechanism• Role of superior colliculi in involuntary fixation • Continuous tremor • Slow drift • Flicking movts• Saccadic eye movements• Pursuit movements
    • AUDITORYCORTEX
    • AUDITORY CORTEX• Determination of direction of entry of sound: • Time lag between entry of sound into one ear and the other • Difference between the intensities of the sounds in the two ears.• Neural mechanism:• Superior olivary nucleus
    • OLFACTORY CORTEX• Very old – Medial olfactory area • Hypothalamus & limbic cortex• Less old olfactory area • Limbic cortex & Paleocortex• Newer pathway • Dorsomedial thalamic nucleus • Lateropasterior quadrant of the orbitofrontale cortex
    • ASSOCIATION AREAS
    • ASSOCIATION AREAS• Parietooccipitotemporal association area: • Spatial co-ordinates • Language comprehension (Wernicke’s area) • Visual comprehension (Angulate gyrus - Dyslexia) • Naming objects• Prefrontal association area: • Sequential and parallel inputs of motor function • Planning of motor activity (thought process) • Working memory
    • ASSOCIATION AREAS
    • WERNICKE’S AREA:• = GENERAL INTERPRETIVE AREA• = GNOSTIC AREA• = KNOWING AREA• = TERITARY ASSOCIATION AREA• Single greatest role of any part of the cerebral cortex for the function of intelligence.• Highly developed on the dominant hemisphere in the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe.
    • ANGULAR GYRUS• Most inferior portion of posterior parietal lobe.• Visual comprehension• Dyslexia
    • FACE RECOGNITION• Medial undersides of both occipital lobes• Prosophenosia
    • SPEAKING A HEARD WORD
    • SPEAKING A WRITTEN WORD
    • NON DOMINANT HEMISPHERE• Interpretation of music• Nonverbal visual experiences (patterns)• Spatial relationships between person and environment• Body language, intonation of voices• Somatic experiences from limbs and hands
    • Gerstmann syndrome• Lesion at angular and supramarginal gyri near parietotemporal junction• Dysgraphia• Dyscalculia• Finger agnosia• Left right disorientation
    • THANK YOU