Brodmann's areas of the cerebral cortex

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Functional areas of the cerebral cortex

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Brodmann's areas of the cerebral cortex

  1. 1. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OFTHE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Dr.Mohammed Sadiq Azam Postgraduate, Prof.Siraj’s unit, M:I Deccan College of Medical Sciences
  2. 2. BRAIN - ANATOMY
  3. 3. BRAIN - ANATOMY
  4. 4. BRAIN - ANATOMY
  5. 5. BRAIN – FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
  6. 6. HISTOLOGYSix layers:I: Molecular layerII: External granular layerIII: Small pyramidal cell layerIV: Internal granular layerV: Large pyramidal cell layerVI: Layer of fusiform orpolymorphic cells
  7. 7. SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
  8. 8. SENSORY HOMUNCULOUS
  9. 9. SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX• SSA 1 & SSA 2• Amorphsynthesis – forgets one half
  10. 10. MOTOR CORTEX
  11. 11. MOTOR HOMUNCULOUS
  12. 12. MOTOR AREAS
  13. 13. ROLE OF BRAIN STEM IN MOTORFUNCTION:• Way station for “command signals”• Important in movement & equilibrium• Reticular nuclei and vestibular nuclei• Vestibular nuclei: M, K, S
  14. 14. VISUAL CORTEX
  15. 15. VISUAL CORTEX
  16. 16. VISUAL CORTEX
  17. 17. CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS• EOM:• Medial & Lateral recti• Inferior & Suerior recti• Superior & Inferipr oblique• MLF
  18. 18. CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS• Fixation eye movements • Voluntary fixation mechanism • Involuntary fixation mechanism• Role of superior colliculi in involuntary fixation • Continuous tremor • Slow drift • Flicking movts• Saccadic eye movements• Pursuit movements
  19. 19. AUDITORYCORTEX
  20. 20. AUDITORY CORTEX• Determination of direction of entry of sound: • Time lag between entry of sound into one ear and the other • Difference between the intensities of the sounds in the two ears.• Neural mechanism:• Superior olivary nucleus
  21. 21. OLFACTORY CORTEX• Very old – Medial olfactory area • Hypothalamus & limbic cortex• Less old olfactory area • Limbic cortex & Paleocortex• Newer pathway • Dorsomedial thalamic nucleus • Lateropasterior quadrant of the orbitofrontale cortex
  22. 22. ASSOCIATION AREAS
  23. 23. ASSOCIATION AREAS• Parietooccipitotemporal association area: • Spatial co-ordinates • Language comprehension (Wernicke’s area) • Visual comprehension (Angulate gyrus - Dyslexia) • Naming objects• Prefrontal association area: • Sequential and parallel inputs of motor function • Planning of motor activity (thought process) • Working memory
  24. 24. ASSOCIATION AREAS
  25. 25. WERNICKE’S AREA:• = GENERAL INTERPRETIVE AREA• = GNOSTIC AREA• = KNOWING AREA• = TERITARY ASSOCIATION AREA• Single greatest role of any part of the cerebral cortex for the function of intelligence.• Highly developed on the dominant hemisphere in the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe.
  26. 26. ANGULAR GYRUS• Most inferior portion of posterior parietal lobe.• Visual comprehension• Dyslexia
  27. 27. FACE RECOGNITION• Medial undersides of both occipital lobes• Prosophenosia
  28. 28. SPEAKING A HEARD WORD
  29. 29. SPEAKING A WRITTEN WORD
  30. 30. NON DOMINANT HEMISPHERE• Interpretation of music• Nonverbal visual experiences (patterns)• Spatial relationships between person and environment• Body language, intonation of voices• Somatic experiences from limbs and hands
  31. 31. Gerstmann syndrome• Lesion at angular and supramarginal gyri near parietotemporal junction• Dysgraphia• Dyscalculia• Finger agnosia• Left right disorientation
  32. 32. THANK YOU

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