Contents• Computer animation• Explanation• History• Methods of animating virtual characters• Creating characters and objects on acomputer• Computer animation developmentequipment• Modeling human faces• Future
Computer animation• Computer animation is the processused for generating animatedimages by using computer graphics.The more general term computergenerated imagery encompassesboth static scenes and dynamicimages, while computeranimation only refers to movingimages.• Modern computer animation usuallyuses 3D computer graphics.
Explanation• To trick the eye and brain into thinkingthey are seeing a smoothly movingobject, the pictures should be drawn ataround 12 frames per second or faster(a frame is one complete image). Withrates above 70 frames/s noimprovement in realism or smoothnessis perceivable due to the way the eyeand brain process images
History• One of the earliest steps in the history ofcomputer animation was the 1973movie Westworld, a science-fiction filmabout a society in which robots live andwork among humans, though the first useof 3D Wireframe imagery was in its sequel,future world (1976), which featured acomputer-generated hand and facecreated by then University ofUtah graduate students EdwinCatmull and Fred Parke.
Methods of animating virtualcharacters• In most 3D computer animation systems, ananimator creates a simplified representation ofa characters anatomy, analogous toa skeleton or stick figure. The position of eachsegment of the skeletal model is definedby animation variables, or Avatars. In humanand animal characters, many parts of theskeletal model correspond to actual bones,but skeletal animation is also used to animateother things, such as facial features
Creating characters and objectson a computer• 3D computer animation combines 3Dmodels of objects and programmed orhand "keyframed" movement. Modelsare constructed out of geometricalvertices, faces, and edges in a 3Dcoordinate system. Objects are sculptedmuch like real clay or plaster, workingfrom general forms to specific detailswith various sculpting tools.
Computer animationdevelopment equipment• Computer animation canbe created with acomputer and animationsoftware. Someimpressive animation canbe achieved even withbasic programs,the rendering can take alot of time on an ordinaryhome computer.
Modeling human faces• The modeling of human facial featuresis both one of the most challenging andsought after elements in computer-generated imagery. Computer facialanimation is a highly complex fieldwhere models typically include a verylarge number of animation variables.
Future• One open challenge in computer animation is a photorealisticanimation of humans.• Currently, most computer-animated movies show animalcharacters (A Bugs Life, Finding Nemo, Ice Age, Over theHedge, Open Season, Rio), fantasy characters (MonstersInc., Shrek, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 4, Monsters vs.Aliens), anthropomorphic machines (Cars, WALL-E, Robots) orcartoon-like humans (The Incredibles, Up).• the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is often cited as thefirst computer-generated movie to attempt to show realistic-looking humans
Movies• CGI short films have been producedas independent animation since 1976, thoughthe popularity of computer animationskyrocketed during the modern era of U.S.animation. The first completely computer-generated television series was ReBoot, in1994, and the first completely computer-generated animated movie was ToyStory(1995).