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Animation

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Animation
What is Animation?? 
simple!! 
moving pictures… no…pictures r not 
moving…they r 
still…!!! 
then…what?? 
its jst an illusion 
of movement… 
how??
Animation 
• A simulation of movement created by 
displaying series of pictures or frames at a 
rapid speed. 
• Generated from word ‘anime’ which means 
life. 
• ‘To animate’ means to bring to life.
Animation 
• Animation on computers is one of the chief 
ingredients of multimedia presentations. 
• Video takes continuous motion and breaks it 
up into discrete frames, whereas animation 
starts with independent pictures and puts 
them together to form the illusion of 
continuous motion.
Animation-an illusion!! 
First you should understand the 
principles of how the eye interprets 
the changes it sees as motion.
Persistence of vision 
 Given by Peter Roget in 1824. 
 It states that an object seen by the human 
eye remains chemically mapped on the eye’s 
retina for a brief time after viewing. 
 The fractional skips between images are not 
noticed because the persistence fills in the 
momentary gap. 
 This makes it possible for a series of images 
that are changed very slightly and very 
rapidly, one after the other, seem like 
continuous motion.

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Animation

  • 2. What is Animation?? simple!! moving pictures… no…pictures r not moving…they r still…!!! then…what?? its jst an illusion of movement… how??
  • 3. Animation • A simulation of movement created by displaying series of pictures or frames at a rapid speed. • Generated from word ‘anime’ which means life. • ‘To animate’ means to bring to life.
  • 4. Animation • Animation on computers is one of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentations. • Video takes continuous motion and breaks it up into discrete frames, whereas animation starts with independent pictures and puts them together to form the illusion of continuous motion.
  • 5. Animation-an illusion!! First you should understand the principles of how the eye interprets the changes it sees as motion.
  • 6. Persistence of vision  Given by Peter Roget in 1824.  It states that an object seen by the human eye remains chemically mapped on the eye’s retina for a brief time after viewing.  The fractional skips between images are not noticed because the persistence fills in the momentary gap.  This makes it possible for a series of images that are changed very slightly and very rapidly, one after the other, seem like continuous motion.
  • 7. How it works?? These six frames when displayed at a speed of 10 frames per second creates an illusion of motion(bouncing of ball).
  • 9. The earliest example existed 4000 years ago in Persia Thaumatrope(1827) phenakistoscope
  • 10. (Early 1900s-late 1920s) •Cartoonist Emile Cohl experimented with stop motion animation •The first animated film created- "Humorous Phases of Funny Faces“ by Stuart Blackton. •The first animated character in animation history, Gertie the Dinosaur. She was created by Winsor McCay in 1914. •Earl Hurd patented the cel technique in 1914.
  • 11. (Late 1920s-late 1950s) •First animated film with synchronized sound was Steamboat Willie in 1928 by Walt Disney. •Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 by Walt Disney was the first full length animated film in color. •Memorable characters- Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny, Donald Duck, Daffy Duck, Popeye, Woody Woodpecker, Mighty Mouse, Tom And Jerry, and a popular adaptation of Superman.
  • 12. Late 1950s-1980s •During this time limited animation was the rule. •Initially it was a way to stand out from Disney, but in very short order it was recognized as a way to save time and money, too. •cartoons moved to television. •Animation quality was down. •The failure of Disney's films seemed to spell the end of Disney's animation
  • 13. 1980s-2000s •The return of animation to a point of artistic respect. • Limited Animation was still the rule on television. •Rebirth of Theatrical Feature. •Computer animation •Toy Story, produced by Walt Disney Productions and Pixar Animation Studios, became the first full length feature film animated entirely on computers when it was released in 1995.
  • 14. Early 2000s-present •Animations are generated using computers. •Many softwares are available for this purposes. •CGI and Flash animation are the rule. •New techniques are used like – motion capture, algorithms, etc.
  • 15. •Hand drawn Animation (cel animation) •Stop motion Animation -Cutout Animation -Clay Animation -Object Animation -Puppet Animation •Sand Animation •Drawn on film Animation •Computer Animation
  • 16. Cel Animation: Cel stands for celluloid which is a clear sheet with images drawn on them. It is transparent so that it can be laid over other cels and/or a painted background, then photographed. It includes the following steps:- •Drawing and painting of Cels •Filming of Cels The processed film, vocal tracks, music and sound tracks are then synchronized and edited together. The final film is sent to the lab to make a film project print.
  • 17. •Cel animation or Hand drawn or traditional animation is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. Cel animation was invented by Winsor McCay in 1915. •McCay first used cel animation to create the 25 minute film The Sinking of the Luisitania which used over 25,000 drawings. •Walt Disney also used this technique in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 which marked the first time that traditionally animated films began to be taken seriously. •Cel animation is incredibly time consuming and requires incredible organization and attention to detail. Cntd…
  • 18. •Stop motion animation is a frame-by-frame process in which real-world objects are used. •The objects are photographed, moved a bit then photographed again. The camera used is a special camera known as Rostrum camera. This process is repeated for a number of times & then the photos are patched together in order to create animation. •There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create the animation, these include: Cutout animation Clay animation Object animation Puppet animation
  • 19. •Cutout animation is a technique for producing animations using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or even photographs. •The world's earliest known animated feature films were cutout animations. •The first episode of South park(American animated sitcom) was made with paper cut outs.
  • 20. •Also known as Claymation, is a form of Stop motion animation. •In this form, each object is sculpted in clay or a similarly pliable material such as Plasticine, usually around a wire skeleton called an armature.
  • 21. In sand animation, the animator is using sand on a flat surface, usually made of either wood or backlit glass. Once the single frame is complete, the animator captures it on camera, then adjusts the sand art to the image for the next frame in the animation.
  • 22. •Animation without camera!! •Drawn directly on either of blank or black(already developed) film reel. •Black film can be scratched, etched, sanded, or punched. •On blank film the artist can draw, paint, stamp, or even glue objects.
  • 24. An animator’s job is to take a static image or object and literally bring it to life by giving it movement and personality. In computer animation, animators use softwares to draw, model and animate objects and characters in vast digital landscapes. Computer animation consists of relative movement between rigid bodies and possibly movement of the view point or virtual camera. There are two basic kinds of computer animation: •Computer-assisted animation, •Computer-generated animation.
  • 25. The computer is used to make the animation process quicker and easier. It is typically 2-D. •Objects are drawn either by hand or a computer •Then the animations are computerized •Then, keyframing and •Tweening is done. Functions like in-betweening and motion capture are examples of computer-assisted animation
  • 26. •Keyframing and Tweening is the process of generating in-between frames from the user-specified key frames. •Keyframes are the particular frames chosen by the animators that describe the transformation of this object, and that all other intermediate positions can be figured out from these. • Key frames can be computed --at equal time intervals --according to some other rules. •The process of figuring out the frames in between two keyframes is called "in-betweening" or simply "tweening“.
  • 27. Example: keyframes tweening Final animation
  • 28. •Its is 3-D i.e. objects and characters are modeled on a plane with an X, Y and Z axis. • here the animation is designed solely on the computer system. •Keyframing and tweening are also done in this.
  • 29. 2D animation 2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D Vector graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of tweening, morphing.
  • 30. Digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. To manipulate a mesh, it is given a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. (rigging) Other techniques can be applied such as mathematical functions, simulated fur or hair, fire/water effect and the use of Motion Capture. Many 3D animations are very believable and are commonly used as Visual Effects for recent movies
  • 31. To create a 3-D computer-generated object, you'll need modeling software like Maya, 3ds Max or Blender. These programs come loaded with a large number of basic 3-D shapes, called primitives or prims, which are the building blocks of more complex objects. For example, you could model a car by connecting cubes, cylinders, pyramids and spheres of different shapes and sizes. Since these are 3D objects, they're modeled on the X, Y and Z axes and can be rotated and viewed from any angle. •To create 2-D animation, you’ll need 2-D animation softwares like Pencil, Toon Bomb Studio, Flash, etc.
  • 32. •Development of ideas and story --idea of animation --characters and story --scripts •Create storyboard •Voice actors to record sound •Design the characters, locations, props (The characters and props are modeled in 3-D or scanned into the computers from clay models.) •Blocking – placing the characters on the sets that brings the virtual world to life. •Keyframing and tweening •Rendering - all of the digital information that the animators have created -- character models, key frames, tweens, textures, colors, sets, props, lighting, etc -- is assembled into a single frame of film.
  • 33. •Motion capture : Motion capture uses reflective dots that are placed at an actor's joints. When he moves, a computer picks up the dots and creates a model of the performance, which is stored in the computer. •Procedural techniques : to describe the motion algorithmically or to express animation as a function of small number of parameteres.
  • 36. •Morphing is a special effect in animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. •Using morphing technique one image is gradually turned into another. •Morphing is done with similar objects; for example, transforming one car model into another. Morphed image
  • 37. The Indian animation industry is currently at US $1.5 billion. NASSCOM has projected a creation of an additional 300,000 jobs in this sector in next few years. TASI – The Animation Society of India is one of main society in Indian Animation industry.
  • 38. Summary •Animation process of creating images one at a time to be displayed rapidly in sequence giving the illusion of movement. •Persistence of vision blending together by the eye and brain of rapidly displayed sequential images, giving the illusion of movement. •Pioneers of animation include Winsor McCay of the United States and Emile Cohl of France.