Gameful Design: Creating Passionate Customers and Coworkers

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Talk at the Innovation Lab Denmark, June 20, 2013. http://ilab.dk/gamification-konference

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Gameful Design: Creating Passionate Customers and Coworkers

  1. gameful designcreating passionatecustomers and co-workersSebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)Innovation Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, June 20, 2013c b
  2. 1 what?
  3. We are allgame designers
  4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/3342015670/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/trancemist/4128705938/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/f-l-e-x/937522495/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mzn37/4001914227/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pigpogm/4956017815/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/daviddittrich/3449898482/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/34520684@N03/3229232419/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  11. http://www.flickr.com/photos/51035610542@N01/226303922/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  12. StoryRules, challengesFree, safe play spaceShared toy objectsGoalsFeedback
  13. Fitness
  14. Finance
  15. Sustainability
  16. Activism
  17. Education
  18. work
  19. Life
  20. The blueprint (still)pointsTracking, FeedbackbadgesGoals, surpriseleaderboardsCompetitionincentivesRewards
  21. 2 Why?
  22. Motivation
  23. ABShift#1from Utility & Usability ...
  24. …to Motivation
  25. …and enjoyment
  26. Buy!From transaction to interactionUpload!Comment!Tag!Digg!Forward!Invite!Bookmark!Retweet!Share!Add friend!Design!Mark as Spam!Like!Answer!Vote!Register Now!Subscribe!Shift#2
  27. New marketshealth self-improvement eco/greenShift#3
  28. new productivity factorsShift#4
  29. From extrinsic to intrinsicShift#5
  30. Loyalty programmes!
  31. http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210Extrinsic motivation
  32. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 pointsScore: 964,000,000,000,000(You rock!)
  33. Intrinsic motivationhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  34. What intrinsicmotivation drivespassionate users?
  35. Pop Quiz!The productis awesome!The companyis awesome!The experienceis awesome!A B C
  36. Pop Quiz!The productis awesome!The companyis awesome!The experienceis awesome!A B C
  37. Pop Quiz!I am awesome!D
  38. Better XBetter user of X** aka »competence«
  39. Teresa M.Amabile»This pattern is what we call theprogress principle: of all the positiveevents that influence inner work life, thesingle most powerful is progress inmeaningful work.«the progress principle (2012: 76)
  40. Teresa M.Amabile»Truly effective video game designersknow how to create a sense of progressfor players within all stages of the game.Truly effective managers know how to dothe same for their subordinates.«the progress principle (2012: 88)
  41. Raph Koster»Fun is just another wordfor learning.«a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  42. Raph Koster»Fun from games arises out of mastery.It arises out of comprehension. It is theact of solving puzzles that makes gamesfun. With games, learning is the drug.«a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  43. Edward Deci,RichardRyan»An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.«the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  44. 3 how?
  45. 1 competence
  46. Autonomy2
  47. relatedness3
  48. competence1
  49. Not fun Funhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/
  50. Raph Koster»Fun is just another wordfor learning.«through interesting challengesa theory of fun for game design (2005)
  51. Goals ...
  52. + Rules ...
  53. = Interesting challenges
  54. + Feedback ...http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080
  55. = Experiences of competence
  56. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 pointsScore: 964,000,000,000,000(You rock!)feedback without mastery
  57. DangerStand in the user’s way
  58. TicketFor ticket, drag reddot through labyrinth
  59. Level 2TicketFor ticket, drag reddot through labyrinth
  60. Core challenge of E-Mail?• Maximum output?• Correct, polite, actionable?• Prioritized?• Fast answers?• Check less often?• Inbox Zero?
  61. Priorotization
  62. Inbox Zero
  63. Procrastination
  64. find the right challengePrinciple#1
  65. clear,visually present goalsPrinciple#2
  66. Structured flow of goalsPrinciple#2
  67. Scaffolded challengePrinciple#3
  68. »flow«DifficultySkill/Timeanxietyboredomflow: the psychology of optimal experienceMihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  69. “juicy” feedbackPrinciple#4
  70. Autonomy2
  71. Heeter et al. 2011, Mollick & Rothbard 2013
  72. Johan Huizinga»First and foremost,all play is a voluntaryactivity.«homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
  73. Edward Deci,RichardRyan»An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.«the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  74. Fun VoluntaryVoluntary Fun
  75. the undermining effect
  76. feedbackperceived ascontrollingthwartsautonomymotivationperceived asinformingsupportscompetence+–Deci & Ryan 2012
  77. …vs.Quality andVarietyPrinciple#1safe from consequence
  78. meaningful choicePrinciple#2http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg
  79. avoid controlling feedbackPrinciple#3
  80. Effective,but not sustainable
  81. »Reward« intrinsically* With more utility, mastery, autonomy, meaning, relatednessPrinciple#4
  82. things to play withPrinciple#5
  83. KarsAlfrink»So when designing toolsfor play, underspecify!«a playful stance (2008)
  84. http://www.flickr.com/photos/purplemattfish/3205907410/sizes/o/in/photostream/Provide invitationsPrinciple#6
  85. relatedness3
  86. »You lookespecially lovelytonight.«http://www.flickr.com/photos/beigeinside/50122570/»Now I feel likeyou’re just doingit for the points.«Danger
  87. DonaldT.Campbell»The more a quantitative social indicatoris used for social decision-making, themore subject it will be to corruptionpressures and the more apt it will be todistort and corrupt the social processes itis intended to monitor.«assessing the impact of planned social change (1976)
  88. http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpgreframing as strategic actionDanger
  89. creates myopic focus
  90. So you also playedEcoChallengeTM?
  91. …vs.Quality and Varietycreates side effects
  92. <Insert Dilbertcartoon here>
  93. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/What we usually design
  94. Who decides how this is used
  95. http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652lived values of exploration ...
  96. …mastery,...http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135
  97. http://www.flickr.com/photos/7amanito/3030759646…benign transgression,...
  98. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593…and mutual care.
  99. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
  100. »It is the nature of a fun community to caremore about the players than about thegame. ... We are having fun. We are caring.We are safe with each other. This is whatwe want.«Bernie de Koventhe well-played game (1978: 19-20)
  101. Edward Deci,RichardRyan»An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.«the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  102. model the values you wish to see.Principle#3
  103. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2047684/Dangerous-drivers-silent-treatment-Venezuela-employs-mimes-traffic-police.html“the spirit of the rules”
  104. in summary
  105. in an age of motivation ...
  106. http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210…move from extrinsic ...
  107. …to Intrinsic motivations ...http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  108. to create passionate customers and coworkers.I am awesome!
  109. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 pointsScore: 964,000,000,000,000(You rock!)Instead of shallow progress wars...
  110. create systems to master,
  111. …and a free space to play ...
  112. …that are truly meaningful.
  113. …vs.Quality and Varietydon’t just set up rule systems:
  114. model the community values you wish to see.
  115. sebastian@codingconduct.cc@dingstweetscodingconduct.ccThank you.

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