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Whitepaper website optimization in 6 steps


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Learn to optimize your website yourself, by using the website optmization cycle and methods like Cialdini's 'Weapons of persuasion', Eisenberg's 'Hierarchy of optimization' and the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

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Whitepaper website optimization in 6 steps

  1. 1. Whitepaper website optimization in 6 steps Piet van den Boer @pietvandenboerWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 1
  2. 2. Every once in a while you see a website that can certainly use some improvement.Maybe you even have some doubts about your own website. And you should. Everywebsite can be improved. There’s always a way to help visitors reach their (or your)goals better. This whitepaper aims to help you optimize your website in 6 easy steps.Website optimization is of upmost importance for every company that has a website. Byoptimizing your website, you make sure your marketing dollars are spent effectively.After all, those expensive Google Adwords visitors should be of added value to you. Anincrease in conversion rate from 3% to 4% can be very lucrative. Often, even morelucrative than increasing the number of visitors to your website. Besides, optimizing yourwebsite is of added value to you all the time, not only when you’re running an Adwordscampaign.Website optimization cycleThe website optimization cycle can be used to optimize your website for Usability andConversion rate. The conversion rate of your website is the percentage of visitors that‘convert’ to prospect or customer. You can measure the number of sales for this purpose,but also the number of subscribers to your email newsletter could be a good indication. Ifyou don’t sell any products online, the number of people that fill in a contact form or askfor a call-back could be of use to determine your website’s conversion rate.Usability is defined as followed:The extent to which visitors to a website are able to reach their goals.Optimizing websites is a continuous process, a cycle. There’s always room forimprovement, even a 0,1% raise in conversion rate can mean a huge difference in sales.Besides: What worked well yesterday, may not work at all today! So it’s of greatimportance to keep optimizing your website. That’s what you use the WebsiteOptimization cycle for:Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 2
  3. 3. The Website optimization cycle1. Problem analysisThere are many methods for problem analysis. The ones we will discuss here are thefollowing: 1. Webstatistics analysis 2. Expert review 3. User test 4. Eye tracking / Mousetracking 5. User feedback toolsWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 3
  4. 4. WEBSTATISTICS ANALYSISGoogle Analytics dashboardThis is the first step in the website optimization cycle. Using the statistics program of yourwebsite, you can find out where improvement is most needed on your website. Acommonly used (free) program for web analytics is Google Analytics. You might find outthat a lot of visitors immediately leave your website, if they enter via a certain source.This might mean that the message which gets those visitors on your website doesn’tcorrespond with the landing page. You can also find out which step in the sales funnelhas the highest attrition rate. You might be asking too much information in your forms, orthe forms just aren’t very intuitive.Context is very important in determining the meaning of metrics. Always look at what youand your visitor are trying to achieve on the specific page that you’re measuring, beforeyou try to add meaning to outcomes.To see if your website is effective, you can look into several metrics. For instance:Bounce rateThis is the percentage of visitors that only visits one page on your website. When thebounce rate on a certain page is very high, visitors enter your website on this page andleave without visiting any other page. This can be both a positive and a negative thing,depending on the purpose of this page.When the page is a FAQ page, this might be a good thing. After all, the purpose of thispage is to provide satisfying answers to visitors, as fast as possible. Visiting just onepage could mean that visitors got their satisfying answer on that one page and left. To besure about this, there are also some qualitative methods you can use. We will discussWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 4
  5. 5. those later on.A high bounce rate can also be an indicator that a certain page isn’t very effective. Forinstance, if your product page has a high bounce rate, this is probably not very good.Your goal with this page is, after all, getting visitors to buy the product. If they leaveimmediately after visiting the product page, they haven’t bought the product. They alsohaven’t put it on their profile’s wish list or used your sharing buttons to tell their friendsabout it.There is no ideal bounce rate, it all depends on the goals you and your visitor have. Abounce rate of 30% can be very good and very bad, depending on those goals. Start bydetermining your baseline, and work from there in the direction that best suits your goals.Exit pagesWhich pages are most often the last page visited on your website? The log-out screenfor an online banking website is a very predictable candidate for that website’s top 3, butwhen the second screen of your sales funnel is high on this list, you might want to lookinto that.Time on page / siteThese metrics can also help you determining the effectiveness of your website. But,before you try to add meaning to them, first look at your goals. When visitors spend anaverage of 1 minute on a blog of 500 words, you know something is wrong: They don’tread your blog. At least not all of them. And not entirely.Most of the times it’s best to look at the more specific of these two metrics, time on page.Improvements to your website are done per page, so you should look at the metrics forthe individual page you want to improve. The time on site can however be helpful to you,for instance to determine which pages are way off the site average. These are the firstpages to look at for improvements or to learn from for the rest of your website.A high time on page can really mean two things: Either the visitor is consuming a lot ofinformation, or the visitor can’t find what he’s looking for. For a media website or abranding website - or even an e-commerce website with video’s and pictures on itsproduct pages – a high time on page can be a good thing. Since the goal is to haveWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 5
  6. 6. visitors consume a lot of media so you can sell advertisements, get them to engage withthe brand or help them through their buying process, the time on page indicates success.A low time on page can also mean two things: Either the visitor didn’t like the content onthe page, or he immediately found what he was looking for.Pages per visitPages per visit often correlates with time on site and time on page. This metric worksroughly like these other two metrics: What indicates a success depends on the goals youhave set.A lot of pages per visit for a service website can indicate that visitors aren’t able to findthe answers to their questions.Optimizing by using web statisticsFor a media company, the pages per visit can be an important goal. A lot ofadvertisements are still sold per 1000 views, so more pages per visit means more $$$.An increase is in pages per visit is easily accomplished: Just add a break between every200 words, only show a teaser on you homepage and have every video, picture andpodcast start in a new screen. There are a lot more techniques that you can use toincrease the number of pages per visit, but you aren’t really working on your long-termgoals like this. You’re probably annoying your visitors, which might not even come back asecond time.It’s important not to focus on just one metric, but to always look at the big picture. Just asvisits per month are no real metric for success - give me 100 dollar and I’ll give you10.000 visitors, easily – pages per visit alone aren’t a measure for the level ofengagement your content triggers.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 6
  7. 7. EXPERT REVIEWAn expert review is a review you can do yourself, without using fancy tools or webstatistics. What you do need, is an understanding of several methods you can use toassess your website. The methods we will discuss in this whitepaper are the following:  Eisenberg’s Optimization Hierarchy  Cialdini’s six weapons of influence  Decision Modes  Trust Eisenberg’s Optimization HierarchyA few years ago, Robert Eisenberg developed the Optimization Hierarchy. You couldread this hierarchy like you read the Maslow pyramid: Work your way up, from the mostfundamental necessities for your website, to the most sophisticated ways to optimizeyour website. Without the base of the pyramid, there’s no need to focus at the higherlevels:Eisenberg’s Optimization HierarchyWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 7
  8. 8. Functional“Does my website work?”Check everything that’s needed to successfully use your website, like: Uptime, links andbuttons that don’t work, 404 pages, pictures that don’t load etc.Accessible“Is my website accessible for everyone who wants to visit it? ”Things you can check to answer this question are: - Cross-browser compatibility  Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari. Also check popular older versions of these browsers. To see which versions are most important, look at your web statistics - Mobile appearance of your website  Do you have a mobile website? Does it work on the most popular devices (also on tablets)? If you don’t have a specific mobile website, are visitors able to use your website on their mobile devices? - Accessibility for the visually impaired Do you have text-to-speech options and the possibility to adjust text size? Check the use of signal colors: For someone who is colorblind, the colors green and red can look exactly the same. If you use those signal colors, also use text. - Readability  There are different levels of readability in texts. It’s important to match your texts with the level of education and knowledge you expect your visitors to have. An easy tool to calculate the readability of your texts is the Readability Calculator, find it here. This tool also shows you which sentences you should consider revising, because of long, complex words or phrasesUsable“Is my website easy to use?”When the previous two levels are sufficiently improved, you can focus on how usableyour website is. Your website works and everyone can access it, so now it’s time to see ifyour visitors can actually achieve their goals on your website. This is all about meetingexpectations and using conventional design elements.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 8
  9. 9. Some things to look at are:Navigation - The search box  Place it where people expect it. In the top right corner. Have it work like a Google search box, because that’s the search box, to which all other search boxes will be compared. - Breadcrumbs  Use them. Preferably somewhere near the top of the page. This gives your visitors a sense of orientation, even when they enter your website via one of your online marketing campaigns - Links  Make them stand out by using another color or underlining them, or both. This also works the other way around: your visitors expect text that stands out like this to be clickable. - Buttons  If something looks like a button, it should act like a button. Always make them clickable.Lay-out and content - Your logo (probably in the top left corner)  It must be clickable, and it must direct visitors to your homepage. Why? Because that’s how it works on the internet, and that’s what your visitors expect. - Useful links  Links to information about your company, career opportunities, your privacy policy and partner program: Put them at the bottom of your page. - Text vs. images  Internet users scan more than they read. Make sure your text isn’t too long and that you use images to make your pointPage footer on Amazon.comWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 9
  10. 10. Intuitive“Are there any thresholds that can keep my visitors from converting?”This is all about improving the user experience and removing of thresholds for yourvisitors. Uncertainties and a lack of trust are a big threshold for online shoppers. Early inthe buying process you’ll want to inform your visitors about: Return policy, shippingcosts, specific product specifications (use detailed descriptions and pictures / videos).Trust is another important factor that can remove thresholds in the buying process, aswell as the Decision Modes. We will discuss both later on in this Whitepaper.Persuasive“Is my website able to seduce visitors?”This is the last phase, but also the phase that can have the biggest impact on yourwebsite’s conversion rate. When everything else is working fine, you can think aboutseducing your visitors to buy your products, to sign up for your newsletter or to make anappointment.Some great tools to use here are Cialdini’s six weapons of influence.For an example of how to assess a webpage using Eisenberg’s ‘Hierarchy ofoptimization’, see Appendix 1. Cialdini’s six weapons of influenceImagine having to extensively think about every decision you make, all day every day.When you wake up you weigh the pros and cons of taking a shower compared toskipping the shower and arriving at work 15 minutes early. You go downstairs and youcan choose between cereal, bread, steak and ice cream for breakfast, or having nobreakfast at all. That will cost you about 30 minutes, easily. When you finally arrive at thetrain station (after extensive deliberation of course), there’s an evacuation. What shouldyou do? There are a lot of things to think about, you can’t just decide that.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 10
  11. 11. Or can you?In his book ‘Influence’, Robert Cialdini (Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketingat Arizona State University) explains how we have a tendency to lapse into automaticpatterns of behavior, that help us make decisions quickly. One of those is commitmentand consistency: If you have already decided something is the best choice (cereal in themorning) you don’t have to go through the whole process of deciding that every morning.Saves time, doesn’t it?Also, authority helps us make decisions. Those police officers telling you to leave thetrain station have authority on the subject. You are inclined to trust their judgment and tofollow their advice, because of that authority.Cialdini calls these automatic patterns of behavior ‘Weapons of influence’, because youas a salesman or marketer can use them to get website visitors to buy your products. Intotal Cialdini distinguishes six Weapons of influence. We’ll discuss them one by one.1. Social proofOne shortcut to a quick decision is to look at what others have decided and just followthem. We humans like to do that. When a group of people makes a certain decision, it’ssafe to make the same decision.Remember when we lived in the Stone Ages? When our group started running one way,wouldn’t we just follow them? Instead of extensively analyzing just how big the threat ofthat fire / animal / enemy was, we would follow. We still do.So, show your website visitors what other people have chosen, what they think about acertain product, service or FAQ answer. Help people decide, by showing them whatothers decided.You can do this by showing reviews, star ratings, Facebook Likes, shares and tweets.Also, by showing them that people who bought this, also bought that. One companythat’s pretty good at this is – Website optimization in 6 steps. 11
  12. 12. Social proof on Amazon.com2. AuthorityWe can’t always trust the group’s judgment. Sometimes matters are pretty complicated,and we need an expert, someone with authority. People with authority generally arebelieved to have knowledge, wisdom and/or power. That’s why we tend to trust theirjudgment. Often authorities are famous, or wear uniforms and have titles. That’s how werecognize them.Companies often use famous people to promote their products, or dentists (in uniform) topromote toothpaste. Experience also is an indicator of authority. By showing the years ofexperience or the number of (big) clients you have, people can think of you as anauthority. This means they will trust your judgment over someone else’s. Rackspacefocusses at the big number of Fortune 100 companies that uses their services.Authority on Rackspace.comWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 12
  13. 13. 3. ScarcityWhen things are hard to get, we tend to value them higher (sounds familiar?). To us,scarcity is an indicator of quality or popularity (see social proof). Not just the scarcity innumbers of products, also the scarcity in time has this effect. For instance a discount thatexpires in two days creates a scarcity in time. Scarcity works in two ways: - Products that have recently become scarce, are valued higher than products that have been scarce for some time - When we have to compete with others for the scarce product, the scarcity effect is strongerA website that applies this principle so good it’s almost scary, is on Booking.com4. SympathySympathy also is an important factor in Cialdini’s Weapons of influence. When we haveto make a decision, people that we have sympathy for can influence us heavily. Whetherwe have sympathy for the person promoting a product, or for the company that actuallysells it. Sympathy depends on the following factors:  Physical attractiveness  Similarity to ourselfWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 13
  14. 14.  Possitive associations  Fame  ComplimentsSympathy on Heineken.com5. Commitment & ConsistencyWhen we make a decision, most of the times we stick to it. When we say we like acertain company, or we have an interest in a certain product, that’s not something thatchanges easily. Even our smallest actions can influence our future behavior or attitudetowards a brand.On your website, you can leverage this by making it possible to ‘like’ products, videos, oryour own Facebook page. Also, you can make it possible for visitors to add products totheir wish list, so that they already decide they want it. Another way is to have people fillout surveys or polls in which they can review your company, products or service. Thiscan also work with public reviews on your website. Of course, your products and servicehave to be good Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 14
  15. 15. Consistency on Bestbuy.com6. ReciprocityDo something for someone else and that person feels obligated to do something for you.This is the basic premise of reciprocity. This is actually why trade was possible whenthere wasn’t any police or government yet. We as people feel we need to compensateproportionally what others have given us. That’s just how we (most of us) are wired.This works two ways: - Give something away and your visitor will be more inclined to buy something - Make concessions, and your visitor will feel like he / she has to do the sameFor instance, Audible gives away a lot of audiobooks for free to potential customers.They then try to sell them subscriptions.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 15
  16. 16. Reciprocity (and sympathy) on Audible.comThese 6 weapons of influence can be used on any website, to try to increase theconversion rate. Combining these weapons of influence could also negatively affect theoutcomes, although this differs per website and even per user. That’s why it’s veryimportant to test every change. If it doesn’t work, change it back and try something else. Decision modesAnother tool to review your website are the Decision Modes. This is based on the MyerBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and on Jung’s theory of personality types. Through anelaborate test you find out which personality type you are. This says something abouthow you process information, in what kind of environment you feel comfortable and howyou make decisions.What we will focus at here, is the way people process information and make theirdecisions. There are four ways to process information, which result in four types ofpeople. Everyone acts like each of these types sometimes, depending on the situation.Every website should therefore be designed to assist each of these types in making aninformed purchasing decision. You can review your website for each of these types, tosee if the information visitors need is available to them.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 16
  17. 17. 4 decision modes1. CompetitiveThe competitive visitor wants his information fast en factual. Lists of important facts andbullet points work very well for this visitor.2. SpontaneousThe spontaneous visitor wants his information fast too, but he’s more sensitive toemotion. Actions and offers work very well for him.3. HumanisticThe humanistic visitor will take his time and is sensitive to emotion. Testimonials,pictures and videos of people are very important to this type.4. MethodologicalThe methodological visitor takes his time to look for factual details. Detailed productspecifications, return policy and website security can be important for this type.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 17
  18. 18. All 4 decision modes on Mint.comFor more information about the Decision Modes and the Mint example, watch this video. TrustOne of the most important things when people buy on the internet, is trust. People haveto trust the website they do business with. Michiel Heijmans names 7 ways to increasetrust on your website, in his blog post at 1. Use clear and normal language 2. Testimonials 3. Use verified signs, like those of PayPal, MasterCard, McAfee etc. 4. Show pictures of real employees (no stock photo’s) 5. List your physical adress 6. Management of expectations – be transparent about prices, additional charges etc. 7. Show that you care about more than making moneyWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 18
  19. 19. USER TESTINGUser testing is a very common way to review yourwebsite. The only thing you need is a computerwith an internet connection and a test person.This person will visit your site while you are sittingnext to her. She will ‘think aloud’, naming everyproblem, difficulty or oddness she comes acrosson your website. Afterwards you evaluate thesession, discussing everything she mentioned.User testing can be done with and without specific assignments. To be sure certainareas of your website are properly reviewed, specific assignments can be very helpful.It’s important to choose assignments that match the goal of your website. For instance, awebsite selling airline tickets could have the following assignments:  Book the cheapest flight from New York to Amsterdam on October 12th 2012  Find out how you can take out travel insurance on your trip, after you booked your flight  Find out from which airports you can fly to London, from New York  Contact customer serviceIdeally the people in your user tests are people that are representative for your targetaudience.EYE TRACKING & MOUSE TRACKINGYou can also use techniques that help you determine which content on your websiteattracts the most attention. Perhaps people don’t press your ‘buy button’ because itdoesn’t stand out enough. The color and size of the button are not always to blame;sometimes other things on your page just attract more attention.The principle of eye tracking speaks for itself: Track the eyes of people who visit yourwebsite, so you know what they look at. This tells you a lot about the process people gothrough before they actually click a link, and can provide very valuable data. Although itcan be very valuable, it’s also quite expensive to use eye tracking; every participantneeds to install special software on his computer, or come in for an eye tracking session.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 19
  20. 20. Mouse tracking tracks the movement of the mouse cursor of visitors. This also givessome insight in the process people go through when making decisions on your website.Although it might be less accurate (your mouse cursor doesn’t always go where youreyes go), mouse tracking is a lot cheaper than eye tracking and allows for quantitativedata collection as it works like web analytics software. You just install it on your website,and it will automatically start collecting data. Some mouse tracking tools are free, othershave free trials. Try Picnet and SMT for example.Both eye tracking and mouse tracking can deliver so called ‘heat maps’, which visualizewhere people looked (or pointed their cursors) at most. This following example showsthat a baby looking at us captures our attention. Although it’s great to capture attention, itdistracts us from the message next to the baby. When the baby looks at the message (orthe ‘buy button’), so do we.Eye trackingUSER FEEDBACK TOOLSThe last (but certainly not least) way you can easily analyze your website yourself is withuser feedback tools. You can use these to get qualitative and qualitative feedback onyour website by visitors. Platforms like Uservoice, Get Satisfaction and Kampyle offeryour visitors the opportunity to quickly and easily give feedback on your website,products and / or service by giving thumbs up / thumbs down, smileys, ratings etc. It’salso possible for them to add comments, ideas and complaints.All this information will automatically be placed on a community, where visitors candiscuss and vote on the ideas and complaints. These kinds of communities can be veryvaluable to a company. For instance, uses Get Satisfaction to improve theirwebsite, products and services and cut costs on customer service.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 20
  21. 21. The success of a community behind the ratings and thumbs depends on active, involvedvisitors. Unfortunately not every company has the luxury of such visitors. If not, it mightbe a lot of work to build a worthwhile community.City Beach Australia uses Kampyle for feedback on their website2. Finding solutionsAfter analyzing your website, it’s time to find solutions for the problems you have found.Besides a brainstorm session there you can also use the following two approaches: 1. Card sorting 2. Usabilla DiscoverWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 21
  22. 22. CARD SORTINGCard sorting is a method to find out the optimalformat of your website. It’s pretty simple: Makecards for every part / every page of your website.From the homepage to product pages and fromcategory pages to FAQ’s, every page needs acard.Ask a few people in your target group to organize the cards the way they find mostlogical. They can adjust the names of the cards and group them if they want, as long as itresults in a navigation structure they find useful.You can use this method ‘open’ and ‘closed’. Open means the whole structure can beadjusted, closed means the main navigation is already decided. Open card sortingusually involves smaller groups (5 -7 people) and has a qualitative goal. Closed cardsorting can be done by more groups to get quantitative results.Of course it’s also possible to do this online, several companies offer online card sortingtools like UX Punk and Optimal Workshop.USABILLA DISCOVERUsabilla Discover is a tool you can use to get inspired and share design ideas with yourcoworkers. When you visit a website that has a design element you find beautiful /effective / smart / user friendly you can easily save and share it. Usabilla is used as anarchive for design elements that can be used when thinking of solutions for usabilitychallenges on your own website.It can also be used the other way around; find design elements on public profiles of otherUsabilla users to get inspired. All website elements are categorized, which makes it easyto find specific solutions to your usability challenges.Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 22
  23. 23. 3. Prioritize solutionsWith a little luck your website analysis results in a lot of possible improvements to yourwebsite. After a good brainstorm and an afternoon of browsing Usabilla you’re full ofideas and are ready to start improving your website. This is the time to look at yourpossible improvements and prioritize them. The things you want to change right awaymay not be the things that are most needed to improve your conversion rate of customersatisfaction.By using user feedback tools you can have customers prioritize the improvements toyour website. They can vote for things they find important. Another way to prioritize is‘Buy-a-feature’.This works as follows: You estimate the costs of every improvement. Every coworker orcustomer that takes part in ‘Buy-a-feature’ gets a budget that allows him or her to buyonly a part of the improvements that are on the list. The improvements that are boughtmost during this ‘game’ get highest priority.Innovation Games offers the possibility to play Buy-a-feature online, which makes iteasier to involve customers.4. Designing solutionsThe next phase is designing and building solutions. Even if you’re not a design expert,it’s possible to visualize the improvements on your website. This might help you whentalking to the people that will actually design and build it.For instance, you could use Cacoo. This is a relatively easy online tool that helps youdesign wireframes and diagrams. It’s also possible to upload a screenshot of your ownWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 23
  24. 24. website so that you can make adjustments in the Cacoo editor.Using Cacoo for wireframing5. Testing solutionsAfter the solutions are designed and build, it’s time to test them. You might be convincedthat they work, but that’s not a guarantee for success. Or like they say at trumps intuitionsTesting new features or adjustments to your website can be done several ways. We willdiscuss some of them below:A/B TESTYour visitors are randomly shown two versions of your website; 50% sees version A,which is the original without any adjustments, 50% sees version B which has beenWhitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 24
  25. 25. improved. Looking at your web statistics you can easily see which version contributesmore to your website goals.MULTIVARIATE TESTNow you’re not just testing two versions, but more. In the case of the ‘buy button’ youmight want to adjust the color and the position of the button. You test a red button and ablue one, positioned left and right on the screen. Now you have four different versions ofyour website, which will be randomly shown to 25% of your visitors each. The bestversion wins.GOOGLE WEBSITE OPTIMIZERGoogle offers a useful (free) tool to do these tests: The Google Website Optimizer.6. ImplementingThe last phase is the implementation. You have the results of your tests and choose theversion that works best. This can be either the original version of your website or animprovement.Are you done now? No, you start all over again, there’s always enough to improve!Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 25
  26. 26. Appendix 1Level Score (1-10) Action ItemsFunctional 8 - Uptime 95%Accessible 5 - Doesn’t work properly in Google Chrome - No mobile website - Improve readabilityUsable 9Intuitive 7 - No use of ‘Trust’ - Decision Modes good, focus more on Spontaneous visitorPersuasive 4 - Cialdini: Hardly used, only social proof (Facebook likes per product & reviews)Whitepaper – Website optimization in 6 steps. 26