TODAY WHEN I LOOK BACK AT THE FORMOST I’D LIKE TO EXPRESS MY SINCERE GRATITUDE TO THE ALMIGHTY FOR MAKIN ME WHAT I AM.
I WOULD LIKE T O THANK MY PARENTS . I’M FOREVER INDEBTED TO THEM FOR SHAPING ME INTO A BETTER HUMAN. THEY HAVE NOT ONLY BROUGHT ME INTO THIS WORLD BUT TO HAVE FOREVER STOOD BY ME TO HELP ME IMPROVE MYSELF.THEY’D FOREVER REMAIN MY GUIDING STARS.
An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit.
Airlines vary from those with a single aircraft carrying mail or cargo, through full-service international airlines operating hundreds of aircraft. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, intra continental, domestic, or international and may be operated as scheduled services or charters.
The first airlines
DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the world's first airline. It was founded on November 16, 1909 with government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt. (Note: Americans, such as Rufus Porter and Frederick Marriott, attempted to start airlines using airships in the mid-19th century, focusing on the New York–California route. Those attempts floundered due to such mishaps as the aircraft catching fire and the aircraft being ripped apart by spectators.) The five oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, Czech Republic's Czech Airlines, and Mexico's Mexicana. KLM first flew in May 1920 while Qantas (for the Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited) was founded in Queensland, Australia, in late 1920.
The Wright brothers , Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.
Orville Wright Wilbur Wright
The 1900 glider. No photo was taken with a pilot aboard. A Big Improvement At left, 1901 glider flown by Wilbur (left) and Orville. At right, 1902 glider flown by Wilbur (right) and Dan Tate, their helper. Dramatic improvement in performance is apparent. The 1901 glider flies at a steep angle of attack due to poor lift and high drag. In contrast, the 1902 glider flies at a much flatter angle and holds up its tether lines almost vertically, clearly demonstrating a much better lift-to-drag ratio.
Wilbur Wright pilots the 1902 glider over the Kill Devil Hills, October 10, 1902. The single rear rudder is steerable; it replaced the original fixed double rudder. Wilbur makes a turn using wing-warping and the movable rudder, October 24, 1902.
First flight of the Wright Flyer I, December 17, 1903, Orville piloting, Wilbur running at wingtip. Orville in flight over Huffman Prairie in Wright Flyer II. Flight #85, approximately 1,760 feet (536 m) in 40 1/5 seconds, November 16, 1904.
Wilbur flying almost four circles of Huffman Prairie, about 2 and 3/4 miles in 5 minutes 4 seconds; flight #82, November 9, 1904.
Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville over Huffman Prairie, October 4, 1905. Flight #46, covering 20 and 3/4 miles in 33 minutes 17 seconds; last photographed flight of the year
Orville demonstrating the flyer to the U.S. Army, Fort Myer, Virginia ,September 1908. Photo: by C.H. Claudy.
Wright Model A Flyer flown by Wilbur 1908-09 and launching derrick, France, 1909
Intro to Indian Aviation
The history of Indian civil aviation began with its first domestic air route between Karachi and Delhi in December 1912.
It's opened by the Indian Air Services in collaboration with the UK based Imperial Airways as an extension of London-Karachi flight of the Imperial Airways. Without any backing from the Indian government, Tata Sons Ltd., the first Indian airline, started a regular airmail service between Karachi and Madras three years later. During the time of independence, nine air transport companies were carrying both air cargo and passengers in the Indian Territory. To further strengthen the aviation sector of India, the Indian Government and Air India (earlier Tata Airline) set up a joint sector company, Air India International in early 1948. And the nationalization of Indian Airlines (IA) in 1953 brought the domestic civil aviation sector under the purview of Indian Government. Later the government-owned airlines dominated Indian aviation industry till the mid-1990s.
The adaptation of Open-sky policy in 1990 and other liberalization policies of Indian Government on aviation sector made the industry undergo a rapid and dramatic transformation. Several private airlines have ventured into the aviation business in succession and many more are about to enter the arena. Today the Indian aviation industry is dominated by private airlines and low-cost carriers, like Deccan Airlines, Go Air, Spice Jet etc. And Indian Airlines, the giant of Indian air travel industry, gradually lose its market share to these private airlines. According to the report of CAPA, these budget carriers are likely to double their market share by 2010 -- one of the highest in the world.
List of Indian Airlines Chennai October 2005 PARAWAY I7 PMW Paramount Airways Gurgaon March 2007 MDLR 9H - MDLR Airlines Gurgaon August 2006 IFLY 6E IGO IndiGo Airlines Delhi November 1991 JAGSON JA JGN Jagson Airlines Delhi May 2005 SPICEJET SG SEJ Spice Jet Mumbai May 1953 INDIANAIR IC IAC Indian Airlines Mumbai June 2004 GOAIR G8 GOW Go Air Mumbai April 2005 EXPRESS INDIA IX AXB Air India Regional Mumbai April 2005 EXPRESS INDIA IX AXB Air-India Express Mumbai October 1932 AIR INDIA AI AIC Air India Mumbai August 2003 DECCAN DN DKN Kingfisher Red Mumbai May 2005 KINGFISHER IT KFR Kingfisher Airlines Mumbai April 2007 LITEJET S2 RSH Jet Lite Mumbai May 1993 JET AIRWAYS 9W JAI Jet Airways Headquarters COMMENCED OPERATIONS CALLSIGN IATA ICAO AIRLINE
Current market share of Indian carriers in the domestic aviation market is shown below:
Jet Airways and Jet Lite 25.9%
Kingfisher Airlines 21.4%
Paramount Airways 0.3%
Aeroflot Airline Air Astana Air Canada Air France Air Mauritius Alitalia Ariana Afghan Airline,
Asiana Airlines Austrian Airlines Bellview Airlines Biman Bangladesh Airlines British Airways Cathay Pacific Airways China Airlines China Eastern Airlines Delta Airlines Druk Air Egypt Air El Al Airline Emirates Airline
Etihad Airways Gulf Air Iran Air Japan Airline (JAL) Kenya Airways KLM Korean Air Kuwait Airways Lufthansa Mahan Air Malaysia Airlines Northwest Airlines Oman Air Pakistan Airlines Qantas Airways Qatar Airways Royal Jordanian Airline Royal Nepal Airlines Saudi Arabian Airline
Singapore Airlines South African Airways SriLankan Airlines Swiss International Airlines Syrian Arab Airlines Thai Airways International Turkish Airlines Uzbekistan Airways Virgin Atlantic Airways Czech Airlines LOT Polish Airlines Philippine Airlines Scandinavian Airlines Tiger Airways United Airlines U.S Airways
All Nippon Airways American Airlines Continental Airlines
International Airlines in India
There are a number of India international airlines. The main international airlines of India are given below: Air India: The government of India owns air India. This national flag carrier airline of India has its main base in Mumbai. The other hubs of Air India are New Delhi and Chennai. It also provides cargo services worldwide. It is one of the two state-owned airlines in the country, the other one is Indian Airlines. Air Sahara: Based in New Delhi, Air Sahara is a privately owned airline. It got international flying rights some time back only. Indian Airlines: Indian Airlines is the second state owned airline. It is primarily a domestic airline. But, it operates internationally also. It is based in New Delhi. Jet Airways: Jet Airways is another privately owned airline operating in the international sector also. This airline also got international flying rights some time back only.
Airbus is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, near Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners.
Airbus began as a consortium of aerospace manufacturers. Consolidation of European defence and aerospace companies around the turn of the century allowed the establishment of a simplified joint stock company in 2001, owned by EADS (80%) and BAE Systems (20%). After a protracted sales process BAE sold its shareholding to EADS on 13 October 2006.
Airbus employs around 57,000 people at sixteen sites in four European Union countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Final assembly production is at Toulouse (France), Hamburg (Germany), Seville (Spain) and, since 2009, Tianjin (China). Airbus has subsidiaries in the United States, Japan, China and India.
The company is known for producing and marketing the first commercially viable fly-by-wire airliner and the world's largest airliner, the A380.
200 Boeing 767-200 762 114 Boeing 737-800 738 100 Boeing 737 737 108 Boeing 737-500 735 129 Boeing 737-400 734 106 Boeing 737-300 733 230 Airbus 340-300 343 335 Airbus 330 (200 & 300) series 330 218 Airbus A310-300 313 198 Airbus A310 310 TYPES OF AIRCRAFT
13 Beach 200 BEK 18 Beach craft 1900D BEH 226 Airbus 600 Series E AB6 375 Boeing 777 777 420 Boeing 777-300 773 375 Boeing 777-200 772 228 Boeing 763-300 763 246 Boeing 747 Combi 74M All Freighter Boeing 747 Freighter 74F 314 Boeing 747SP 74L 153 Boeing 727 72S 400 Boeing 747-400 744 420 Boeing 747-300 743 420 Boeing 747-200 742 420 Boeing 747 (all series) 747 228 Boeing 767-300 763
All Freight Westwind Freighter WWF 95 Fokker F100 F100 65 Fokker F28-1000 F28 76 British Aerospace RJ70 AR7 82 British Aerospace BAe146-100 146 All Freighter McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Freighter M1F 323 McDonnell Douglas MD-11 M11 400 Lockheed L/1011 TR L10 26 Embraer 120 EM2 30 Embraer (EMB) 120 E120 37 Bombardier DE HA DH8 399 McDonnell Douglas DC10 D10 36 Convair 500 CV5
The Douglas Aircraft DC-3 was the first airplane with a planned galley for food service. Galleys on commercial airlines typically include not only facilities to serve and store food and beverages, but also contain flight attendant jumpseats, emergency equipment storage, as well as anything else flight attendants may need during the flight.
Aircraft in operation today mainly use the familiar trolley system. This system was introduced in the late 1960s at the same time as a new generation of large "widebody" aircraft were entering into service with the airlines. The significantly larger number of passengers on these aircraft meant that meals could no longer be efficiently delivered by hand, as they had been up until that point.
There are two main sizes of trolley in use with the airlines around the world, called the "ATLAS" and "KSSU" sizes. ATLAS is by far the most common size with approximately 80% of airlines using it. Remaining users of KSSU include KLM and Cathay Pacific.
Airbus has developed a new galley concept called SPICE, which they publicise as a potential new worldwide standard with significant advantages over the current 40 year old trolley technology.
GALLEY IN AIRLINE
Exterior of aircraft
CEILING CABIN FLOOR CARGO HOLD CROSS SECTION
AIRCRAFT TYPE ENGINES PAX RANGE AIRBUS INDUSTRY A320 FAMILY A318 2 266 MEDIUM A310 2 220 MEDIUM A320 FAMILY A318 2 107 SHORT A319 2 124 SHORT TO MED A320 2 150 MEDIUM A321 2 185-220 MEDIUM A330-340 FAMILY A330-320 2 253 LONG A330-300 2 295 LONG A340-200 4 261 LONG A340-300 4 295 LONG A3XX/A380 DOUBLE DECKER 4 555 LONG YET TO COME A340-300 4 313 LONG A340-600 4 380 LONG
DC-8 SER 61 258 DC-9 SER 62 2 SHORT 258 DC-9 SER 10 90 SER 30 115 SER 40 2 SHORT 125 ENGINES ON TAIL SER 50 TO MED 135 DC-10 3 MED TO LONG 258 FIRST TRIED ENGINE MD-11 3 MED TO LONG 250-380 MD-80 2 139 MC DONNELL DOUGLAS MD-90 2 SHORT 153
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin. From the cockpit an aircraft is controlled on the ground and in the air.
Cockpit as a term for the pilot's compartment in an aircraft first appeared in 1914. From about 1935 cockpit also came to be used informally to refer to the driver's seat of a car, especially a high performance one, and this is official terminology in Formula One. The term is most likely related to the sailing term for the coxswain's station in a Royal Navy ship, and later the location of the ship's rudder controls
1936 de Havilland Hornet Moth cockpit
The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the controls which enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. In most airliners, a door separates the cockpit from the passenger compartment. After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, all major airlines fortified the cockpit against access by hijackers.
On an airliner, the cockpit is usually referred to as the flight deck. This term derives from its use by the RAF for the separate, upper platform where the pilot and co-pilot sat in large flying boats.
Cargo airlines (or airfreight carriers , and derivatives of these names) are airlines dedicated to the transport of cargo. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines.
Usage of large military airplanes for commercial purposes, pioneered by Ukraine's Antonov Airlines in 1990s, has opened new types of cargo for aerial transportation, redesigning world logistics market
Aircraft emergency exits
In aircraft terms, an "exit" is any one of the main doors (entry doors on the port side of the aircraft and service doors on the starboard side) and an "emergency exit" is defined as a door that is only ever used in an emergency (such as overwing exits and permanently armed exits). Passengers seated in exit rows may be called upon to assist and open exits in the event of an emergency.
The number and type of exits on an aircraft is regulated through strict rules within the industry, and is based on whether the aircraft is single or twin-aisled; the maximum passenger load; and the maximum distance from a seat to an exit. The result (via model and practical testing) is that a commercial jet will be able to evacuate its designed maximum occupancy of passengers within 90 seconds even if half of the available exits are blocked.
Any aircraft where the emergency exit door sill height is above that which would make unaided escape possible is fitted with an automatic inflatable evacuation slide.
Aircraft emergency exit
Physician in airline
To my belief and knowledge I have done this assignment of my own.