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aviation assignment

  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTI take this opportunity to thank all my teachers and colleagues forhelping me out to complete this presentation. I specially thank ourAviation faculty Miss. Kaveri Pratap for giving all assistance in my work.I also thank all the faculty and my colleagues at FrankFinn for theirHelp and support. Last but not the least I thank God Almighty for Hislove and care.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONA general term including the science and technology of flight through the air. Aviationalso applies to the mode of travel provided by aircraft as carriers of passengers andcargo, and as such is part of the total transportation system. Aviation also describesthe employment of aircraft in such fields as military aviation. The world of theairplane, including the people who manufacture, market, and repair aircraft or whowork in allied industries, is frequently spoken of as aviation.
  4. 4. Aviation is broadly grouped into three classes:General aviation,Air transport aviation, andMilitary aviation.General aviation comprises all aviation not included in military or air-transportaviation.Military aviation includes all forms of aviation in military activities.Air-transport aviation is primarily the operation of commercial airlinesessentially as a public utility for the movement of persons and commodities.
  5. 5. HISTORYThe first commercial flight in India was made on February 18, 1911, when a French pilot MonseigneurPiguet flew airmails from Allahabad to Naini, covering a distance of about 10 km in as many minutes.Tata Services became Tata Airlines and then Air-India and spread its wings as Air-India International.The domestic aviation scene, however, was chaotic. When the American Tenth Air Force in Indiadisposed of its planes at throwaway prices, 11 domestic airlines sprang up, scrambling for traffic thatcould sustain only two or three. In 1953, the government nationalized the airlines, merged them, andcreated Indian Airlines. For the next 25 years JRD Tata remained the chairman of Air-India and adirector on the board of Indian Airlines
  6. 6. After JRD left, voracious unions mushroomed, spawned on the pork barrel jobs created by politicians.In 1999, A-I had 700 employees per plane; today it has 474 whereas other airlines have 350.In recent years, however, this image of Civil Aviation has undergone a change and aviation is nowviewed in a different light - as an essential link not only for international travel and trade but also forproviding connectivity to different parts of the country. Aviation is, by its very nature, a critical partof the infrastructure of the country and has important ramifications for the development of tourismand trade, the opening up of inaccessible areas of the country and for providing stimulus to businessactivity and economic growth.
  7. 7. Contents:1) P1a (LO1 of unit 4)2) P1b P3a,b,c (LO2/LO1,LO2 &3 unit 4 & 9)3) P1a & b (LO1 & LO2 of unit 4)4) P3a (LO3 of unit 4)5) P2a & b (LO1,LO2 of unit 9)6) P2a & b (LO1,LO2 of unit 4)7) P2d (LO4 of unit 9)8) P4a (LO4 of unit 9)9) P3b (LO3 of unit 4)10) P2c (LO2 of unit 9)11) P4a (LO4 of unit 4)12) P4b (LO4 of unit 4)13) M (unit 4 & 9)14) D (unit 4 & 9)
  8. 8. P1a(LO1 of unit 4) Briefly describe the current scenario with updates of current affairs in aviation industry. Justify with articles from news paper & magazines.
  9. 9. • The Indian Aviation Industry is one of the fastest growing aviation industries in the world.• India has 454 airports and airstrips; of these 16 are designated International airports.• With Brent crude oil prices crossing $100 barrel mark air fares are hiked by the airlines to meet their costs.• SWISS is standardizing the baggage regulation for its flights all over the world. For passengers from India this means a significant increase of free baggage allowance along with attractive excess baggage rates.
  10. 10. • The financial mess that our national carriers is in has been admitted by the government. It is said that the airline income is 36 crore a day against an expenditure of 57 crore, incurring a daily loss of 21 crore.• DGCA of Civil Aviation has decided upon a new rule to bolster air safety that pilots above 65 year of age would be barred from taking up jobs with charter operators or even flying planes of corporate biggies.• From being primarily a government-owned industry, the Indian aviation industry is now dominated by privately owned full-service airlines and low-cost carriers. Private airlines account for around 75 per cent share of the domestic aviation market.
  11. 11. Air Traffic: The Airport Authority of India (AAI) manages total 122 Airports in thecountry, which include 11 International Airports, 94 domestic airports and 28 civilenclaves. Top 5 airports in the country handle 70% of the passenger traffic ofwhich Delhi and Mumbai together alone account for 50%. Passenger and cargotraffic has growth at an average of about 9% over the last 10 years.Air movements: The total aircraft movements handled in October 2003 hasshown an increase of 15.4 percent as compared to the aircraft movement handledin October 2002. The international and domestic aircraft movements increased by15.4 percent each during the period under review. The reason for increase inaircraft movements is due to increase of operation of smaller aircraft by airlinesand the introduction of new airlines viz., Air Deccan in southern region andinternational airlines (Air Canada, Polar Air Cargo, Qatar Airways (Freighter),Turkish Airways, Air Slovakia at IGI Airport with effect from October 2003.
  12. 12. Passenger Traffic: International and Domestic passenger traffic handled inOctober 2003 has increased by 15.4 percent and 6.7 percent over the period ofOctober 2002 leading to an overall increase of 9.4 percent. The total passengerincreased by 9.2 percent, 7.6 percent, 8.9 percent and 17.0 percent respectively atfive international airports six developing international airports, eight customairports and 26 Domestic airports.Cargo Traffic: The total cargo traffic handled in October 2003 has shown anincrease of 3.5 percent as compared to the cargo handled in October 202. Theinternational and domestic cargo traffic increased by 4.3 percent and 2.1 percentrespectively during the period.
  13. 13. Monday, January 16, 2012 Chopper grounded, but MP eyes twin engine JetBhopal: Despite a Lokayuta inquiry into recently procured helicopter and shortage of pilots to comply withDirector General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) norms, Madhya Pradesh government has decided to add a new aircraftto its fleet.The state aviation department has floated expression of interest (EOI) to buy a new mid-size Twin Engined PureTurbine Jet for the state fleet.Interested manufacturers/ authorised representatives have been asked to submit the details of the aero planeto the Director Aviation, Raja Bhoj International Airport, by January 20. Officials said that the manufacturers orauthorised representatives whose product is shortlisted shall be eligible to participate in the bidding processas prescribed by the state government.At present, state government has four pilots for its choppers and three for the aircraft — B 200, contrary toDGCI norms which mandates minimum of four pilots on each chopper/aircraft.The flying operations are being carried out in MP notwithstanding new safety rules put in place for VIPoperation of planes and helicopters by DCGA to avoid mishaps like the one which killed former Andhra Pradeshchief minister YSR Reddy.16/01/12 P Naveen/Daily News & Analysis/daily bhaskar.com
  14. 14. Sunday January 15 2012 Kingfisher Airline importing ATF is bad economics: Oil companiesNew Delhi: As the government mulls allowing Kingfisher Airlines to import ATF directly, oilcompanies have opposed the move saying the proposal was "bad economics" for thebeleaguered airline in view of high taxes and handling cost.In a detailed response to the application made by Kingfisher to import aviation turbine fuel(ATF) directly, oil firms stated that India is surplus in jet fuel and exports half of itsproduction annually, official sources said.Allowing direct import of ATF may lead to avoidable simultaneous import/export of ATF andundue burden on port infrastructure in the country, the oil firms said.Kingfisher believes that by importing ATF directly, it can make substantial savings by nothaving to pay sales tax (which varies between 4 to 30 per cent from state to state).Oil firms however say the airline would have to pay 12.83 per cent duty on the imported ATF(additional customs duty or CVD of 8.24 per cent plus a 3 per cent education cess on top ofit and an additional 4 per cent special CVD or SAD).Against this, Kingfisher presently.
  15. 15. Air India debt row: Bankers outweigh credit rating over provisioningMumbai: The consortium of lenders that has rejected the RBI-approveddebt recast for Air India (AI) is more worried about their credit ratingsand image in global markets than the nearly Rs 10,000-crore provisioningthey will have to set aside under the plan, say leading bankers.And going by this, even if the debt-laden national carrier manages to geta fresh debt recast plan done, it is unlikely to go through with thelenders, unless some basic CDR provisions are given a go by, such asscrapping the provision of tying dividend payment to profitability,whether AI makes money or not, pointed out these bankers.The lenders are also not happy with the "special treatment" that StateBank got in the CDR proposal, prepared by its own i-bank arm SBI Caps,as despite the fact that most of them do not have as much exposure asSBI, they are forced to shell out much higher than the Government-runlender.The lenders, barring SBI, which has given a Rs 1,100- crore cash-to-creditloan to AI, and therefore a low provisioning of only about Rs 37 crore, arealso peeved at the way SBI Caps "short-changed" them in the CDR plan,as those with similar exposure will see a hole as much as Rs 500 to 700crore in their balance sheets if it goes through, a senior public sectorbanker, who sought not to be named, told PTI.15/01/12 PTI/Economic Times
  16. 16. CCS to discuss Rs 1850 cr proposal for 75 trainer aircraftNew Delhi: The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) will consider a proposal worth over Rs 1,850 crore for procuring 75Pilatus trainer aircraft from Switzerland in its meeting scheduled on Thursday.The aircraft are being procured by the Indian Air Force (IAF) to provide training to IAFs rookie pilots and replace the HPT-32 trainer aircraft which have been grounded for over two years after a fatal accident during training in 2009.The CCS will take up the proposal for procuring 75 Pilatus-7 basic trainer aircraft from Switzerland in its next meetingscheduled on Thursday, top IAF sources said here.They said the deal was critical for IAFs training requirements as in the next two years, there will be a shortage of Kiran MkII trainer aircraft, which are being used to impart flying lessons to the rookie cadets.If the contract is approved by the CCS, the Swiss firm will start supplying the aircraft to India by the middle of 2013, thesources said.15/01/12 PTI/Economic Times
  17. 17. P1bp3a,b,c(LO2/LO1,LO2 &3 unit 4&9) Identify (from the slide) and describe the function of the parts shown to you. Handed over the hard copy to the trainer.
  18. 18. In a medical emergency on flight justifyhow would you communicate on boardasking for help? (to be assessed throughrole play & announcement)
  19. 19. This comes under role play First of all I would inform the captain about the emergency. After that through the PA system (passenger addressing system) will make an announcement for a nurse or a doctor for help. If there are no doctor‘s or nurse‘s in the flight then I would give him/her the first aid. Then captain will land the flight to the nearest airport and then the casualty will be taken to the nearest hospital.
  20. 20. P1a &b(LO1 & LO2 of unit 4) Demonstrate (written subjective test) the first aid procedures for the following.
  21. 21. Asthma Attack:Step 1 Sit the person upright, be calm and reassuring. Do not leave the person alone.Step 2 Give four separate puffs of a blue reliever (Airomir, Asmol, Epaq or Ventolin), i.e. one puff, then 4 breaths; another puff, then 4 breaths; another puff, then 4 breaths; another puff, then 4 breaths.Note: The medication is best given one puff at a time via a spacer device. Ask the person to take four breaths from the spacer after each puff of medication. If a spacer is not available use the blue reliever puffer on its own, as described in Step 2 above.Step 3 Wait four minutes, to see the effect of the reliever treatment.Step 4 If there is little or no improvement repeat steps 2 and 3.If there is still no improvement call an ambulance immediately (Dial 101). Continue to repeat steps 2 and 3 while waiting for the ambulance.A Bricanyl Turbuhaler may be used in first aid treatment if a puffer and spacer is not available.If you are using Symbicort SMART treatment (Symbicort as both reliever and preventer), you can use the SMART first aid plan. However it is still safe and effective to use the general asthma first aid plan above
  22. 22. Fracture:Fracture Neck Of The Thigh BoneIf expert assistance is likely to be delayed:1 . DRABC2 . cover open wounds3 . gently bring uninjured limb to the normal position4 . place a well padded splint between the legs5 . place one hand under the heel and the other around the toes of the injured limb6 . gently draw down to apply traction to the foot, while rotating the leg to a position as nearly normal as possible against the splint7 . apply a narrow figure-of-eight bandage around the ankles and feet8 . pass bandages under:- the thighs above the fracture- the thighs below the fracture- both knees- between the knee and the ankles9 . tie on the uninjured side10 . check the circulation of both limbs ( note the colour and temperature of the skin and feet ).
  23. 23. Demonstrated in role play
  24. 24. P3a(LO3 of unit 4) Justify your knowledge of aviation terms and definition by explaining the relevant terms asked by your trainer.(based on the test conducted during the class use) Handed over to the trainer in a hard copy
  25. 25. P2a &b(LO1,LO2 of unit 9) Perform a role play of different types of emergencies on board.
  26. 26. Demonstrated in role play.
  27. 27.  P2 a & b (LO1, LO2 of unit 4) Demonstrate various duties and responsibilities of cabin crew on board (through role play)
  28. 28. Demonstration of role play:  Batch D-2 and D-4  Group no 2  Group name: Airbus A380  Flight name: QATAR Airways  Destination: BOM-QTR  Crew member‘s: Front galley 1) Sumaiyya Ghouse. 2) Thameen. Aisle 3) Dezma Neslin furtado. 4) Blessy James. Aft galley 5) Dona blessy. 6) Rihan Khan.
  29. 29. Preflight check:First of all we started with the checking of the oxygenMask in every seat, then followed by the life jackets,air sickness bags and flight safety cards in every seatPockets. Then we checked the emergency doors forthe green band, then we also checked the asbestosgloves, fire extinguisher, smoke hood and lavatories.From this we completed our pre-flight check andreported to the senior crew member.
  30. 30. Welcoming the pax.Our flight steward Rihan Khan and flight stewardess Dona welcomed the pax to the Aircraft, Dezma and Blessy helped the pax to be seated in their allotted seats. Flight steward Tahameen did the announcement for the departure of the flight and flight stewardess Sumaiyya Ghouse did the safety drill and also did the final check of pax seated with seat belts and the seats were in the upward position and all blinds were open and the luggages were kept in the over head bin‘s. finally there was an announcement for all the crew member‘s to be seated in their jump seat‘s for the take off.
  31. 31. Welcome drinks and mealsas the flight was cruising the signs of seat belts were put off and the welcome drinks was served by Dezma and Blessy with some chocolates, sweets and cottons. Then it was cleared by Rihan and Dona. Then Sumaiyya and Tahameen checked for if there was any pax requirments or any kind of emergencies or misbehavior of any pax. After few mins the meals was served with veg and non-veg as an option. Then it was cleared. After few mins the tea and coffee was served with some biscuits and then cleared. Finally few mins before the landing we distributed the emigration form to the passengers to be filled.
  32. 32. Emergency Few mins before the landing there was an emergency where the pax suffered from the asthma attack. One of the crew member announced for a doctor or nurse among the pax through the PA system (Passenger addressing system). As there were no nurse or doctor in the flight our crew member Sumaiyya Ghouse gave the first aid for the pax and informed the captain about the emergency. Finally the victim was normal after the first aid.
  33. 33. Landing Finally there was an announcement for landing seat belt signs were on. The crew members checked that all the seats were in upward position, all the blinds were open, all the pax wore the seat belts and the tray‘s were closed. Then there was an announcement to all the crew member‘s to sit in their jump seat for the landing. There was an safe landing to QATAR (destination) The pax were disembarked by a warm smile and thank you from the crew.
  34. 34. P3b(LO3 of unit 4) Demonstrate the correct procedure for embarkation / disembarkation of any one of the special handling PAX along with related documents (collect the info/formats from net).
  36. 36. MENTALLY CHALLENGED PAXMay look physically fit but unable to look after themselves independently.Acceptance of Mentally challenged Passengers: Mentally challenged passenger are not accepted without a suitable attendant.The trained attendant must carry the treating physician‘s certificate along with a prescription for an injectable sedative medicine,which may be required to be administered by the attendant, prior to commencement of travel or as may be required en-route.The attendant must be briefed that no Cabin Crew will be specially assigned to look after the mentally retarded passenger. Boarded first Deplaned last May be accompanied by their relatives, doctor or nurse Seated close to the toilet Diet should be checked Full/ Extra assistance should be given
  37. 37. STRECHER CASE PAXAll stations must ensure availability of stretcher(s) the number to be decided depending upon the quantumof traffic loads. Stretchers and associated equipment like blankets, pillows, sheets, etc. to be provided topassengers who can not use the standard cabin seat in a sitting or reclining position on payment ofapplicable tariff. When a passenger on stretcher or otherwise is put on oxygen, smoking will be prohibitedwithin 3.1 meters on ground.A stretcher passenger is an ill/injured passenger who, because of their physical or mental condition, canonly travel on a stretcher fitted in the aircraft. Medical clearance is required from the Gulf Air Head ofMedical Services, and can be obtained through Gulf Air office in your city.Stretchers can only be accommodated in the Economy cabin of the aircraft, and the charged fare will befive normal IATA published one-way adult fares inclusive of 100 kgs free baggage allowance.
  38. 38. Stretcher passengers are allowed 100 kg of free baggage allowance. A qualified medical escort is requiredand must be arranged for by the patient.A qualified medical escort is required and must be arranged by the patient or their guardian.Cabin stretchers are installed above passenger seats. Such stretchers are narrow and hard and arereserved for passengers that are unable to travel in a seated position. Five safety belts, including one bodyharness, must remain fastened at all times during a flight. Location and orientation of the cabin stretchervaries with aircraft. Cannot be used by those whose shoulder width is under 34 cm.Length approx. 180 cm Width approx. 40 cm Height approx. 96 cm
  39. 39. Boarded firstDeplaned lastMay be accompanied by their relatives, doctor or nurseDiet should be checkedFull/ Extra assistance should be given
  40. 40. P4a(LO4 of unit 4) Describe the following emergency equipments used in emergency.
  41. 41. Smoke hood A smoke hood is a protective device similar in concept to a gas mask. A translucent airtight bag seals around the head of the wearer while an air filter held in the mouth connects to the outside atmosphere and is used to breathe. Smoke hoods are intended to protect victims of fire from the effects of smoke inhalation. High quality smoke hoods are generally constructed of heat resistant material like Kapton, and can withstand relatively high temperatures. The most important part of a smoke hood is the filter that provides protection from the toxic by products of combustion. Virtually all smoke hood designs utilize some form of activated charcoal filter and particulate filter to screen out corrosive fumes like ammonia and chlorine, as well as acid gases like hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulphide. The defining characteristic of an effective smoke hood is the ability to convert deadly carbon monoxide to relatively harmless carbon dioxide through a catalytic process. Smoke hoods present on aircraft, also called Protective Breathing Equipment (or PBEs), typically generate oxygen for approximately 30 seconds. The oxygen is kept in a closed circuit, usually thanks to a tight neck seal. A scrubber system may be present to reduce the levels of carbon dioxide, and is breathable for around 20 minutes. When the oxygen supply ends, the hood must be removed to avoid suffocation.
  42. 42. Fire axe: Fire axe: Fire-fighters axe or fire axe – It has a pick-shaped pointed poll (area of the head opposite the cutting edge). It is often decorated in vivid colors to make it easily visible during an emergency. Its primary use is for breaking down doors and windows.
  43. 43. Asbestos gloves: Asbestos is fire-resistant and also provides very effective insulation. It was often used in the 20th century for many purposes, including a variety of a construction materials and protective clothing. Asbestos gloves were often used for industrial purposes to protect the hands of workers from extremely high temperatures. They were used in steel plants, foundries and glassworks, and often by fire fighters as well
  44. 44. Fire extinguisher: A fire extinguisher or extinguisher, flame extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire
  45. 45.  There are two main types of fire extinguishers: stored pressure and cartridge- operated. In stored pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the fire fighting agent itself. Depending on the agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure fire extinguishers are the most common type. Cartridge-operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge, exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities, where they receive higher-than-average use. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time. Unlike stored pressure types, these extinguishers use compressed carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen, although nitrogen cartridges are used on low temperature (-60 rated) models. Cartridge operated extinguishers are available in dry chemical and dry powder types in the US and in water, wetting agent, foam, dry chemical (classes ABC and BC), and dry powder (class D) types in the rest of the world.
  46. 46. Oxygen maskAn oxygen mask provides a method to transferbreathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs.Oxygen masks may cover the nose and mouth (oral nasalmask) or the entire face (full-face mask). They may bemade of plastic, silicone, or rubber.
  47. 47. Mega phone: A megaphone is a portable, usually hand-held, cone-shaped horn used to amplify a person‘s voice or other sounds towards a targeted direction. This is accomplished by channelling the sound through the megaphone, which also serves to match the acoustic impedance of the voice cords to the air. The natural human voice tends to spread evenly in all directions, whereas when it is sent through a megaphone, the sound is concentrated in a given direction and the coupling of its energy to the air optimised, while if a listener is to the side, it is more difficult to hear what is being said
  48. 48. ELT (Emergency location transmitter ) Distress radio beacons, also known as emergency beacons, ELT or EPIRB, are tracking transmitters which aid in the detection and location of boats, aircraft, and people in distress. Strictly, they are radio beacons that interface with worldwide offered service of Cospas-Sarsat, the international satellite system for search and rescue (SAR). When manually activated, or automatically activated upon immersion, such beacons send out a distress signal. The signals are monitored worldwide and the location of the distress is detected by non-geostationary satellites, and can be located by trilateration in combination with triangulation, respecting the varying quality of the signal received. In the case of 406 MHz beacons which transmit digital signals, the beacons can be uniquely identified almost instantly (via GEOSAR), and furthermore a GPS or GLONASS position can be encoded into the signal, which provides instantaneous identification of the registered user and its location. Frequently, by using the initial position provided via the satellite system, SAR aircraft and ground search parties can home in on the distress signals from the beacons and come to the aid of the concerned boat, aircraft, or people
  49. 49. Life jacket A lifejacket is a type of personal flotation device designed to keep a persons airway clear of the water whether the wearer is conscious or unconscious. They are either made from two layers of bonded polyurethane to be inflated or from foam. The inflatable lifejacket is probably the most widely used for both leisure and commercial activities, while the foam lifejacket is predominantly designed either for children, or for emergency use
  50. 50. P4b(LO4 of unit 4) Analyze the above emergency equipment under the following headings.
  51. 51. Name of the Parts of the Preflight checks of Usage of theemergency emergency the emergency emergencyequipment equipment equipment equipmentSmoke hood Mask Check the right to protect the victim location in the cockpit from fire in the effects of smokeOxygen bottleFire axe Handle, hook, blade. Check the right Incase of fir or during location and secured survival incase of crash. with straps.Asbestos gloves gloves Correct location in the To touch the hot metals cockpit while anything is in fireFire extinguisher It’s a red coloured bottle In correct location, To extinguish the fire. strapped to secure, secured with straps, safety pin, handle, needle on the pressure trigger, nozzle gauge should be between 1500-2000tsi and on the green band.Oxygen mask Gas pipe, mask, elastic Check the right During decompression band location in the over head bin in the cabin
  52. 52. Mega phone Push to talk Check the correct It is used for crowd button, sling, location, secured control speaker, handle. with straps, check the push to talk button.ELT(emergency Antenna, lan yard, Check if it is in To send rescue andlocator transmitter a plastic cover and right location and search signals used a battery. secured with straps in ditching and crash landingLife jacket Upper and lower It should be under Used in ditching chamber, 2 red each passenger toggle, inflation seats & the spare tubes, straps ones in the over around the waist. head bin
  53. 53. M(units 4 & 9) Describe a cabin crew routine for an international flight from sign in time until sign out. Present your findings in a PPT/ slides presentation not exceeding 10 minutes backed by a bibliography.
  54. 54. Pick up from accommodation Pick up from accommodation is 2 hrs20 mins before ETD arriving at the "office" about 1.45 hrs before ETD Flight deck have different briefing room and rarely show their faces until all are through immigration and on the bus to the aircraft. Briefings are about safety, security and first aid, can often be monopolized by talk about the service, type of pax expected. Down route... just a quick discussion on the previous flight, new flight details and change of positions
  55. 55. Job Duties Of Cabin Crews The job of a flight attendant begins even before a flight. It includes preparation the day before the flight, the day of the flight, during and after the flight. First of all, the crew must attend a pre-flight briefing on the day before each scheduled flight, to gather relevant data on the upcoming flight, such as its departure time, flight number and route, model of the aircraft and every piece of equipment on it; go through the roles each crew play in emergency situations, draw up a plan of action for the entire crew in handling incidents such as a hijack, etc. On the day of the flight, the crew must board the aircraft 80 minutes in advance to carry out pre-flight duties, namely to conduct safety checks, prepare the cabin for the passengers and ensure all meals and supplies are on board.
  56. 56.  The crew check all equipment to make sure that they are in working condition, including equipment controlled by the passengers remote controls, such as reading lights, attendants call buttons, tray tables, seat reclining levers; and those on the cabin crews service panels, e.g., switches for music and different modes of lighting, head sets, etc. Special attention must be given to the pre- flight safety checks: ensure that all emergency equipment are fully functional, volume of oxygen in the oxygen tank is sufficient, fire extinguishers are brand new, pressure of the aircraft evacuation slide is at the correct level. Before the passengers board the plane, the cabin crew also need to prepare the galley; monitor the quantity and quality of meals, count the stock of cutlery and supplies; prepare the lavatories, ensure the supplies are fully stocked, e.g., face towels, toilet rolls, soap, perfume, toilet seat covers, etc.; prepare the beverages such as coffee, tea, sugar, creamer are made available, cold drinks are chilled... Finally, after a last check on the cabins hygiene and a touch up on the attendants own appearances, they are all set to await the arrival of the passengers.
  57. 57.  When the passengers board the plane, the flight attendants must be ready to greet them at the respective working positions they are assigned. They must direct the passengers to their seats, help store their hand luggage in the overhead luggage storage cabins, escort passengers who need special assistance, such as the elderly, young, invalid, pregnant, persons with physical disabilities, to their seats. After all the passengers are on board, the plane and all the carry-on luggage are stowed away, the cabin crew would begin to demonstrate the safety equipment features and procedures. This would be followed by the cabin safety check routine which includes: ensuring all the passengers seat belts are fastened, their seat backs and tray tables are in full upright positions, window shades are put up, overhead cabins are shut tight, emergency exits and aisles are devoid of luggage, and of course, the passengers are reminded to turn off their mobile phones and all portable electronic devices. All these are duties of the cabin crew.
  58. 58.  The galley crew would have to switch off the power supply in the kitchen galley, fasten every lock, push in all the beverage and meal carts, close the doors of the ovens and coat closets. By the time the check is completed, the plane is about to take off. Five minutes after the plane has taken off, the galley crew would begin to make various announcements over the public address system and the cabin crew would begin to distribute newspaper, snacks and serviettes to the passengers. For flights exceeding one and a half hours, pre-meal beverages would be served. That begins the meal service, followed by a round of drinks, and another round. Then, it would almost be time to clear the dining trays.
  59. 59.  For some airlines, there are still other tasks to perform, like distributing souvenirs, issuing embarkation forms, list of items to declare at customs, health declaration forms, etc. Sometimes, the cabin crew would even need to assist some passengers in filling out these forms. Finally, when all these are done, it is time again to go round the cabin with a serving tray to check on any needs the passenger may have, be it a drink to be served, dining trays to be collected; for passengers who are asleep, shut the reading lights and ventilation air ducts above them, put on a blanket for him or give her a pillow and for those who are awake, check if they would like to have their meals. All the while, looking out for trash to be picked up, needs to be attended to, and better still, spot the need even before the passenger asks for it and solve any problem passengers have.
  60. 60.  By the time the plane descends, it is time to make a final compliance check, remind passengers to fasten their seat belts, return their seat backs and tray tables to the upright locked position, draw up the window shades. At the same time, the cabin crew would also have to ensure that the overhead hand-luggage storage compartments are locked and the emergency exits are cleared of luggage, so on and so forth. Only then, do the cabin crew get to take a breather on the cabin jump seats. After the plane has completed landed and the cabin crew have sent off every disembarking passenger at their assigned positions, they would have to check through the cabin to make sure that no luggage are left behind. Only after that, is a flight considered as completed.
  61. 61. Prepare the dummy safety equipment Our group prepared the fire Extinguisheras the dummy safety equipment and handedover to the trainer.
  62. 62. D (unit 4 & 9)(a) Describe & compare Boeing 747 & Airbus A380
  63. 63. Measurements Airbus 380 Boeing 747-400 Wingspan 79.8 m (261 ft 10 in) 64.4 m (211 ft 5 in) Length 73.0 m (239 ft 6 in) 70.7 m (231 ft 10 in) Height 24.1 m (79 ft) 19.4 m (63 ft 8 in) 610,700 lbs 393,263 lbs Weight: Empty (277,000 kg) (178,756 kg) 1,234,600 lbs 875,000 lbs Weight: Max Takeoff (560,000 kg) (397,000 kg) Capacity/Layout Crew 2 2Passengers (three-class 555 416 arrangement) Two decks, Two decks,Seating configuration two aisles per deck two aisles main deck
  64. 64. Miscellaneous 7, 260 nm Range 8,000 nm (14,800 km) (13,450 km) Service ceiling 43,000 ft (13,100 m) 41,000 ft Top cruising speed Mach 0.88 (299 m/s) Mach 0.92 (313 m/s)Long-distance cruising Mach 0.85 (289 m/s) Mach 0.85 (289m/s) speed 4 Pratt & Whitney PW4062 4 Rolls-Royce Trent 900 turbofans (63,300 lb thrust) turbofans (initially 70,000 lb thrust; or cleared at 80,000 lb thrust) 4 Rolls-Royce RB211-524 H2-T Powerplant or (59,500 lb thrust) 4 Engine Alliance GP7200 or turbofans (approx. 82,000 lb thrust) General Electric CF6-80C2B5F (62,000 lb thrust)
  65. 65. D (unit 4 & 9)(b) Do a case study of any actual mishap of an air crash. Your concluding statements should give your own opinion as a result of the research conducted by you.
  66. 66. AIR CRASHDEFINATION: An AIR CRASH is defined in the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which a person is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. The first fatal AIR CRASH occurred in a Wright Model A aircraft at Fort Myer, Virginia, USA, on September 17, 1908, resulting in injury to the pilot, Orville Wright and death of the passenger, Thomas Selfridge. An AIR CRASH is also defined there as an occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations. An accident in which the damage to the aircraft is such that it must be written off, or in which the plane is destroyed is called a hull loss accident.
  68. 68. Fatal plane crash September 17 1908 One hundred years ago, on Sept. 17, 1908, a plane piloted by Orville Wright crashed in Fort Myer, Va., badly injuring the aviation pioneer and killing his passenger, Lt. Thomas Selfridge. Today, on the anniversary of the accident, The Associated Press distributed two photographs (before and after) of the famous flight, along with a story on airline safety. The AP story states that the 1908 accident was ‖the first fatal airplane crash in history, according to the Flight Safety Foundation.‖ Here are the photos showing Selfridge and Wright (with hat) just before the flight, and the crumpled heap of wreckage after the crash.
  71. 71.  Interestingly, I had recently come across the Sept. 18, 1908, article the New Era ran on the Wright/Selfridge crash. A short sidebar noted that in the history of ―aeroplanes‖ there had only been four deaths. It credited that information to E. La Rue Jones, the editor of ―Aeronautics.‖ The article provided no details on those earlier deaths, so I can‘t explain the discrepancy between that statement and the one in the AP article.
  72. 72. Century after 1st fatality, safety is in the air PHOENIX — It was called an ―aeroplane,‖ but the contraption Orville Wright piloted on Sept. 17, 1908, was hardly more than a big box kite with a motor. And unlike his famous first flight in 1903, this one was doomed. Less than five minutes after takeoff, Wright‘s plane lay smashed, his passenger mortally injured, and the world got an early taste of the perils of flying. It was the first fatal airplane crash in history, according to the Flight Safety Foundation. ―The aeroplane is still far within the experimental stage,‖ a New York Times writer lamented three days later. ―The perfected machine will doubtless be different from it in everything from principle to motive power.‖ A hundred years later, modern jets have indeed made air travel the safest way to get around. Yet, to the consternation of the airline industry, flying still generates for many the same rush of anxiety that onlookers must have felt when Wright‘s plane dove into the parade ground at Ft. Myer, Va. ―There‘s still this mystique about flying,‖ said Ron Nielsen, a retired US Airways pilot who‘s found a second career counselling people who are afraid to fly. ―There‘s a fear of being closed in, and there‘s a fear of dying.‖
  73. 73.  It doesn‘t help when airlines are caught failing to follow government safety regulations, as was the case with American Airli nes and Southwest Airlines earlier this year. Anxiety levels may also rise when members of Congress accuse the Federal Aviation Administration of an inappropriately cozy relationship with the airlines it regulates. In response to reports of lapses in FAA oversight, the House passed a law in Jul y that would force federal aviation inspectors to wait two years before taking airline jobs. But the facts remain: In the U.S., no one has died in a commercial jet crash in two years. Before that, the safety record for airlines has been close to perfect. According to a 10-year average of National Safety Council statistics from 1996 to 2005, only two people died in commercial airline crashes per 10 billion miles traveled. That compares to a death rate of five people per 10 billion miles on passenger trains. And in cars, 81 people died for every 10 billion miles traveled. Accidents in the air have become so rare that investigators no longer find common reasons why commercial airplanes crash, FAA spokesman Les Dorr said. ―If you try to say, what‘s the next common cause (of airline accidents) that we can address, the answer is there isn‘t one,‖ Dorr said. It took a lot of work to get to this point. Aviation has always been an intensively reactive field, with many of its safety enhancements kick-started following major aircraft accidents. It was this way even in 1908. A few days after the first fatal crash, Wright woke from his hospital bed and asked to see his mechanic. ―I‘d like to have his view on just what happened to cause our spill,‖ he said. The plane was circling about 100 feet above the parade grounds during a demonstration flight for the U.S. Army Signal Corps w hen it suddenly dropped nose first and crashed. Wright‘s passenger for the experimental trip, Lt. Thomas Selfridge, was killed. From the hospital, Wright picked through the scattered remnants of his plane and eventually decided what caused it to drop.
  74. 74.  ―Mr. Wright finds the accident to the aeroplane was due to the blade of the propeller coming in contact with one of the wires of the machine,‖ C.S. Taylor, Wright‘s associate, told news reporters. A report by the Signal Corps Aeronautical Board said the propeller blade looked like it struck a wire supporting the rudder. Aircraft safety investigations have become formalized in the years that followed. The National Transportation Safety Board, founded in 1967, deploys teams of investigators to major accidents and spends months examining each crash. It eventually recommends ways for the airline industry to keep the accident from happening again. For example, airports were equipped with better weather tracking equipment and wind-shear alert systems following a number of crashes, including one in 1985 when a Delta Air Lines L-1011 tried to land during a thunderstorm at Dallas/Fort Worth airport, killing 135 people. More safety improvements have followed other major accidents. It can take months or even years before investigators come up with recommendations from a crash. But ―if something happens during the investigation that really strikes fear in someone‘s heart, we‘ll send out urgent recommendations,‖ said Bridget Ann Serchak, an NTSB spokeswoman. Airlines also deal with several hundred new FAA air-worthiness directives each year that are recommended by aircraft manufacturers and other authorities. The FAA occasionally conducts safety audits like one that forced American to cancel hundreds of MD-80 flights this spring and submit to inspections related to electrical wiring. Sometimes airlines will install safety features on their own. Alaska Air Group Inc., for example, recently said it will equip its entire fleet with a runway-awareness system aimed at preventing collisions on the ground. ―We realized we‘re flying out of some of the busiest airports in the U.S. and we saw the value of an additional safety measure,‖ said Caroline Boren, spokeswoman for Alaska Airlines. The systems will cost about $20,000 per aircraft to install, and Alaska‘s entire fleet is expected to be fully equipped with the alert software by the end of the month. The FAA and airlines have not always worked well together, Dorr said, but increasingly they are sharing information about safety and maintenance. That means that in the future, aircraft safety will become more automated with inspectors and airline crews contributing to the FAA‘s Air Transportation Oversight System, Dorr said. The system brings together maintenance and safety reports, and looks for any safety issues on the horizon. The fear of flying may never leave some travellers, but as the industry continues to tweak its safety net, more of them may realize many fears are only in their heads. ―Everyone that I know that flies, when they get on the airplane, they‘re worrying about ‗Will I get there on time?‘ Not, ‗is the plane going to crash,‖‗ Dorr said.
  75. 75. Aircraft Crashes Record Office (ACRO) The Geneva-based Aircraft Crashes Record Office (ACRO) compiles statistics on aviation accidents of aircraft capable of carrying more than six passengers, not including helicopters, balloons, or fighter airplanes. It should be noted that ACRO is not a government or official organization. The ACRO announced in 2008 that the year 2007 was the safest year in aviation since 1963 in terms of number of accidents. There had been 136 accidents registered (compared to 164 in 2006), resulting in a total of 965 deaths (compared to 1,293 in 2006). Since then, both 2009 and 2010 saw fewer registered accidents, 122 and 130, respectively. 2004 was the year with the lowest number of fatalities since the end of World War II, with 771 deaths. The year with most fatalities was 2001, with 4,140 deaths.
  76. 76. STATISTICAL RECORDyear deaths # of accidents2010 1,115 1302009 1,103 1222008 884 1562007 971 1472006 1,294 1662005 1,459 1852004 771 1722003 1,230 1992002 1,413 1852001 4,140 2002000 1,582 1891999 1,138 211
  77. 77. Review dates:  First review: Thursday19/01/2012.  Second review: Friday 20/01/2012.  Third review: Saturday 21/01/2012. Submission date: Monday 23/01/2012.
  78. 78. Conclusion After completing my aviation assignment I got to know more aboutAviation industry and the aircrafts exterior, interior parts and theemergencies on board and how to overcome the emergency situations. Ialso got to know more about the crashes occurred due to technicalproblems and many things. The meal served and about the galleys in theaircraft and more details about the cockpit and the pre-flight check. Lastbut not the least embarkation and disembarkation of the special pax‘s andthe routine of the cabin crew for an international flight.
  79. 79. bibliography  www.google.com  www.wikipedia.com www.google/images.com  www.airindia.in  www.ibn7.com