AP Human Geography: Unit 3 - Cultural Geography: Part 1 Sample


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This sample of Part 1 of the AP Human Geography Unit 3 Powerpoint includes 114 slides of information introducing concepts of culture, popular culture, and folk culture. It includes maps, higher-order thinking questions, vocabulary words, mind-mapping tools, and other resources to help educate your students on all of the necessary concepts for the AP Test.

Topics Covered: Cultural Geography, Cultural Ecology, Cultural Landscapes, Environmental Determinism, Possibilism, Environmental Perception, Cultural Determinism, Cultural Traits, Cultural Complex, Culture System, Culture Region, Cultural Realm, Cultural Hearths, Independent Inventions, Folk Culture Regions, Indigenous Cultures, Folk Music, Folk Architecture, Effects of Popular Culture and many others.

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  • Built Environment is the tangible impact of human beings on the landscape.
  • Raising Canes is an Independent Invention of Baton Rouge, Louisiana
  • Notice how acculturation can both ways – both the dominant culture and minority culture can take parts of each.
  • Big dog or small dog?
  • 1) Language changes over time with the diffusion of other languages.
  • How English Diffused
  • Above is the British Colonies – notice the reason why English would become the dominant Lingua Franca. What kind of diffusion do you see in this?
  • What you should and should not do.
  • AP Human Geography: Unit 3 - Cultural Geography: Part 1 Sample

    1. 1. Cultural Geography
    2. 2. Intro to Culture Language Religion Popular and Folk Culture •Concepts of Culture •Intro to Language •Intro to Religion •Folk Culture •Schools of Thought •Language •Universalizing Religions •Popular Culture •Cultural Hearths families, Languages, and •Ethnic Religions •Cultural Landscapes and •Cultural Diffusion dialects. •Spatial Impact of Religions Identity •Acculturation •Language Barriers •Ethnocentrsm and Cultural •Toponymy Relativism •Language Extinction •Cultural Differences
    3. 3. Part 1: Introduction to Culture
    4. 4. What is Culture?
    5. 5. What is Culture?CULTUS – “To Care About”
    6. 6. Culture is the mix ofvalues, beliefs, behaviors, and material objects that form a people’s way of life.
    7. 7. Part A: Introductions
    8. 8. How do we study culture?
    9. 9. Cultural Geography CultureCultural CulturalEcology Landscapes
    10. 10. What is cultural geography?
    11. 11. Cultural geography is thestudy of how cultures vary over space.
    12. 12. What is the cultural landscape?
    13. 13. The cultural landscape is the interactions of a group in relation to their own culturalpractices as well as the valuesof society as reflected through artifacts and architecture.
    14. 14. What is cultural ecology?
    15. 15. Cultural ecology is the fieldthat studies the relationship between the natural environment and culture.
    16. 16. Cultural Geography: Schools of ThoughtEnvironmental Environmental Cultural Possibilism Determinism Perception Determinism Social Culture is Human culture is People develop Perception of the developed more important culture as much environment completely by the than the physical as environment. affects culture. environment. environment. Similar The environment Perception is Humans environments provides developed by the determine the produce similar possibilities for a teachings of environment. cultures. culture. culture. Technology increases the possibilities.
    17. 17. What school(s) of thought bestexplains the following scenarios?
    18. 18. Case 1A small, undiscovered community is located onthe coast of South America. The food theyconsume is fish and they spend much of theirtime sacrificing to their god Elmo – who visitswrath upon them in the form of large, windystorms that destroy their village when he isangered.
    19. 19. Case 2Develop your own case study thatdemonstrates both Possibilism and CulturalDeterminism. It needs to be at least foursentences long.
    20. 20. Part B: Concepts of Culture
    21. 21. How does culture form?
    22. 22. • A repetitive actHabit that an individual performs • A repetitive act of a group performed Custom so that it becomes a characteristic of the group. • A group’s Culture entire collection of customs.
    23. 23. What is culture made of?
    24. 24. Material Culture (Artifacts) Houses Furniture Instruments Books
    25. 25. Nonmaterial Culture Values Beliefs Behaviors ? Norms
    26. 26. Cultural Realm Culture Culture System Culture RegionCulture Trait Complex A single The A group of An area marked A large area attribute of a combination of interconnected by culture that marked by a culture. different culture distinguishes it number of Often not cultural traits in complexes. from other cultural confined to a distinctive Any area with regions. regions. It is set single area. ways. strong cultural apart from Common ties that bind other world values, beliefs, its people areas because behaviors, and together. of these artifacts that regions. make one place distinct.
    27. 27. What are the traits, complexes, and systems that make up New Orleans?
    28. 28. What does culture come from?
    29. 29. What is a cultural hearth?
    30. 30. A cultural hearth is the areawhere a cultural aspect first began.
    31. 31. Early cultural hearths were almostcompletely determined by their physical environment – IE. Environmental Determinism.
    32. 32. What are independent inventions?
    33. 33. Independent Inventions are developments that can be traced back to specific civilizations or cultural hearths.
    34. 34. Cultural Diffusion
    35. 35. What is cultural diffusion?
    36. 36. Cultural Diffusion is the spread of culture to areas surrounding the cultural hearth.
    37. 37. HierarchicalRelocation Diffusion Contagious Stimulus
    38. 38. How do people adapt to culture?
    39. 39. Acculturation is the process of the less dominant culture adopting the traits of the more dominant one. Assimilation is when immigrants lose their native customs completely.
    40. 40. Trans Culturation Two-way flows of culture.
    41. 41. How do we interpret culture?
    42. 42. Ethnocentrism – The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture.What is ethnocentric about this comic?
    43. 43. CulturalRelativism isthe practiceof evaluatinga culture byits ownstandards.
    44. 44. Big Dog? SmallDog? Its all aboutperception.
    45. 45. Part 2: Folk and Popular Culture
    46. 46. Part A: Introductions to Folk and Popular Culture
    47. 47. Folk Culture The practice of a The practice of relatively small customs that span group of people in several different a focused area. cultures and may even have a Popular Culture global focus.
    48. 48. Traits of a Folk Culture:
    49. 49. Usually relatively isolated Anonymoushearths, anonymous Often dependent onsources, anonymous the environment dates Folk Culture Usually practiced by Are often isolated or small, homogenous have multiple groups in isolated hearths areas.
    50. 50. Folk Culture can be expressed in three ways:
    51. 51. Indigenous Cultures• A culture group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation.Folk Culture Regions• Cultural norms traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.Subcultures• groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture
    52. 52. Indigenous Cultures
    53. 53. Folk Culture Region
    54. 54. Sub Culture
    55. 55. Traits of Popular Culture:
    56. 56. Large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits.Largely Urban Based Large Scaled Popular Culture Based on rapidOften allowed b/c of simultaneous global industrialization. connections Often the product of economically more developed countries.
    57. 57. Causes of Popular Culture
    58. 58. Communication Technology
    59. 59. Travel Technology
    60. 60. Globalization
    61. 61. What is globalization?
    62. 62. Globalization is the process ofincreased interconnectednessamong countries most notably in the areas of economics, politics, and culture.
    63. 63. Globalization of Food
    64. 64. Globalization of Economics
    65. 65. Globalizationof Politics
    66. 66. Part C: Folk Music
    67. 67. Contains actual information about theculture. Contains important life cycle events (birth, death, and marriage) customs.You can learn a lot about a culturesimply from their music.
    68. 68. A Vietnamese Folk Song While seedlings for the summer crop are no old when they are three months of age, Seedlingsfor the winter crop are certainly not young when they are one-and-a-half months old
    69. 69. American Folk MusicThe Northern Songs:• Ballads close to English originals. The fiddle is featured at dances, and fife-and-drum bands are popular.The Southern and Appalachian Songs:• Westward to Texas, speak of hard lives and is the roots of country music.The Western Songs:• West of the Mississippi River, reflects the experiences of cowboys, plains farmers, river people, and gold seekers.The Black Songs:• Located in the south and grew out of the slave experience.
    70. 70. Part D: Popular Music
    71. 71. Originated around 1900Popular Written by individuals to be sold to a large Music number of people Diffusion began in WWII
    72. 72. Part E: Folk Architecture
    73. 73. Reflect both cultural and environmental influences Houses fromdifferent regions can be vastly Housing Often based on the resourcesdifferent even in the same Styles available environment Culture can affect styles and materials used.
    74. 74. Unchanged-traditional dwelling• The layout, construction, and appearance have not been significantly altered by external influences.• Examples: Some Arab towns and African villagesModified Traditional Dwelling• New building materials have been used to build these The structure layout is not altered Example: West Africa changed their thatch roofs to ironModernized Traditional Dwelling• Modifications have been made in both the building materials and the general layout of the dwelling Example: multiple bathrooms, two car garageModern Dwelling• Advanced technology is reflected in the building of these• Other reflections include upward mobility, practicality, comfort, and hygiene.• most common in the United States
    75. 75. WoodGrass Building and BrickBush Materials Stone
    76. 76. Folk House in the US
    77. 77. Nodes New Middle LowerEngland Atlantic Chesapeake Salt Box “I” Houses Steep Roof Two Chimney Cape Cod Front Gable and Wing
    78. 78. Salt Box
    79. 79. Two Chimney
    80. 80. Cape Cod
    81. 81. Front Gable and Wing
    82. 82. I-House
    83. 83. Uniformed Landscapes Problems with Popular Culture Increased DemandPollution for Resources
    84. 84. Part 2: Language
    85. 85. Part A: Intro to Language
    86. 86. What is language?
    87. 87. Language is a system of communication throughspeech, a collection of sounds that a group of peopleunderstands to have the same meaning.
    88. 88. Is this Language?
    89. 89. Is this Language?
    90. 90. Is this Language?
    91. 91. Why did language come to exist?
    92. 92. The Ability to Communicate
    93. 93. Cultural Transmission
    94. 94. How do languages differ?
    95. 95. Writing Direction DifferencesGrammar In Alphabets Language Allowable Sounds
    96. 96. What is Linguistic Geography?
    97. 97. Linguistic Geography is thestudy of speech areas and their local variations by mapping wordchoices, pronunciations, orgrammatical constructions.
    98. 98. What can this map teach us about language?
    99. 99. How do we track languages?
    100. 100. Language LanguageDivergence Convergence Spatial Interaction Two languages between speakers become one break down – because of close British/Americans spatial interaction. Language breaks This can also into dialects and cause Language then into new extinction tongues. We track languages by looking atlanguage divergence and convergence.
    101. 101. Latin: Crux•Albanian: kryq •Occitan: crotz•Aromanian: crutse •Old Portuguese: cruz•Catalan: creu •Portuguese: cruz•Dalmatian: crauc •Romanian: cruce•English: crux, crucial •Romansch: crusch, crousch•French: croix •Sardinian: cruche, crugi, cruxi, gruche,•Galician: cruz grughe, gruxi•German: Kreuz •Serbo-Croatian: krȋž / кри̑ж•Italian: croce •Spanish: cruz •Venetian: cróxe
    102. 102. Tracking Language By Scale
    103. 103. • Languages with a shared, but fairly distantLanguage origin. Families • Culturally Defined. • Standard Languages are recognized as theLanguages Norm • Regional Variants of a Standard Language Dialects
    104. 104. This is a map of various language families and branches.
    105. 105. Proto-Indo- European isspoken by 46% of the world’s population.
    106. 106. Where did PIE come from?
    107. 107. Sedentary FarmerHypothesis Sedentary Farmer Hypothesis Developed by Colin Renfew Also called the “Renfew Hypothesis”PIE Started in the Fertile Crescent Language diffused peacefully throughagricultural trade.
    108. 108. NomadicWarrior Thesis Kurgan Migration Developed by Marinja Gimbutas Also called the “Conquest Theory” PIE Started around Russia Says that Kurgan Warriors brought the language with them as they conquered
    109. 109. Languages of Proto-Indo-European
    110. 110. Indo-Iranian Branches
    111. 111. 15 Hindi Others Indic: Indo- IranianKurdish Iranian Farsi Pashto
    112. 112. The Iranian Languages
    113. 113. The Indian Languages
    114. 114. What is Linguistic Fragmentation?
    115. 115. Linguistic Fragmentation is when people in a country speak many differentlanguages. This often reveals large cultural differences.
    116. 116. Many countries with linguistic fragmentation alsohave an official language. India’s official language is English.
    117. 117. What is an official language?
    118. 118. An official language is thelanguage used by government when making laws, reports, public objects, money, and stamps.
    119. 119. An official language is not alwaysthe majority language of an area. Example: New Zealand’s Official Language is only spoken by 5% of the Population
    120. 120. Some countries have more than oneofficial language.Example:Switzerland has four:German, French, Italian, andRomansch
    121. 121. European Branches
    122. 122. Romance Languages • French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Portugese. PIESlavic Languages Germanic Languages• Russian, Polish, Czech, Ukranian, Slovenian, Serbo- • English, German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish Croation
    123. 123. Geographic boundariesplay a huge role inlanguage formation.Look at this littlelanguage here: Basque.Basque is a languageisolate.
    124. 124. What is an language isolate?
    125. 125. A language isolate is alanguage that is isolated fromall other languages around it.
    126. 126. Part B: The English Language
    127. 127. English is part of the Germanic Branch of PIE.
    128. 128. The English Language: Origins
    129. 129. English is Spoken By 328 Million PeopleTwo Billion People live in a country where English is A Few It is the official the official language even if English language in 57 countriesthey cannot speak it. Facts It is the predominate language in the US and in Australia
    130. 130. Germanic Tribes Where did English come from?LatinOld Norse EnglishNorman French Celtic Tribes
    131. 131. OldEnglish Middle Modern• 450-1100AD English English
    132. 132. Old EnglishFæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum;Si þin nama gehalgodto becume þin ricegewurþe ðin willaon eorðan swa swa on heofonum.urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todægand forgyf us ure gyltasswa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendumand ne gelæd þu us on costnungeac alys us of yfele soþlice
    133. 133. Middle EnglishOure fadir that art in heuenes, halewid be thiname; thi kyndoom come to; be thi wille don inerthe as in heuene: gyue to us this dai ourebreed ouer othir substaunce; and forgyue to usoure dettis, as we forgyuen to oure gettouris;and lede us not in to temptacioun, but delyuereus fro yuel.
    134. 134. What are some concepts that thegrowth of the English language show us about the growth of language in general?
    135. 135. The English Language: Diffusion
    136. 136. BritainBritish Colonies United States United States Annexes (Philippines)
    137. 137. The English Language: Dialects
    138. 138. One result of the mass spread of the English language is the creation of many dialects.
    139. 139. What is a dialect?
    140. 140. A dialect is a regional variationof a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
    141. 141. What is an isogloss?
    142. 142. An isogloss is a geographic boundary line delimiting thearea in which a given linguistic feature occurs
    143. 143. British Received PronunciationThe perceived dialect of the upper-class Britishliving in London.Used by many actors, broadcasters andpoliticians.
    144. 144. The English Language: American English
    145. 145. Differences between British and American EnglishVocabulary• Different because settlers in America encountered new objects, animals, etcetera.• New animals, for example, were given Native American Names.• As new inventions appeared they received different names.Spelling• Spelling diverged from a strong national American Identity.• Webster, an American dictionary publisher had an American agendaPronunciation• Largely explained by distance.• Pronunciation
    146. 146. Northern East Coast IsoglossesSouthern Midlands
    147. 147. How has mass media changed dialects?
    148. 148. The English Language: DOMINATION
    149. 149. The Internet English as Lingua FrancaCommerce ESL
    150. 150. Many areas do not learn full English but a Pidgin.
    151. 151. A Pidgin is a simplified version of a language.
    152. 152. What is a creole language?
    153. 153. A Creole Language is a pidgin language that becomes the major language of a people group.
    154. 154. English Diffusion to Other Languages• Spanglish – A combination of English and Spanish• Franglais – A combination of French and English
    155. 155. Languages and Political Geography
    156. 156. Monolingual Countries Countries and Language Linguistic MultilingualFragmentation Countries
    157. 157. Toponyms can show us:• The History of a Place – Colonialization • Example: Most Brazilian toponyms are Portugese • Example: French toponyms in Louisiana• The Culture of a People – George Washington Bridge, Martin Luther King Blvd, Jacksonville, Florida
    158. 158. Descriptive •Rocky Mountains Shift Names Associative •Lancaster, Pennsylvania •Pensacola Beach, FloridaMistakes American Commemorative•Lasker, North Carolina Toponyms •New York Possession Manufactured •Johnston City, Texas •Truth and Consequences Incidents •Battle Creek, Michigan
    159. 159. Part B:Religious Geography
    160. 160. How do you define religion?
    161. 161. Religion is a system of beliefsand practices that attempts toorder life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities.
    162. 162. The Shouldness
    163. 163. Sacred Vs. Profane
    164. 164. Types of Religions
    165. 165. Monotheistic Polytheistic Animistic Secularism• Single God • More than • Inanimate • Lack of One God Objects Religion possess Spirits
    166. 166. Part 1: Universalizing Religions
    167. 167. What is a Universalizing Religion?
    168. 168. A Universalizing Religion attempts to be global, toappeal to all people whereverthey live, not just those of one culture or location.
    169. 169. The Five Universalizing Religions Buddhism (2500yrs) Islam (1500yrs) Christianity (2000yrs) Sikhism(India) and Baha’I (Africa/Asia)
    170. 170. http://www.mapsofwar.com/ind/histo ry-of-religion.html
    171. 171. Each Universalizing Religion Has: Branch Large and fundamental division within a religion. Denominations A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single administrative body. Sects A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
    172. 172. Christianity
    173. 173. Origins of Christianity• Founded upon the teachings of Yehōshua – Translated to Jesus• Christians believe that Jesus died to atone for human sins, that he was raised from the dead by God, and that his resurrection provides people with hope for salvation.
    174. 174. Three Forms of ChristianityRoman Catholicism• 51% of ChristianityEastern Orthodox• 11% of ChristianityProtestantism• 24% of Christianity
    175. 175. Why is South America 93% Catholic and North America only 40% Catholic?
    176. 176. RC PR EO• Pope • Federal • Elders• Mary • Mary • Mary• Clergy • Clergy • Clergy• Sacraments • Sacraments • Sacraments
    177. 177. Diffusion of Christianity• First diffused by relocation diffusion as believers (Missionaries) moved from place to place.• Secondly, it diffused by contagious diffusion – word of mouth between believers in the towns and nonbelievers in the countryside• Finally, it diffused by hierarchical diffusion as elite figures (the emperor) began to accept it.
    178. 178. Islam
    179. 179. Origins of the People Abraham Sarah Hagar Isaac Ishmael The 12Jacob Esau Arabian Tribes The TwelveTribes of Israel
    180. 180. Origins of the ProphetsAdam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
    181. 181. Origins of the Scripture (Qur’an) Revelations compiled Vision (610) in the Qur’an after Death • Given in the Cave of Hira • Given by the angel GabrielBirth of Muhammad Hijrah to Medina
    182. 182. The Five Pillars of Islam
    183. 183. 1 – The Testimony There is no god worthy ofworship except God (Allah), and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet].
    184. 184. 2 – The SalatThe mandatory prayers performed 5 times aday: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed
    185. 185. 3 – The ZakatAlmsgiving (Charitable Donations)
    186. 186. 4 – The SawmFasting during the month of Ramadan. No eating from sunrise to sunset.
    187. 187. 5 – The HajjPilgrimage to Mecca
    188. 188. Two Main BranchesSunnis• 1,140,000,000• ‘Heir’ to Islam based on community selection.Shiites• 220,000,000• ‘Heir’ to Islam chosen by Allah (Only those from the bloodline of Muhammad)Ahmadiyya• 10,000,000Druze• 450,000
    189. 189. The Diffusion of Islam
    190. 190. How Islam Diffused• Largely brought about in the early years by conquest (Relocation/Hierarchical Diffusion)• Southwest Asia was converted through Islamic traders.• Now, largely brought about by missionaries (relocation diffusion, contagious diffusion)
    191. 191. Ethnic Religions
    192. 192. What is an ethnic religion?
    193. 193. An Ethnic Religion is religionthat primarily appeals to onegroup of people living in one place. More closely tied to the physical geography of a particular region, especially with agriculture.
    194. 194. JudaismAnimism Hinduism Ethnic ReligionsShinto Confucianism Taoism
    195. 195. Hinduism• 3rd Largest Religion in the World• Concentrated in India and Nepal• It is up to the individual to decide the best way to worship God.• Does not have a central authority.• Has many gods but the most popular (70 percent) is Vishnu. 26% adhere to the god Siva.
    196. 196. Confucianism• Located largely in China• Based on ethical obligations important to the Chinese.
    197. 197. Taoism (Daoism)• Located mainly in China.• Followers seek Tao (Dao) which means the path
    198. 198. Shintoism• Religion of Japan• Consider the forces of nature to be divine.• Was regarded as the state religion before WWII and the Emperor was considered to be a God.
    199. 199. Judaism• One third live in Israel, One third in the United States, and one third everywhere else.• First religion to espouse monotheism.
    200. 200. Animism• Mostly located in Africa• Finds animate qualities of all other life.• Not a specific religion but a collection of tribal religions.
    201. 201. Ethnic Diffusion• Ethnic religions rarely diffuse farther than their starting point.• This means that they are much more susceptible to Universalizing religions.• Many times an Ethnic religion will hybridize with universalizing religions.
    202. 202. Judaistic Diffusion• Judaism diffused more widely than other Ethnic religions because they were forced out of their homeland by the romans in AD.70.• This was called the diaspora.• Many Jews were forced to live in ghettos.
    203. 203. Cosmogony and Calendars
    204. 204. What is cosmogony?
    205. 205. Cosmogony is the religiousbeliefs concerning the origins of the Universe.
    206. 206. Ethnic Verses Universalizing• Ethnic religious creation stories tend to deal with the physical environment and natural events, whereas universalizing religion stories often attempt to explain the mystical. Christianity Confucianism Two Opposite God Created the Forces Work in Universe Creation (Yin/Yang) God is more These interact for powerful than the balance universe Believers Believers change transform the their environment environment as less. More likely to God’s emissaries. achieve balance.
    207. 207. Religious Calendars
    208. 208. Ethnic Calendars• Ethnic religions focus on climate, seasons, and agriculture. Jewish Holidays (A Lunar Calendar) Fall Holidays Rosh Hashanah (New Year) Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) Spring: Sukkot (Final Harvest) Pesach(Passover) Shavuot(Feast of Weeks)
    209. 209. Ethnic CalendarsMost important day to many Ethnic Religions:The Solstice (The Shortest and Longest Days ofthe Year)
    210. 210. Universalizing Calendars• Usually centered around the individual founder.• Example: Christmas
    211. 211. Religious Spaces
    212. 212. • Churches (Symbolic architecture)Christianity • The Catholic Church: The Vatican • Mosques (A location for a community to gather.) Islam • Mecca, Medina • Pagodas (Contain relics of Buddha’s body or clothing.)Buddhismand Shinto • Lumbini, Nepal • Community or Home Temples (Built to one or more gods)Hinduism • The Ganges River • Seven Houses of Worship on Multiple Continents Baha’I
    213. 213. The DeadChristians, Musli • Bury the dead in Cemeteries ms, Jews • Creates a problem with land • Wash the body with water from the Ganges Hindus • Cremation Zoroastrians • Exposure to the Elements
    214. 214. Religious Settlements• Some cities have been founded for religious reasons.• These are called utopian settlements.• The Most Important: – Salt Lake City (Mormonism)
    215. 215. Religious Administration
    216. 216. Hierarchical Religions• A hierarchical religion has a well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into administrative units.
    217. 217. Example: The Catholic Church The Pope Cardinals Archbishops (Head Provinces) Bishops (Head Diocese) Priests (Head Parishes)
    218. 218. Autonomous Religions• Self sufficient religions where interaction between communities is only loose cooperation of shared ideas.
    219. 219. Example: Islam• Islam provides the most autonomy in any universalizing religion.• The only time this is not true is when the religious territory coincides with secular states. – Examples: Iran, Saudi Arabia
    220. 220. Slides I Did Not Get To Make• Religious Conflict – Make sure to study up on – Northern Vs. Southern Ireland (Catholic Vs. Protestant) – The Middle East – Especially Israel Vs. Palestine – Religious Extremism