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Structureof Prokaryotic Eukary
 

Structureof Prokaryotic Eukary

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    Structureof Prokaryotic Eukary Structureof Prokaryotic Eukary Presentation Transcript

    •  
      • Nucleus vs nucleoid
      • DNA : circular vs linear, presence of histones
      • Membranous organelles
      • Cell wall-peptidoglycan
      • Cell division: binary vs mitosis
      • Ribosomes: 70S vs 80S
      • Cytoskeleton
      • Cocci
        • Diplococci
        • Streptococci
        • Tetrads
        • Sarcinae
        • Staphylococci
      • Coccobacilli
      • Diplobacilli
      • Streptobacilli
      • Vibrio-curved rods
      • Spirilla-helical & rigid
      • Spirochetes-helical & flexible
      • Other shapes
      • Pleomorphic
      • Glycolipids or glycoproteins
      • Surrounds cell
      • Capsule or slime layer
      • Capsule more organized & attached to wall
      • Advantages of capsule
      • Surrounds cell
      • Loosely organized & not attached
      • Tangled mass of fibers-dextran
      • Attachment to surfaces - S. mutans
      • Shields bacteria from immune defense & antibiotics
      • Animal cells have one
      • Made of carbohydrates
      • No do not have a cell wall
      • Surround plasma membrane
      • Stabilizes PM
      • Movement
        • Spins like propeller
        • Clockwise or counter clockwise
      • Chemotaxis- movement toward or away
      • Monotrichous: one at end
      • Amphitrichous: both ends
      • Lophotrichous: tuft at end or ends
      • Peritrichous: around the cell
      • Composition-protein subunits: flagellin (H protein) E. coli H7
        • Chains twisted together with hollow core
        • Helical shaped
        • Filament, hook, basal body
        • Hook
        • Basal body:
      • Basal body
      • Classified by flagella protein
      • Spirochetes
        • Treponema pallidum-syphilis
        • Borrelia burgdorferi-Lyme disease
      • Bundle of fibrials within a sheath
      • Corkscrew motion
      • Flagella & cilia
        • 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
        • Cilia in Paramecium & respiratory cells
      • Made of pilin : string of subunits
      • Function: attachment
      • Few to hundreds
      • Fimbrae
      • Pili-longer & fewer
      • Not in eukaryotes
      • Function
      • Basis of Gram stain
      • Peptidoglycan
        • Repeating subunits of disaccharides
          • N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG)
          • N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM)
          • Linked alternately in rows
        • Attached by polypeptides
          • Tetrapeptide side chains link NAM subunits
          • Cross bridge of amino acids link tetrapeptides
        • Forms lattice
      • Confers shape & prevents lysis
      • Cell growth
        • Autolysins break cross linkages in peptidoglycan
        • Transpeptidases seal breaks
        • Penicillin inactivates these enzymes
      • Existing cells
        • Treat with lysozyme-tears, saliva etc.
        • Destroys linkages between carbohydrates
      • Thick layers: 40-80% of dry wt, up to 30 layers
      • Contains teichoic acid
        • Alcohol and phosphate
        • Negative charge
        • Cell growth-prevents lysis
        • Antigenic properties
      • Few layers of peptidoglycan- 10%
      • Outer membrane: bilayer
      • Periplasm
      • Strong negative charge
      • Barrier to some antibiotics
      • Outer membrane-endotoxin
        • O polysaccharides
        • Lipid-lipid A
      • Penicillin:
      • Lysozyme:
    •  
    •  
      • Differential stain dev by Hans Gram 1880s
        • Classifies bacteria into 2 groups
        • Based upon cell wall composition
        • Gram variable stain unevenly
        • Gram non reactive do not stain or stain poorly
      • Gram positives
      • ETOH disrupts outer layer
      • CV-I complex is washed out of thin peptidoglycan layer
      • Counterstain
      • Streptococci
      • Mycobacteria
      • Mycoplasma
        • PM unique with sterols protect from lysis
      • Lack a cell wall so pleomorphic
      • Classified with gram positives
      • Smallest genome of any bacteria
      • Droplet spread-use regular mask
      • Why can’t you use penicillin?
      •      
      • Simpler than prokaryotes
      • Algae & plants
      • Fungi
      • Yeasts
      • Protozoa
      • Animals
      • Thin, fluid structure inside cell wall-viscous
      • Proteins
      • Phospholipids-2 layers
      • Selective permeability
      • Passive transport:
      • Active transport:
      • Enzymes break down nutrients
      • Infoldings
      • Phospholipids and proteins
      • Carbohydrates and sterols-cholesterol
      • More rigid than prokaryotic PM
      • Endocytosis
      • Exocytosis
      • 80% water, thick, solutes
      • Influx of water, increase in osmotic pressure on membrane
        • Rigid cell wall prevents lysis
      • Contains DNA
      • Ribosomes
      • Inclusion bodies
      • Cytosol-fluid portion
      • Cytoskelton
        • Microfilaments:
        • Microtubules:
        • Intermediate filaments:
      • Cytoplasmic streaming
      • Single, ds DNA chromosome
      • Attached to PM at some point
      • Nucleoid area, not a nucleus
      • Plasmids
      • Largest structure in cell
        • Nucleoli
      • DNA associated with proteins -histones
      • 2 subunits of protein and rRNA
      • 70s ribosomes
      • Polyribosomes-chains
      • Protein synthesis
      • Antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis
      • Polysaccharide granules
      • Sulfur granules
      • Reserve deposits-volutin (phosphates)
      • Unique to bacteria: Clostridium & Bacillus
      • Sporulation-formation of spores
      • Triggered by damage to coat
      • Enzymes break down endospore
      • Water enters & metabolism begins
      • Not a reproductive structure
      • Unique to eukaryotes
      • Membranous structures
        • Endoplasmic reticulum
          • Smooth & rough
        • Golgi complex
        • Lysosomes
        • Mitochondria
        • Cloroplasts
      • Flattened membranous sacs
      • Rough ER-ribosomes attached
      • Smooth ER- no ribosomes
      • Free ribosomes- proteins don’t need processing
      • Stacks of membranous sacs
      • Receive transport vesicles from ER
      • Modify molecules to form glycoproteins, glycolipids lipoproteins
      • Transported in secretory vesicles to PM or to outside cell
      • Formed from Golgi
        • Contain digestive enzymes: proteases & nucleases
        • Break down old parts of cell
        • Breaks down pathogens
      • Double membrane
      • Generation of ATP
      • Thylakoids-flattened membranous sacs
      • Contain DNA 70s ribosomes
      • Stroma thick fluid in center- Calvin cycle
      • Generation of ATP & sugars
    •