Structureof Prokaryotic Eukary

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Structureof Prokaryotic Eukary

  1. 2. <ul><li>Nucleus vs nucleoid </li></ul><ul><li>DNA : circular vs linear, presence of histones </li></ul><ul><li>Membranous organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall-peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><li>Cell division: binary vs mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes: 70S vs 80S </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Cocci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplococci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetrads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarcinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococci </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Coccobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Diplobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptobacilli </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Vibrio-curved rods </li></ul><ul><li>Spirilla-helical & rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Spirochetes-helical & flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Other shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Pleomorphic </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Glycolipids or glycoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds cell </li></ul><ul><li>Capsule or slime layer </li></ul><ul><li>Capsule more organized & attached to wall </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of capsule </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Surrounds cell </li></ul><ul><li>Loosely organized & not attached </li></ul><ul><li>Tangled mass of fibers-dextran </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment to surfaces - S. mutans </li></ul><ul><li>Shields bacteria from immune defense & antibiotics </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Animal cells have one </li></ul><ul><li>Made of carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>No do not have a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Surround plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizes PM </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spins like propeller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clockwise or counter clockwise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemotaxis- movement toward or away </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Monotrichous: one at end </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitrichous: both ends </li></ul><ul><li>Lophotrichous: tuft at end or ends </li></ul><ul><li>Peritrichous: around the cell </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Composition-protein subunits: flagellin (H protein) E. coli H7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chains twisted together with hollow core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helical shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filament, hook, basal body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal body: </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Basal body </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by flagella protein </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Spirochetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treponema pallidum-syphilis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrelia burgdorferi-Lyme disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bundle of fibrials within a sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Corkscrew motion </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Flagella & cilia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9+2 arrangement of microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia in Paramecium & respiratory cells </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Made of pilin : string of subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Function: attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Few to hundreds </li></ul><ul><li>Fimbrae </li></ul><ul><li>Pili-longer & fewer </li></ul><ul><li>Not in eukaryotes </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of Gram stain </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating subunits of disaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linked alternately in rows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached by polypeptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tetrapeptide side chains link NAM subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross bridge of amino acids link tetrapeptides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms lattice </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Confers shape & prevents lysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autolysins break cross linkages in peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transpeptidases seal breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin inactivates these enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat with lysozyme-tears, saliva etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys linkages between carbohydrates </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Thick layers: 40-80% of dry wt, up to 30 layers </li></ul><ul><li>Contains teichoic acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell growth-prevents lysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigenic properties </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Few layers of peptidoglycan- 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Outer membrane: bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Periplasm </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Strong negative charge </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier to some antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Outer membrane-endotoxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O polysaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid-lipid A </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Penicillin: </li></ul><ul><li>Lysozyme: </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Differential stain dev by Hans Gram 1880s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifies bacteria into 2 groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based upon cell wall composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram variable stain unevenly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram non reactive do not stain or stain poorly </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Gram positives </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>ETOH disrupts outer layer </li></ul><ul><li>CV-I complex is washed out of thin peptidoglycan layer </li></ul><ul><li>Counterstain </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Mycobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM unique with sterols protect from lysis </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Lack a cell wall so pleomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Classified with gram positives </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest genome of any bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Droplet spread-use regular mask </li></ul><ul><li>Why can’t you use penicillin? </li></ul><ul><li>       </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Simpler than prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Algae & plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Yeasts </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Thin, fluid structure inside cell wall-viscous </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids-2 layers </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Selective permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport: </li></ul><ul><li>Active transport: </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes break down nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Infoldings </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Phospholipids and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates and sterols-cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>More rigid than prokaryotic PM </li></ul><ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>80% water, thick, solutes </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of water, increase in osmotic pressure on membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid cell wall prevents lysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion bodies </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Cytosol-fluid portion </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskelton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate filaments: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasmic streaming </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Single, ds DNA chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to PM at some point </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleoid area, not a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmids </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Largest structure in cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleoli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA associated with proteins -histones </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>2 subunits of protein and rRNA </li></ul><ul><li>70s ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Polyribosomes-chains </li></ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Polysaccharide granules </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur granules </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve deposits-volutin (phosphates) </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Unique to bacteria: Clostridium & Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>Sporulation-formation of spores </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Triggered by damage to coat </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes break down endospore </li></ul><ul><li>Water enters & metabolism begins </li></ul><ul><li>Not a reproductive structure </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Unique to eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Membranous structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth & rough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloroplasts </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Flattened membranous sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER-ribosomes attached </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER- no ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Free ribosomes- proteins don’t need processing </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Stacks of membranous sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Receive transport vesicles from ER </li></ul><ul><li>Modify molecules to form glycoproteins, glycolipids lipoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>Transported in secretory vesicles to PM or to outside cell </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Formed from Golgi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain digestive enzymes: proteases & nucleases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break down old parts of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down pathogens </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>Double membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of ATP </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Thylakoids-flattened membranous sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Contain DNA 70s ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma thick fluid in center- Calvin cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of ATP & sugars </li></ul>

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