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Ap Bio Ch 4 PowerPOint


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Cell Structure and Function

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Ap Bio Ch 4 PowerPOint

  1. 1. Cell Structure & Function
  2. 2. Wrong Chapter  <ul><li>Yeah, I know…I have the chapter numbers for this chapter and the next one confused…but I’ma Power Point Idiot and can’t change them. </li></ul><ul><li>It gets worse towards the end of the book! </li></ul>
  3. 3. The History of Cell Study <ul><li>Robert Hooke-1665 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coined the word “cell” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looked at cork cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Brown -1831 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered the &quot;nucleus&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theodor Schwann - 1838 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are unit of biological structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mattias Schleiden – ca. 1850 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are the fundamental basis of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virchow -1858 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells come from cells </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Cell Theory <ul><li>Every living organism is made up of at least one cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic structural and functional units of mulicultural organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells arise from preexisting cells. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relative Sizes 100 m 10 m 1 m 10 cm 1 cm 1 mm 100  m 10  m 1  m 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 0.1 nm Eukaryotic Cells Mitochondrion Virus Proteins Atoms Electron Microscope Light Microscope Unaided eye Special E.M.
  6. 6. Cell Types <ul><li>Prokaryotic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller, 1—5 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA in circular loop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger, 8—100 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA in linear chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Eukaryotic Cell Structure 1 <ul><li>All cells possess a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane has phospholipid bilayer, embedded glycoproteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolates cytoplasm from environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates molecular movement into and out of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interacts with other cells/environment </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Eukaryotic Cell Structure 2 <ul><li>Genetic material - DNA, found in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosol (the fluid part) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic monomers and polymers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Generalized Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell Nucleus Golgi Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum Centrioles Chloroplasts
  10. 10. Generalized Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell Nucleolus Ribosomes Central Vacuole Smooth E.R. Cell Wall
  11. 11. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Protein fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell shape; networks of intermediate filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell movement; microfilaments & microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amoeboid movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell migration during development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelle movement & suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclosis; pathways for vesicle migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Cytoskeleton Microtubule Microfilaments Intermediate Filaments Actin subunits Tubulin subunits Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondrion Plasma Membrane
  13. 13. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Tubular extensions of plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of fluid, or locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Two functionally different types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia: numerous, paddle-like, synchronized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flagella: longer, fewer, more whip-like </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filled with microtubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 pairs in periphery; 2 singlets in center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“9+2” arrangement (for eukaryotes) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cilia & Flagella “ Sheath” X.S. Cell Membrane Shaft Base (a Centriole) T.E.M. T.E.M. Paramecium X.S. 1 2 3 4 5
  15. 15. Flagellum Parts Shaft, l.s. Shaft, x.s. Microtubule Doublets Cell Membrane Dynein Arms Central Singlets Microtubule Triplets Basal Body Basal Body, x.s.
  16. 16. Movement of Flagella Scanning E.M. of sperm on egg Corkscrew Movement (Pulls) Whipping Movement (Pushes) Water Water
  17. 17. Movement of Cilia Power Stroke Recovery Stroke Water Scanning E.M. of a ciliate
  18. 18. Nucleus <ul><li>Cell control and genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes in thread-like chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control production of all proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bounded by nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double lipid bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pores regulate transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not always at center of cell </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Nucleus Nucleolus Pores Chromatin Threads (Chromosomes) Nuclear Envelope
  20. 20. Nucleus functional parts <ul><li>Chromatin – DNA not coiled up into a chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome – DNA coils around proteins called histones to create linear chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Contains nucleolus of RNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of ribosome assembly </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Nucleus: Freeze Etched Scan Plasma Membrane Nucleus Nuclear Pores
  22. 22. Chromosomes Nucleoli Nucleus Cell Wall Chromosomes
  23. 23. Ribosomes <ul><li>-made of RNA and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Site of protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Dark granules, (usually drawn as small circles) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ribosomes
  25. 25. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Folded membranes attached to nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER - protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes chain amino acids into polypeptide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes on outside surface of rough ER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of rRNA and proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Unit Membrane Vesicles forming
  27. 27. Rough vs. Smooth ER: TEM Rough ER Smooth ER Ribosomes
  28. 28. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Processes material synthesized by ER </li></ul><ul><li>Packages material and provides “address label” </li></ul><ul><li>Distributes material in sacs called vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Some for inside, others outside cell </li></ul><ul><li>Secretory vesicles merge with cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Golgi Complex Material Received From ER Material Destined for Export TEM
  30. 30. Lysosomes <ul><li>Produced by Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive system of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Digest material engulfed by cell </li></ul><ul><li>Digest and recycle damaged organelles </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Flow of Membrane Lysosome Destined for Export Golgi Endoplasmic Reticulum Destined for Golgi
  32. 32. Contractile Vacuole <ul><li>Special kidney-like organelle </li></ul><ul><li>Draws water in from cytoplasm & expels it </li></ul><ul><li>Important for some single-celled freshwater animals </li></ul><ul><li>Requires ATP </li></ul>
  33. 33. Contractile Vacuoles 1 2 Paramecium sp. Expelling Water to Outside Expanded with Water
  34. 34. Central Vacuoles <ul><li>Large, water-filled spaces (cell sap) </li></ul><ul><li>Can take up over 90% of cell volume </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by tonoplast (single membrane) </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of pigments (red/blue), acids, salts, wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain cell pressure (turgor pressure) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Plant Wilting & the Central Vacuole Vacuole (tonoplast) Cell Wall Cytoplasm Normal Plant Cell In Salt Water Space between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane Normal In Salt Water
  36. 36. Mitochondria <ul><li>“Powerhouse” of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose catabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded by double membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix / cristae </li></ul><ul><li>Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicating </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Mitochondrion Cristae Matrix Outer Membrane Inner Membrane
  38. 38. Chloroplast <ul><li>Green plants only </li></ul><ul><li>Captures light energy </li></ul><ul><li>Produces carbohydrate from CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>In cytoplasm of mostly mesophyll cells of leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma / grana (thylakoid stacks) </li></ul><ul><li>Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicating </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Chloroplast Thylakoids Outer Membrane Inner Membrane One Granum Stroma
  40. 40. Plastids <ul><li>Associated w/photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Double bilipid membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Many functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of photosynthetic products </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Plastids Double Bilipid Membrane Starch Granules
  42. 42. Generalized Prokaryote Capsule Cell Wall Plasma Membrane Cytosol Nucleoid DNA Flagellum Plasmid DNA
  43. 43. Prokaryote features <ul><li>Small (<5 mircometers) </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosol, DNA, ribosomes, cell membrane, (usually a cell wall too) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleoid – location of chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Single, circular chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmid – small DNA ring, separate from nucleoid </li></ul>
  44. 44. Prokaryotes (cont’d) <ul><li>Flagella with a 9+0 structure (never cillia) </li></ul><ul><li>Capsule/slime layer – polysaccharide coatings for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Pili – protein jutting out from cell wall </li></ul>
  45. 45. The end