Ivan the Terrible


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A brief overview of Ivan the Terrible and his rule and why he is evil

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Ivan the Terrible

  1. 1. There’s a reason why he is nicknamed ‘Terrible’!
  2. 2. Ivan the Terrible 
  3. 3. Ivan’s Background   Actually named Czar Ivan IV  Took the throne at age 3, had others help him rule until he came of age  Ruled over Muscovy, which would become the Russian Empire  Updated the army and expanded his land into Mongol Territory  Was not successful expanding West into Europe
  4. 4. Siege of Kazan   Ivan’s military successfully took over the Islamic state  Most of the civilians were killed or forcibly Christianized  Many mosques were converted to cathedrals  Citizens were forced to move 50 km outside of the city  Ivan sent Russian merchants and farmers to settle with them
  5. 5. Location of Kazan in the state of Tatarstan
  6. 6. Example of the early mosques that were destroyed by Ivan Orthodox church that was created in Kazan
  7. 7. Ivan at the Walls of Kazan 
  8. 8. Celebration of Kazan   The successful takeover of Kazan led to Ivan wanting to celebrate  He created St. Basil’s Cathedral to commemorate his victory  Meant to look like a bonfire  There is no other architecture like it in Russia from the time period
  9. 9. WHY??   Why is it so unique you ask??  Well, legend has it that Ivan was so impressed with the structure that he had all the architects blinded  WHY?  Well, Ivan wanted to make sure they never made anything that beautiful again!
  10. 10. Serfdom   Ivan also passed laws restricting the mobility of peasants  This would lead to peasants becoming Serfs  They were forced to live in one area  Performed ‘corvee duty’ where they would work on the Lord’s land for 2-3 days a week and then work on their own poorer land  He basically put forced labour on all of his peasants
  11. 11. Tragedy   Many believe that Ivan’s path to true evil began when he was very ill and his wife died  Ivan suspected the Boyars (nobility) of poisoning her  He also thought they were plotting to replace him on the throne  He made the Boyars swear allegiance to his newborn son but some refused  He became paranoid and arrested and killed many Boyars
  12. 12. The Arresting of a Boyar 
  13. 13. Absolute Rule   Paranoia led to Ivan discontinuing his advisory council and gained complete control of the throne after threatening to leave  He wanted to rule without moral guidelines of the church  Country was divided into two groups (One led by Ivan, one led by Boyars) but Ivan disregarded this and ruled the whole country
  14. 14. The Oprichniki   Ivan’s paranoia led him to create his own Secret Police  Their job was to ‘sweep away treachery’ and rode around on horses with brooms and dog’s heads to symbolize this  They were above he law and many were criminals  Their only allegiance was to Ivan and the penalty for insulting them was death
  15. 15. Peasants Fleeing the Oprichniki 
  16. 16. Oprichniki’s Role   Became famous because of their murdering and torturing of thousands of people  10,000 nobility were executed  12,000 families were re-located  Ivan moved to a palace outside of Moscow and turned it into a monastery including 300 of the most aggressive Oprichniki  The Oprichniki were made monks and Ivan their abbot in this new order.  The afternoons were spent in the dungeons torturing and executing. At night they would have sacrilegious masses followed by orgies of rape and torture.
  17. 17. Ivan Showing his Riches 
  18. 18. Ivan and the Church   The Church was traditionally a check against corrupt rulers  They expressed their displeasure with Ivan and were tortured and executed as a result  Ivan was a member of the Orthodox Church and offered prayers before people were executed (nice guy!)
  19. 19. Later Life of Ivan   He descended into senility  It is said he would throw cats and dogs out of the windows of the Kremlin  Started to punish whole towns. He would pray while his henchmen went from house to house killing innocent civilians.  Gallows, a large cauldron and frying pan and ropes meant to cut people through friction were set up outside his palace in Moscow to have public hangings.
  20. 20. Ivan’s Son   Ivan beat his pregnant daughter for wearing immodest clothes and she miscarried.  His son argued with his father over the miscarriage and Ivan hit him over the head with a stick causing his death.  Ivan’s heir became his middle son, Feodor, who was childless  After Feodor’s death there were a few years of famine and unrest until the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty
  21. 21. Ivan’s Death   It was said that Ivan died while playing chess (predicted soothsayers)  An autopsy on his corpse in 1960 showed that he had high amounts of mercury which suggests poison (maybe his advisors).  BUT! It was also a cure for syphilis, however, which Ivan could have had.
  22. 22.   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhISxyw2JAs