• A religious movement of the 1500’s that led to
• The movement began in 1517 when Martin Luther, a
German monk, protested against certain practices of
the Roman Catholic Church
• About 40 years later, Protestantism was established
-Corrupt financial practices by the popes and higher clergy
-The sacraments were often celebrated meaninglessly
-The study of Hebrew and Greek enabled scholars to read the
Holy Scriptures in the languages in which the original had
-The kings were increasing their power over their own people and
against the pope and the emperor
-When the Reformation began, some monarchs broke completely
away from the pope
-As the cities grew wealthy and independent, they threw off the
control of local lords and prince-bishops
DEVELOPMENT of the
• The Reformation began within the Catholic Church itself.The Reformation began within the Catholic Church itself.
• On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, a monk and professor of theology,On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, a monk and professor of theology,
posted his 95 theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg, Germany.posted his 95 theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg, Germany.
• These theses were a series of statements that attacked the sale ofThese theses were a series of statements that attacked the sale of
• Luther later criticizes what he considered other abuses in the church.Luther later criticizes what he considered other abuses in the church.
• Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther and declared himPope Leo X excommunicated Luther and declared him heretic.heretic.
• In May 1521, the emperor signed the Edict of Worms, a document that
declared Luther to be an outlaw.
-The one who protests
-The quarrel between Huldreich and Luther led to the first major split of
• John Calvin
-A French protestant, helped establish Protestantism in Geneva,
- Removed images and ornaments from churches
-His plan of church is called Presbyterian (a presbytery is a council of
ministries and laymen)
• Philipp Melanchthon
-A German humanist and scholar
-“Teacher of Germany”
-His survey became the basis of the Saxony Plan.
-Establishment of the secondary schools in every town under
the support and control of the state.
AIMS of EDUCATIONAIMS of EDUCATION
• Religious MoralismReligious Moralism
-To live a worthy life on earth will guarantee a glorious here after-To live a worthy life on earth will guarantee a glorious here after
• Protestant EthicProtestant Ethic
-Thrifty living and careful management of material things-Thrifty living and careful management of material things
• Literacy PromotionLiteracy Promotion
-Education must provide adequate training in the duties of the home,-Education must provide adequate training in the duties of the home,
occupation, church and state.occupation, church and state.
3 TYPES of PROTESTANT
• The Vernacular Primary School
• The Classical Secondary School
• The University
• Excessive Formalism
• Religious Indoctrination
AGENCIES of EDUCATION andAGENCIES of EDUCATION and
contents studiedcontents studied
• Civil Authorities
• The church
• 3 Types of Protestant School system
• Saxony plan
-The development of the state school system.
• The Class-a-Year Plan
• The Vernacular Elementary School