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Reformation by Martin Luther

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Protestant Reformation

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Reformation by Martin Luther

  1. 1. REFORMATIREFORMATI ONON
  2. 2. Reformation • A religious movement of the 1500’s that led to Protestantism • The movement began in 1517 when Martin Luther, a German monk, protested against certain practices of the Roman Catholic Church • About 40 years later, Protestantism was established in Europe
  3. 3. CAUSES of REFORMATIONoReligious causes -Corrupt financial practices by the popes and higher clergy -The sacraments were often celebrated meaninglessly oCultural causes -The study of Hebrew and Greek enabled scholars to read the Holy Scriptures in the languages in which the original had been written
  4. 4. oPolitical causes -The kings were increasing their power over their own people and against the pope and the emperor -When the Reformation began, some monarchs broke completely away from the pope oEconomic causes -As the cities grew wealthy and independent, they threw off the control of local lords and prince-bishops
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENT of the REFORMATION • The Reformation began within the Catholic Church itself.The Reformation began within the Catholic Church itself. • On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, a monk and professor of theology,On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, a monk and professor of theology, posted his 95 theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg, Germany.posted his 95 theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg, Germany. • These theses were a series of statements that attacked the sale ofThese theses were a series of statements that attacked the sale of indulgences.indulgences. • Luther later criticizes what he considered other abuses in the church.Luther later criticizes what he considered other abuses in the church. • Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther and declared himPope Leo X excommunicated Luther and declared him heretic.heretic. • In May 1521, the emperor signed the Edict of Worms, a document that declared Luther to be an outlaw.
  6. 6. • Protestant -The one who protests -The quarrel between Huldreich and Luther led to the first major split of Protestantism • John Calvin -A French protestant, helped establish Protestantism in Geneva, Switzerland - Removed images and ornaments from churches -His plan of church is called Presbyterian (a presbytery is a council of ministries and laymen)
  7. 7. • Philipp Melanchthon -A German humanist and scholar -“Teacher of Germany” -His survey became the basis of the Saxony Plan. -Establishment of the secondary schools in every town under the support and control of the state.
  8. 8. AIMS of EDUCATIONAIMS of EDUCATION • Religious MoralismReligious Moralism -To live a worthy life on earth will guarantee a glorious here after-To live a worthy life on earth will guarantee a glorious here after • Protestant EthicProtestant Ethic -Thrifty living and careful management of material things-Thrifty living and careful management of material things • Literacy PromotionLiteracy Promotion -Education must provide adequate training in the duties of the home,-Education must provide adequate training in the duties of the home, occupation, church and state.occupation, church and state.
  9. 9. 3 TYPES of PROTESTANT SCHOOL SYSTEM • The Vernacular Primary School • The Classical Secondary School • The University
  10. 10. METHODS of INSTRUCTION • Ciceronianism • Memorization • Excessive Formalism • Religious Indoctrination
  11. 11. AGENCIES of EDUCATION andAGENCIES of EDUCATION and contents studiedcontents studied • Home • Civil Authorities • The church • 3 Types of Protestant School system
  12. 12. OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTIONS to EDUCATION • Saxony plan -The development of the state school system. • The Class-a-Year Plan • The Vernacular Elementary School

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