Chain learning structure by selvi.bDocument Transcript
Introduction Teaching tactics is goal linked, influenced or influencing behaviour of the teacher the way he behaves in the instruction situation in working towards the development of the strategy. Units of teaching behaviour through which the teacher fulfils his various instructional relates with the students of his class from moment to moment the component of teaching behaviour through which the teacher, the student and the subject matter interact Meaning of Teaching tactics When teaching is organized, the teacher should, at first select appropriate teachingtactics. Teaching tactics are more comprehensive than the teaching strategies that is whya teaching tactic can be used in many teaching strategies. In one strategy by using one ormore teaching tactics the contents can be made easy, precise and understandable. Itmeans to say that the teaching tactics make the knowledge stable. Hence for thequalitative progress of teaching, we use various tactics according the conditions orlearning structure. In content analysis while the subject matter is analyzed it is divided into sub-parts. After this, each sub part is divided in to various essential elements and theseare arranged in a sequence. Remember each element of the subject matter has its ownstructure. The teacher selects teaching strategy, tactics and aids on the basis of the structure ofthe each element of the subject-matter. In other words the structure of each elementsubject matter acts as the norm or a criterion in the selection of teaching strategy, tactic
and aid. It’s reason is that we can present the structure of each element of the subjectmatter only by applying or using teaching strategy. Hence the teacher should keep inmind the learning structure while selecting the teaching tactic. The knowledge of learningstructure is essential in order to select appropriate teaching tactic.Types of learning structure and teaching tactic. • Signal learning structure and teaching tactics • Chain learning structure and teaching tactis • Multiple Discrimination learning structure and teaching tactis. • Concept learning structure ad teaching tactics • Principle learning structure and teaching tacticsChain learning structure and teaching tactics The chain learning structure is the sequence of facts and symbols learnt earlier. Thechain is sometimes formed from the verbal activities such as poetic recitation andsometime motor activity such as cycling.The Chain learning structure is of three types. 1. Progressive chain 2. Rote learning 3. Retrogressive chain.
Progressive chain In the progressive chain starting from signals we reached at the end of the chain. Rote learning In the rote learning, the chain is acquired by cramming. Retrogressive chain In the retrogressive chain, we start from the last activity, and then reach to the beginning of the chain. Out of these three tactics retrogressive chain is more effective because it function as reinforcement and make possible to acquire efficiency in the task. Chain learning is based on the work of Skinners of S-R theory and Gagne’s hierarchy learning theory. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinners S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. Concept learning Concept learning, also known as category learning and concept attainment, is largely based on the works of the cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner.Concept learning structure and Teaching Tactics
In the Concept learning structure capacities of generalization of those groups ofactions are created in the pupils which look different externally. Remember that suchgroups are different from each other but they have similar pecularity which make it easyto identify their basic concept. For example Mausamees, orange, lemon etc, are differentfrom their outer coverings point of view but each fruit is juicy. The pupils can understandthis concept very easily. Attention is to be paid that the pupils may identify or understandthe concepts by trial and error method. But they must know the signal and chainstructures. Only in that situation they would be able to generalize. In the concept learningstructure, the teacher should present various stimuli but relevant to the stimuli so that allthe pupils may generalize something regarding that concept. Then he should create suchsituations before the pupils so that they may differentiate two confusing concepts. Hencein the concept learning structure the teacher should use the following two tactics. Generalization within the class. Discrimination between classes Reference Advance Educational Technology By Ram Nath Sharma and S.S.Chandra. Essential of edcucational Technology By Mangal.