Group behavior:feel the rhyme of slidesBy chetan more NICMAR goa campus
Defining and Classifying GroupsDefining and Classifying GroupsGroup(s)Two or more individuals interactingand interdependent, who have cometogether to achieve particularobjectives. Formal Group Informal Group A designated work A group that is neither group defined by the formally structured nor organization’s organizationally structure. determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d)Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d)Command Group Task GroupA group composed of Those workingthe individuals who together to completereport directly to a a job or task.given manager.Interest Group Friendship GroupThose working together Those brought togetherto attain a specific because they share oneobjective with which or more commoneach is concerned. characteristics.
Why People Join GroupsWhy People Join Groups• Security• Status• Self-esteem• Affiliation• Power• Goal Achievement
The Five-Stage Model of Group DevelopmentThe Five-Stage Model of Group DevelopmentForming StageThe first stage in group development,characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
…Group Development (cont’d)…Group Development (cont’d) Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.Adjourning StageThe final stage in groupdevelopment for temporarygroups, characterized by concernwith wrapping up activitiesrather than performance.
An Alternative Model:An Alternative Model:Temporary Groups with DeadlinesTemporary Groups with Deadlines Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. Sequence of actions: Sequence of actions: 1. 1. Setting group direction Setting group direction 2. 2. First phase of inertia First phase of inertia 3. 3. Half-way point transition Half-way point transition 4. 4. Major changes Major changes 5. 5. Second phase of inertia Second phase of inertia 6. 6. Accelerated activity Accelerated activity
Group Structure -- RolesGroup Structure Roles Role(s) A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Role IdentityCertain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
Group Structure -- Roles (cont’d)Group Structure Roles (cont’d)Role ExpectationsHow others believe a personshould act in a given situation. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
Group Structure -- NormsGroup Structure NormsNormsAcceptable standards ofbehavior within a group thatare shared by the group’smembers. Classes of Norms: Classes of Norms: ••Performance norms Performance norms ••Appearance norms Appearance norms ••Social arrangement norms Social arrangement norms ••Allocation of resources Allocation of resources norms norms
The Hawthorne StudiesThe Hawthorne Studies A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932. Research Conclusions: – Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. – Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. – Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. – Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
Group Structure -- Norms (cont’d)Group Structure Norms (cont’d)ConformityAdjusting one’s behaviorto align with the norms ofthe group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
Group Structure -- Norms (cont’d)Group Structure Norms (cont’d)Deviant Workplace BehaviorAntisocial actions by organizational members thatintentionally violate established norms and result innegative consequences for the organization, itsmembers, or both.
Group Structure -- StatusGroup Structure StatusStatusA socially defined position or rank given to groups orgroup members by others. Group Norms Group Norms Group Member Group Member Status Equity Status Equity Status Status Culture Culture
Group Structure -- SizeGroup Structure SizeSocial LoafingThe tendency for individuals to expend less effort whenworking collectively than when working individually. e nc g) a rm a f in rfo Pe o lo d e ue t Expect l (d Siz e p a ou Actu Gr
Group Structure -- CompositionGroup Structure Composition Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover.CohortsIndividuals who, as part of a group, hold a commonattribute.
Group Structure -- CohesivenessGroup Structure CohesivenessCohesivenessDegree to which group membersare attracted to each other andare motivated to stay in thegroup. Increasing group cohesiveness: Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. 1. Make the group smaller. Make the group smaller. 2. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. 3. Increase time members spend together. Increase time members spend together. 4. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. 7. Physically isolate the group. Physically isolate the group.
Group TasksGroup Tasks Decision-making – Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. – Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
Group Decision MakingGroup Decision Making Strengths Weaknesses – More complete – More time information consuming (slower) – Increased diversity – Increased pressure of views to conform – Higher quality of – Domination by one decisions (more or a few members accuracy) – Ambiguous – Increased responsibility acceptance of solutions
Group Decision Making (cont’d)Group Decision Making (cont’d)Group-thinkPhenomenon in which the norm forconsensus overrides the realistic appraisalof alternative course of action. Group-shift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
Symptoms Of The Groupthink PhenomenonSymptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority. Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings. There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
Group Decision-Making TechniquesGroup Decision-Making TechniquesInteracting GroupsTypical groups, in which themembers interact with each otherface-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
Group Decision-Making Techniques Group Decision-Making TechniquesBrainstormingAn idea-generation process thatspecifically encourages any and allalternatives, while withholding anycriticism of those alternatives. Electronic Meeting A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.
ConclusionConclusion Although most humans are by nature social creatures, cooperative group work is not something that comes without effort. Such group activities require that a sense of trust be built between members, as well as a feeling of shared responsibility. This means a responsibility to carry your own weight in the group, as well as a responsibility to all of the other members of the group. ... Group behavior measures the immeasurable."