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Social Identity By  Jillian Packer Dena Rosko Sherry Janda and Joseph Kemp
The Theory <ul><li>Social identity is “a mid-range theory of group membership, self-conception, and group behavior that at...
The Social Communication <ul><li>Each of us experience communication as social identity every day.  We each have multiple ...
Social Identity  <ul><li>Social identity is experienced in a range of groups.  </li></ul><ul><li>Harwood offers several ex...
Demographic Groups
Cultural Groups
Family groups
Peer Groups (such as classmates)
The groups we identify with impact our behavior.   <ul><li>Social identity salience is based on the features of individual...
The Meaning of it All <ul><li>“Communication constructs the meaning of particular social identities.  Social interaction a...
Different perspective <ul><li>Hogg & Tindale (2005) differentiate between personal identity and social identity by explain...
Social ID Vs Personal ID <ul><li>“ Personal identity is tied to the personal self; social identity is tied to the collecti...
Prototype <ul><li>Groups define their properties with prototypes.  Prototypes are defined by Hogg & Tindale (2005) as “set...
The Perfect One <ul><li>Prototypes are traits that are shared among group members; however, prototypes often capture the i...
Follow the leader <ul><li>Within a group, group leaders are chosen based on leadership ability and on how closely they res...
Beware the stereotype <ul><li>Prototyping can lead to stereotyping, especially when looking at groups other than our own, ...
The Dangers <ul><li>Stereotyping can be a dangerous way of operating because it can lead to negative collective action.  <...
A Positive From a Negative <ul><li>However, collective action can also be used in a positive manner when social groups com...
Deindividuate <ul><li>Hardwood coins the term &quot;deindividuate&quot; to describe the process where group members &quot;...
Group More than Self? <ul><li>In other words he assumes individuals place greater emphasis on group identity than on their...
It’s Only Human <ul><li>Harwood (2006) says “the times when we communicate truly as individuals unencumbered by one group ...
A Good Theory? <ul><li>This theory maintains humanistic standards   and some scientific standards.  It lacks data   to exp...
Practicality? <ul><li>This theory could be used as a practical utility   in giving communicators better understanding of t...
Does it Know People? <ul><li>This theory offers a new understanding of people within the communications field as he examin...
Class Participation! <ul><li>With what groups do you identify, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you define your self-conc...
More Fun <ul><li>Does this theory predict future events? </li></ul><ul><li>What is his theory's hypothesis and can it be t...
Personal Tales: Jillian Packer <ul><li>&quot;I'm sure we have all experienced social identity at work.  For example, my so...
Personal Tales: Dena Rosko <ul><li>Harwood writes, ‘Our interpersonal relationships are imbued with group identity’ (p.  8...
Personal Tales: Sherry Janda <ul><li>When I went back to school four years ago, I was cast into a social group of students...
Continued.. <ul><li>There are also students, closer to my age, who I am now friends with because we identified with each o...
Personal Tales: Joseph Kemp <ul><li>&quot;My social identity is varied in many different ways. The one overarching factor ...
Bibliography <ul><li>Boster, F. (2006).  Social influence.  In Shepherd, G., St, John, J., & Striphas, T. (Eds.),  Communi...
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Social Identity

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Jillian Packer
Dena Rosko
Sherry Janda
Joseph Kemp

Gonzaga University 2008

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Social Identity

  1. 1. Social Identity By Jillian Packer Dena Rosko Sherry Janda and Joseph Kemp
  2. 2. The Theory <ul><li>Social identity is “a mid-range theory of group membership, self-conception, and group behavior that attributes a causal role to collective self-conception,” (Hogg & Tindale, 2005, p. 141). </li></ul><ul><li>Hardwood writes to urge communications scholars to resist the tendency to view communications as an individual process of &quot;feelings&quot; of &quot;intimacy,&quot; and encourages scholars to identify group identity as motivation for behavior (Hardwood, 2006, p. 84). </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Social Communication <ul><li>Each of us experience communication as social identity every day. We each have multiple social identities based on the groups we associate with. </li></ul><ul><li>As individuals, we place importance on what makes us unique. Similarly, as groups, we place importance on what makes the group unique. Groups pride themselves on the beliefs or traits that set the group apart. (Harwood, 2006, pp. 84-85). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social Identity <ul><li>Social identity is experienced in a range of groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Harwood offers several examples including: </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demographic Groups
  6. 6. Cultural Groups
  7. 7. Family groups
  8. 8. Peer Groups (such as classmates)
  9. 9. The groups we identify with impact our behavior. <ul><li>Social identity salience is based on the features of individuals and situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and interaction with others are based on salient identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication contributes to the understanding we have of groups . </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Meaning of it All <ul><li>“Communication constructs the meaning of particular social identities. Social interaction and, indeed, all forms of socialization contribute to our understanding of the nature of groups, their characteristics, and their function in society,” (Harwood, 2006, p. 88). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Different perspective <ul><li>Hogg & Tindale (2005) differentiate between personal identity and social identity by explaining that personal identity is “a definition and evaluation of oneself in terms of idiosyncratic personal attributes…or one’s relationships with specific other people,” (p. 142). </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, social identity is “a definition and evaluation of oneself in terms of shared attributes that define membership of the specific group one belongs to (p. 142). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social ID Vs Personal ID <ul><li>“ Personal identity is tied to the personal self; social identity is tied to the collective self,” (Hogg & Tindale, 2005, p. 142). </li></ul><ul><li>Social identity acts as a member of a group, rather than as an individual. Examples of personal identity are “I” statements such as “I like ice cream,” or “I am John Smith’s wife.” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of social identity are “we” statements such as, “We are the biggest team in the league,” or “We like cats more than dogs.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prototype <ul><li>Groups define their properties with prototypes. Prototypes are defined by Hogg & Tindale (2005) as “sets…of interrelated attributes (e.g., perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, values, feelings, behaviors) that simultaneously capture similarities within groups and differences between groups,” (p.143). </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Perfect One <ul><li>Prototypes are traits that are shared among group members; however, prototypes often capture the ideals of what a group member should be. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prototypes rarely describe average or typical in-group members—rather, they are polarized away from out-group features and describe ideal, often hypothetical, in-group members,” (Hogg & Tindale, 2005, p. 143). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Follow the leader <ul><li>Within a group, group leaders are chosen based on leadership ability and on how closely they resemble the “ideal member,” (Harwood, 2006, p. 86). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Beware the stereotype <ul><li>Prototyping can lead to stereotyping, especially when looking at groups other than our own, or “out-groups.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you categorize someone, rather than viewing that person at an idiosyncratic individual, you view them through a lens of the prototype—they become depersonalized,” (Hogg & Tindale, 2005, p. 144). </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Dangers <ul><li>Stereotyping can be a dangerous way of operating because it can lead to negative collective action. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Significant social problems (e.g., racism, war) are very clearly a function of individuals acting in terms of their group memberships and treating others in terms of those memberships,” (Harwood, 2006, p. 88). </li></ul>
  18. 18. A Positive From a Negative <ul><li>However, collective action can also be used in a positive manner when social groups come together to fight negativity, provide support and bring attention to issues. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Deindividuate <ul><li>Hardwood coins the term &quot;deindividuate&quot; to describe the process where group members &quot;deindividuate both self and others&quot; (p. 85). </li></ul><ul><li>He describes social identity as a process of &quot;deindividuating&quot; self and others, which leads to &quot;prejudice&quot; and &quot;conflict&quot; (p. 85). </li></ul><ul><li>He describes this inter-and intra-group approach as a hierarchical struggle of power as individuals within the group operate at a &quot;super ordinate level of identity&quot; and group members use their group identity to give them a &quot;higher level sense of self&quot; (pp. 85, 89). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Group More than Self? <ul><li>In other words he assumes individuals place greater emphasis on group identity than on their self-concept. </li></ul>
  21. 21. It’s Only Human <ul><li>Harwood (2006) says “the times when we communicate truly as individuals unencumbered by one group membership or another are actually fairly rare. To be a part of a group is to be truly human, and to ignore that is to sever ties that are very important to people,” (p. 89). </li></ul><ul><li>Giving attention to social identity gives communication theory new perspective in terms of how we communicate. </li></ul>
  22. 22. A Good Theory? <ul><li>This theory maintains humanistic standards and some scientific standards. It lacks data to explain, unless you consider pre-existing work as data. </li></ul><ul><li>He does give a hypothetical example of groups in a riot, which he bases on Western media coverage to China's protest in Tiananmen Square in 1989 (p. 85). </li></ul><ul><li>This theory does not predict future events, although this theory could predict future events once the author better explains why people identify themselves with groups. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practicality? <ul><li>This theory could be used as a practical utility in giving communicators better understanding of their group identities and so potentially avoid conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way this theory can offer social reform by improving inter- and intra-group communications. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a communication scholar could study symbolic violence as name-calling and as motivated by perceived deviance within a group. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Does it Know People? <ul><li>This theory offers a new understanding of people within the communications field as he examines communications as group identity based on difference and infers group identity as managing power. While communications as power is not a new concept, communications as group identity is, or a least he claims it to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Though there doesn't seem to be a community of agreement (because the author identifies his theory as deviant from &quot;contemporary&quot; communications research, p. 85), there are researchers who focus on group identity (Hogg & Tindale, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>This theory has aesthetic appeal because it is simple and he offers examples of how his theory can benefit the field of communications ( practical utility ). Social identity theory as a practical utility of its strongest suit. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Class Participation! <ul><li>With what groups do you identify, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you define your self-concept, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What are ideal ways for groups to interact with each other, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think he means when he says group members &quot;deindividuate&quot; themselves and others? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think social identity is important? </li></ul><ul><li>Does his theory offer a new understanding of people? </li></ul><ul><li>What values does his theory possess? </li></ul><ul><li>Does his theory have aesthetic appeal? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this theory simple? </li></ul>
  26. 26. More Fun <ul><li>Does this theory predict future events? </li></ul><ul><li>What is his theory's hypothesis and can it be tested? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think this theory has a practical utility? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think social identity can evoke social reform? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think this is a good theory or not, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>With what assumptions do you agree, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>With what assumptions you disagree, and why? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Personal Tales: Jillian Packer <ul><li>&quot;I'm sure we have all experienced social identity at work.  For example, my social identity can vary depending on where I am and who I am with.  While I am at work, I act differently than while I am with my friends and family.  I act differently with acquaintances than with close friends.  I act differently with my husband than with anyone else.  In each group, my identity shifts, even if just slightly.&quot; </li></ul>
  28. 28. Personal Tales: Dena Rosko <ul><li>Harwood writes, ‘Our interpersonal relationships are imbued with group identity’ (p. 89). As such, I base my group identity on a few key people: my husband, where our group identity is with each other, and by extension, our family, friends, church, work, classmates, and other people with whom we interact in our daily lives. We identify with each other based largely on our shared faith, affection, and groups.&quot; </li></ul>
  29. 29. Personal Tales: Sherry Janda <ul><li>When I went back to school four years ago, I was cast into a social group of students from varying age groups and communities throughout the region.   School is a great example because, as a non-traditional student, I found myself socializing with students who were much younger than I.  </li></ul><ul><li>What  intrigued me was that they accepted me as another student, not as someone who looked a little like their mother or grandmother.   I expected them to be stand offish but that was never the case.  </li></ul>
  30. 30. Continued.. <ul><li>There are also students, closer to my age, who I am now friends with because we identified with each other as students in a college social group.  MY social group also includes instructors and college staff who were part of my educational experience. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Personal Tales: Joseph Kemp <ul><li>&quot;My social identity is varied in many different ways. The one overarching factor for me is my FSH muscular dystrophy. Being someone with a physical disability within society is quite difficult, as you can imagine. </li></ul><ul><li>You don't fit into the mainstream, never see yourself accurately represented in movies or on TV, and have to overcome many negative stereotypes. For instance, when I first meet someone, they have so many preconceived notions about people with disabilities, it's a lot to overcome. </li></ul><ul><li>P.S. I took the picture. I avoid the camera like the plague. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Bibliography <ul><li>Boster, F. (2006). Social influence. In Shepherd, G., St, John, J., & Striphas, T. (Eds.), Communications as perspectives on theory (pp. 180-186). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Canary, D., Cody, M., & Manusov, V. (2008). Interpersonal communication: a goals-based approach (4th ed.) (pp. 409-414). Boston, Mass.: Bedford/St. Martin. </li></ul><ul><li>Condit, C. (2006). Relationality. In Shepherd, G., St, John, J., & Striphas, T. (Eds.), Communications as perspectives on theory (pp. 3-12). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Griffin, E. (2009). A first look at communications theory (7th ed.) (pp. 25, 38-44, 182-192). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Harwood, J. (2006). Social identity. In Shepherd, G., St, John, J., & Striphas, T. (Eds.), Communications as perspectives on theory (p. 7). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hogg, M., & Tindale, R.S. (2005). Social Identity, influence, and communication in small groups. In J. Harwood and H Giles (Eds.) Intergroup Communication: Multiple Perspectives (pp. 141-164). New York: Peter Lang </li></ul>

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