3 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012Why are Groups Dynamic• Powerful rather than weak• Active rather than passive• Fluid rather than static• Catalytic on account of interdependent social interaction Kurt Lewin used the term ‘group dynamics’ to stress on the powerful impact of these complex processes on the group members
4 GROUP DYNAMICS gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012• Scientific study of groups in terms of their ▫ Actions ▫ Processes ▫ Changes that occur at a social level
5 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 NATURE OF GROUP DYNAMICS• REAL- 2 Levels of analysis ( individual & group)• PROCESSES are also REAL• MORE THAN A SUM OF THEIR PARTS• LIVING SYSTEMS• INFLUENTIAL• SHAPE SOCIETY
6 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012WHAT IS A GROUP• THERE IS A MOTIVATION FOR MEMBERS TO JOIN• PERCEIVE THE GROUP AS A UNIFIED UNIT OF INTERACTING PEOPLE• CONTRIBUTE IN VARYING AMOUNTS TO THE GROUP PROCESSES• REACH AGREEMENTS AND HAVE DISAGREEMENTS THROUGH VARIOUS FORMS OF INTERACTION• EACH INFLUENCES OR IS INFLUENCED BY EACH OTHER• SIZE???
7 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012DEFINITION OF GROUP• TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUALS , INTERACTING AND INTERDEPENDENT, WHO HAVE COME TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE A PARTICULAR GOAL/OBJECTIVE.
8 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012TYPES OF GROUPS• PRIMARY GROUP• INFORMAL GROUPS- ESTABLISHED BY MEMBERS• FORMAL GROUPS- FORMED BY ORGANISATION & INCLUDED IN ORGANISATION CHART: EMERGENT & PLANNED GROUPS• COMMAND GROUPS• TASK GROUPS• INTEREST GROUPS• FRIENDSHIP GROUPS
9 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012FORMAL WORK GROUPS-OTHER THAN ORG CHART• COMMITTEES• GROUP THINK• CROSS FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
10 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 DESCRIBING GROUPS based on :• INTERACTION ( Task or Relationship)• INTERDEPENDENCE ( sequential, reciprocal or mutual)• STRUCTURE ( Roles or Norms)• GOALS• COHESIVENESS
11 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012Basic Types of Groups & its Characteristics PRIMARY Small, Families, close friends, GROUP Long Term, peer groups, gangs Face to face interaction, High levels of cohesiveness and solidarity Member identification SECONDARY Larger Congregations, GROUP Less intimate Work groups, unions , More goal focused professional associations
12 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 BASIC TYPES OF GROUPS & ITS CHARACTERISTICSPLANNED Deliberately formed by members or by specific authority For a specific purposeCONCOCTED Planned by individuals or authority Production lines,Military units outside the group Task force,Sports teamFOUNDED Planned by one or more individuals who Study groups small remain within the group businesses, Expeditions Clubs, associations
13 BASIC TYPES OF GROUPS & ITS CHARACTERISTICS gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012EMERGENT Form spontaneously on account of continuous interaction over time & settingsCIRCUMSTANTIAL Emergent Queues. Audience, Unplanned that arise when external, bystanders situational forces set the stage for people to join together Often only temporarySELF ORGANISING Emerge when interacting individuals Study Groups, gradually align their activities in a cooperative friendship cliques, system of interdependence patrons in a bar
14 BASIC TYPES OF GROUPS & ITS CHARACTERISTICS gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012Intimacy Small groups of moderate duration & permeability Families, streetGroups Substantial levels of interaction among members who value gangs membership in the groupTask Groups Work groups in employment settings Teams , RWA Goal focused groups in non employment settingsWork Aggregation of individuals that form spontaneously Crowds, audiences,associations Last only for a brief period bystanders Have permeable boundariesSocial Aggregation of individuals who are similar to one another in terms of Physicians, gender, ethnicity, religion or nationality MumbaikarsCategories
15 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012WHAT IS A TEAM• THERE IS A SELECTION OF MEMBERS• PERCEIVE THE TEAM AS A UNIFIED UNIT OF INTERDEPENDENT PEOPLE• CONTRIBUTE AS PER DEFINED ROLES TO THE TEAM PERFORMANCE• POSTPONE DISAGREEMENTS IN THE NAME OF TEAMSPIRIT
16 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012DEFINITION OF TEAM• TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUALS INTERDEPENDENT WHO HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO ACHIEVE A PARTICULAR TASK/TARGET
17 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012WHAT IS A TEAM • SPECIAL KIND OF GROUP-PROBLEM SOLVING, SPORTS OR EVENT MANAGEMENT, R& D OR SELF MANAGED • EFFECTIVENESS OF TEAM DEPENDS ON: 1. TRAINING 2. WILLINGNESS TO SHARE INFORMATION 3. AUTHORITY GIVEN 4. REWARD ALLOCATION
18 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 TYPES OF TEAMS AND THEIR DIFFERENCESTYPE DIFFERENTIA INTEGRATI WORK CYCLE TYPICAL OUTPUTS TION ONADVICE/ LOW LOW VARIABLE: either brief or long Decisions, Selections,INVOLVEMENT Suggestions, RecommendationsPRODUCTION/ LOW HIGH REPEATED OR CONTINUOS Manufacturing,SERVICE PROCESS Processing, retail sales, customer services, repairsPROJECT/ HIGH LOW VARIABLE: often one time cycle Plans, designs,DEVELOPMENT is team’s life span investigations, reports,ACTION/ HIGH HIGH BRIEF PERF EVENTS, often Competitions,NEGOTIATION repeated under new conditions matches,expeditions,conc erns, missions, surgical operations
19 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 GROUP VERSUS TEAM• MEMBER TOLD WHAT TO DO • MEMBERS CONTRIBUTE TO ORG SUCCESS WITH THEIR TALENTS/ RATHER THAN ASKED WHAT KNOWLEDGE/ TEAM THE BEST APPROACH OBJECTIVES. WOULD BE. • MEMBERS WORK IN A CLIMATE OF TRUST, ENCOURAGED TO• MEMBERS DISTRUST EXPRESS IDEAS, OPINIONS, MOTIVES OF COLLEAGUES DISAGREEMENTS,FEELINGS • MEMBERS PRACTISE OPEN & AS THEY SO NOT HONEST UNDERSTAND ROLE OF COMMUNICATION.MAKE AN OTHER MEMBERS. EFFORT TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S VIEWPOINT. EXPRESSING OPINIONS/DISAGREEMENTS ARE CONSIDERED DIVISIVE OR UNSUPPORTIVE.• MEMBERS CAUTIOUS.
20 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 GROUP VERSUS TEAM• MEMBERS MAY RECEIVE • MEMBERS ENCOURAGED TO GOOD TRAINING BUT ARE DEVELOP SKILLS AND APPLY IT LIMITED IN APPLYING IT TO ON THE JOB.ALSO RECEIVE THE JOB BY SUPERVISOR OR SUPPORT FROM TEAM. OTHER GROUP MEMBERS. MEMBERS RECOGNISE• MEMBERS FIND THEMSELVES CONFLICT AS PART OF NORMAL INTERACTION & IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS VIEW SUCH SITUATIONS AS AN THAT THEY DO NOT KNOW OPPORTUNITY FOR NEW HOW TO RESOLVE. IDEAS & CREATIVITY.WORK TO SUPERVISOR MAY PUT OFF RESOLVE CONFLICT QUICKLY INTERVENTION UNTIL AND CONSTRUCTIVELY. SERIOUS DAMAGE IS DONE.
21 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 GROUP VERSUS TEAM• MEMBERS MAY OR MAY • MEMBERS PARTICIPATE IN NOT PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AFFECTING DECISIONS AFFECTING THE TEAM BUT UNDERSTAND TEAM. CONFORMITY LEADERSHIP’S OFTEN APPEARS MORE PREROGATIVE TO GIVE IMPORTANT THAN RULING. POSITIVE POSITIVE RESULTS. RESULTS ,NOT CONFORMITY ARE THE GOAL.
22 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 WHY GROUPS GET FORMED• Biological predisposition to join together with other members of our species. William McDougall, in his An Introduction to Social Psychology, 1908, argued that a "herd instinct" drives us to join others.• Socio-biology or evolutionary psychology is the modern instinct view of groups. It stresses the extraordinary advantages of sociality over isolation.• Psychological Needs and Sociality- Freud states that being a member of a group satisfies basic psychological needs and desires. These could be Self Serving Needs and Group Serving Needs
23 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 WHY GROUPS GET FORMED• Group formation in organizations has been analyzed on the basis of need theories, which are classified as:• Internal sources of need satisfaction- interpersonal attraction, group activities, group goals, social identification, and social affiliation. External sources of need satisfaction- pursuit of goals outside the group- could even be counter-productive to the team as well.• Abraham Maslows (1962) famous hierarchy of needs includes ones that are relevant to social living- sense of belongingness and self-esteem emanate from this. Level 3& 4 needs emerge from the socialisation perspective
24 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 WHY GROUPS GET FORMED• SOCIAL NEEDS- Maslow (level 3& 4),Herzberg’s hygiene; Alderfer’s relationship needs, McClennand’s nAff & nPow• SOCIAL PROVISIONS –psychological intimacy and integrated involvement ( Shaver & Buhreister )• IPA-SYMLOG (Bales) focusing on socio emotional and task issue/ by individuals and groups influence in terms of submission/dominance, positive/negative and forward/backward linkages• LAIG (Parsons & Shills)-theory of sequence of actions; latent pattern maintenance, adaptation, integration and goal attainment
25 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 WHY GROUPS GET FORMED• The Instinct of Gregariousness Aristotles famous quote suggests that we are, by our vary nature, herd animals: driven by an unrecognised, pervasive, Alderfer’s ERG – relationship need emerges from the socialisation process in groups• Henry Murrays (1938) manifest needs approach, classifying needs as physiological and psychological and focusing on intensity and direction of these needs.• Moorehead Griffin identifies security, status, self- esteem, affiliation, power and goal achievement as reasons why people join groups.
26 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012 STAGES OF GROUP FORMATION• FORMING-uncertainty, confusion, not sure about purpose, structure, task & leadership- PROCESS OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT• STORMING-characterised by conflict, confrontation INTRA GROUP• NORMING- settle for cooperation with high cohesion, group identity & camaraderie CLOSE RELATIONSHIP & COHESIVENESS• PERFORMING-accomplishment of task FUNCTIONAL PROCESS• ADJOURNING WRAPPING UP
27 gd 3CR brinda 7/13/2012Stages of Group Formation
TYPES OF NORMS• PRESCRIPTIVE define socially appropriate way to respond in a situation- normal course of action; Positively sanctioned behavior• PROSCRIPTIVE identifies types of action that should be avoided if possible; Negatively sanctioned behavior• DESCRIPTIVE define what most people would do, feel, or think in a particular situation; Consensual standard• INJUNCTVE sort of behavior people ought to perform ; evaluative Consensual standard• SOCIAL NORMS & GROUP NORMS• INFORMAL ; IMPLICIT• SELF GENERATING; STABLE