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Groups• DefinitionTwo or more individuals,  interacting and  interdependent, who come  together to achieve  particular obj...
Formal and informal groups(1). Formal groups                     ……..are those defined by  organizational structure with d...
Formal and informal groups(2). Informal groups                      …….are those neither formally  structured nor organiza...
Classifying Groups                                    Command Groups (1).Formal              group                        ...
Four Types of Groups• Command group.                  – determined by the organization  chart. It is composed of individua...
Four Types of Groups• Task group              – it is also organizationally determined  represent those working together t...
Four Types of Groups• Interest group              are such groups that affiliate to attain a  specific objective of shared...
Four Types of Groups• Friendship group                   – members have one or more  common characteristics. for example s...
Security               Status             What            Makes Self-Esteem      People    Affiliation             Join   ...
Why People Join Groups
Stages of Group Development Stage I                  Stage IIForming                  StormingStage III    Stage IV     St...
Stages of Group DevelopmentGroups generally pass through this sequence, the five stage  model of group. Forming, storming,...
Stages of Group Development2.The storming stage•     is one of the intra group conflict. members accept the  existence of ...
Stages of Group Development3.The Norming stage The Norming stage completeswhen close relationships have been developed and...
Stages of Group Development• The fourth stage is performing.   The group structure becomes fully functional and group  ene...
Stages of Group Development5. Adjourning stage.                 In this stage the group prepares for  its disbandment, whe...
Identity          Expectations                      Group                      Roles        Conflict              Percepti...
RolesAccording to Shakespeare all the world is a stage and  all the men and women are players. similarly all the  group me...
Role identity• Role Identity – the ability to recognize attitudes  and behaviors consistent with a role.• When workers are...
Role perception and role expectation• Role Perception –                    our view of how we’re supposed to  act in a giv...
Role perception and role expectation• Role Expectations –   how others believe  you should act in a  given situation is  c...
Role conflict• Role conflict is that situation when there is much  difference in role perception and role expectation.• Th...
Cohesiveness• The degree to which  members of the group  are attracted to each  other and motivated to  stay in the group ...
Group Decision Making        Advantages                      Disadvantages   More Diversity of Views           Dominant ...
Group Decision Making         Groupthink   Group shiftPrentice Hall, 2000                 26
Symptoms of GroupthinkGroup members when making any decision, ask for the  agreement of all group members.• Some individua...
Group shiftWhen a manager makes any decision individually, then he is very  careful and avoids all risks, because in case ...
Organizational Behavior Chapter 7
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Organizational Behavior Chapter 7

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Organizational Behavior Chapter 7

  1. 1. Groups• DefinitionTwo or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.
  2. 2. Formal and informal groups(1). Formal groups ……..are those defined by organizational structure with designated work assignments and establishing tasks.• For example the six members making up an airline flight crew are a formal group.
  3. 3. Formal and informal groups(2). Informal groups …….are those neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact.For example Three employees from differentdepartments who regularly eattheir lunch together is aninformal group.
  4. 4. Classifying Groups Command Groups (1).Formal group Task Groups Interest Groups(2).Informal group Friendship Groups Prentice Hall, 2001 4
  5. 5. Four Types of Groups• Command group. – determined by the organization chart. It is composed of individuals who directly report to a given manager. An elementary school principal and her 18 teachers form a command group. or the area sales manager along with his sales force.
  6. 6. Four Types of Groups• Task group – it is also organizationally determined represent those working together to complete a job task, however a task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. For instance the hiring of new employees can be a task which can involve GM, HR manager and a particular functional manager.
  7. 7. Four Types of Groups• Interest group are such groups that affiliate to attain a specific objective of shared interest. for example employees who come together to have their vacations schedules altered, to support a colleague who has been fired or to seek improvement in working conditions is an interest group.
  8. 8. Four Types of Groups• Friendship group – members have one or more common characteristics. for example similar age or holding similar political views
  9. 9. Security Status What Makes Self-Esteem People Affiliation Join Groups? GoalPower Achievement
  10. 10. Why People Join Groups
  11. 11. Stages of Group Development Stage I Stage IIForming StormingStage III Stage IV Stage VNorming Performing Adjourning
  12. 12. Stages of Group DevelopmentGroups generally pass through this sequence, the five stage model of group. Forming, storming, Norming performing and adjourning.The first stage forming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group purpose, structure and leadership. members are uncertain about what type of behavior is acceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think themselves as part of a group.
  13. 13. Stages of Group Development2.The storming stage• is one of the intra group conflict. members accept the existence of the group, but there is a resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on individuals.• Furthermore there is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
  14. 14. Stages of Group Development3.The Norming stage The Norming stage completeswhen close relationships have been developed and the group demonstrates cooperation.• Cooperation further develops common set of expectations from the group members which defines their behavior.
  15. 15. Stages of Group Development• The fourth stage is performing. The group structure becomes fully functional and group energy moves from getting to know and understand each other to performing a task at hand.• For permanent work groups performing is the last stage of their development, however for temporary committees, task forces or other similar groups that have a limited task to perform, there is an adjourning stage.
  16. 16. Stages of Group Development5. Adjourning stage. In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment, where high task performance is no longer the group’s priority, instead attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.
  17. 17. Identity Expectations Group Roles Conflict PerceptionPrentice Hall, 2001 18
  18. 18. RolesAccording to Shakespeare all the world is a stage and all the men and women are players. similarly all the group members are actors. Role is defined as…… to engage in a set of expected behavior that are related to occupying a given positionin a social unit.
  19. 19. Role identity• Role Identity – the ability to recognize attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.• When workers are promoted to supervisory positions vital changes are observed in their behavior with other workers.
  20. 20. Role perception and role expectation• Role Perception – our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation is called role perception.
  21. 21. Role perception and role expectation• Role Expectations – how others believe you should act in a given situation is called role expectation.
  22. 22. Role conflict• Role conflict is that situation when there is much difference in role perception and role expectation.• That is, people expect an individual to behave in one way and the individual perceives to behave in another way.
  23. 23. Cohesiveness• The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group Related to the group’s productivity
  24. 24. Group Decision Making Advantages Disadvantages More Diversity of Views  Dominant Individuals Increased information  Unclear Responsibility Higher-quality decisions  Time and money costs Improved Commitment  Conformity pressuresIncreasedPrentice Hall, 2001 acceptance 25
  25. 25. Group Decision Making Groupthink Group shiftPrentice Hall, 2000 26
  26. 26. Symptoms of GroupthinkGroup members when making any decision, ask for the agreement of all group members.• Some individuals in the group, who have a difference of opinion, remain silent. They keep quiet in order to avoid any conflict among group members.• Their silence is considered as yes, although their silence is meant as NO.• In groupthink sometimes minority becomes victim of majority in decision making.
  27. 27. Group shiftWhen a manager makes any decision individually, then he is very careful and avoids all risks, because in case of failure he will be solely responsible for his decision.• But when the same manager is the member of some group, then he is making more risky decisions.• The reason is that in case of failure no single individual could be made responsible in group decision making.• Thus in group decision making the position of a manager shifts from normal decisions to more risky decisions, called group shift

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