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Section Goals• List the types of • List the major pathogens which cause foodborne illnesses, foodborne illness. their characteristics and• List the factors that methods of prevention. affect the growth of • List additional biological bacteria. hazards to food safety• List the foods most along with their likely to become unsafe. characteristics and prevention methods.
Definitions• TCS (Temperature Control for Safety) Foods – TCS foods are those items for which time & temperature control are vital in order to ensure the safety of the food.• Toxin – A poison produced by a living organism.• Spore –A form adopted by some bacteria allowing them to survive for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. They can change back and begin growing again once conditions are more favorable.
PathogensMost microorganisms are harmless. Some are even beneficial. But others (Pathogens) can cause illness. Some pathogens can make you sick. Other pathogens can produce poisons (toxins) that make you sick.Pathogens include:• Viruses• Bacteria• Parasites• Fungi
Foods Most Likely to Become Unsafe Though any food can be contaminated, certain foods are better for the growth of pathogens. These foods are known as TCS (Temperature Control for Safety) foods.• Meat, Fish & Shellfish & Poultry• Eggs, Milk & Dairy Products• Soy products and Synthetic Meat Replacements• Cooked Plant Foods• Sprouts and sprout seeds• Untreated Garlic-and-Oil mixtures• Sliced Melons & Tomatoes
Characteristics of TCS Foods These TCS Foods tend to have some common characteristics. In general, they are either historically prone to be involved in foodborne illness outbreaks or are:• High in protein.• Moist• Neutral to slightly acidic.
Controlling Pathogen GrowthTo control the growth of pathogens you need tokeep food at the right temperature. An example ofthis might be refrigerating potato salad or placingsoup into a hot-holding unit for service.Like TCS foods, ready-to-eat foods also need carefulhandling to avoid contamination. Already cookedfoods, deli-meats and cheeses, baked goods andwashed fruits & vegetables are easilycontaminated.
Types of Pathogens There are four types of pathogens that can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness.• Viruses• Bacteria• Parasites• Fungi
Viruses Viruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness. When customers get sick from food contaminated by viruses, it’s usually because their food was handled by an employee who has that virus.Virus Facts:• Viruses can survive refrigerator and freezer temperatures.• Viruses can contaminate food and water.• Viruses do not grow in food but once eaten can grow in a person’s intestines.• Viruses can be transferred from person to person, person to food, or person to food-contact surface.
Preventing Foodborne Illnesses caused by Viruses There are several ways to help prevent the spread of viruses within your operation.• Keep foodhandlers who are vomiting, have diarrhea, or jaundice out of the operation.• Ensure that foodhandles wash their hands properly.• Eliminate bare-hand-contact with ready-to-eat food. The viruses of most concern to us are Hepatitis A & Norovirus.
Disease: Hepatitis A Caused by: Hepatitus A VirusFoods commonly involved: Prevention measures: Ready-to-eat foods Keep employees diagnosed Shellfish from with Hepatitis A and contaminated water employees with jaundice out of the operation Proper handwashing Eliminate bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Purchase shellfish from an approved reputable supplier.
Disease: Norovirus Gastroenteritis Caused by: NorovirusFoods commonly involved: Prevention measures: Ready-to-eat foods Keep employees diagnosed Shellfish from with Norovirus and contaminated water employees with diarrhea or vomiting out of the operation Proper handwashing Eliminate bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Purchase shellfish from an approved reputable supplier.
BacteriaThough viruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness, bacteria also cause many cases of foodborne illness.Pathogenic bacteria need six things in order to grow. Together these factors are known by the acronym, FAT TOM.• Food.• Acidity.• Temperature• Time• Oxygen.• Moisture
FAT TOM FOOD ACIDITYPathogens require asource of energy like Pathogens grow best inprotein or low acid or neutralcarbohydrates. environments.
FAT TOM (continued) TEMPERATURE TIMEPathogens grow well Pathogens need time tobetween 41⁰ F and 135⁰ grow. After food is in theF. This range is known as temperature danger zoneThe Temperature Danger for four hours, it canZone. make someone ill.
FAT TOM (continued) OXYGEN MOISTURESome pathogens need Pathogens needoxygen to grow while moisture in order toothers will only grow in grow.the absence of oxygen.
Bacteria• Most bacteria are controlled by controlling time and temperature.• If FAT TOM conditions are right bacteria can multiply every twenty minutes.• Bacteria can survive by temporarily changing into spore form when conditions are unfavorable.• Some bacteria make toxins as they grow and die. Cooking and freezing may not destroy these toxins.
Disease: Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis Caused by: Bacillus CereusFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: (Time & Temperature) Cooked vegetables Cook food to its proper Meat products temperature. Milk Hold food at proper temperatures. Cool food correctly.
Disease: Listeriosis Caused by: Listeria MonocytogenesFoods commonly involved: Prevention measures: Raw meats Cook raw meat to its Unpasteurized dairy proper temperature. products Throw out any product Ready-to-eat foods such past its expiration or use as deli meats, hot dogs & by date. soft cheeses Prevent cross contamination. Do not use unpasteurized dairy products
Disease: Hemorrhagic Colitis Caused by: Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) O157:H& et al.Foods commonly involved: Prevention measures: Ground Beef Cook ground beef to its Contaminated produce proper temperature. Prevent cross contamination. Buy produce from an approved reputable supplier. Keep employees diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis out of the operation.
Disease: Salmonellosis Caused by: Salmonella sppFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: Cook poultry and eggs Poultry to their proper Eggs temperatures. Dairy Prevent cross Produce contamination. Keep foodhandlers diagnosed with Salmonellosis out of the operation.
Disease: Shigellosis Caused by: Shigella sppFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: (Proper Hygiene) Foods easily Keep foodhandlers who contaminated by hands have diarrhea out of the such as ready-to-eat operation. foods. Wash hands properly. Foods that have come Keep foodhandlers in contact with diagnosed with contaminated water Shigellosis out of the operation.
Disease: Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis Caused by: Staphylococcus AureusFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: (Proper Hygiene) Foods easily Wash hands properly. contaminated by hands Cover wounds on the such as ready-to-eat hands and arms. foods.
Disease: Vibrio Gastroenteritis and Vibrio Vulnificus Primary Scepticemia Caused by: Vibrio Vulnificus and Vibrio ParahaemolyticusFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: Cook oysters to their Oysters from minimum internal contaminated waters. temperature.
Parasites Though illnesses from parasites are not as widespread as those from viruses or bacteria it is still important to guard against the threat they pose.• Parasites can contaminate both food & water.• Parasites cannot grow in food. They need to be in the flesh of an animal to grow and survive.• The best defense against parasites is to purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers.
Disease: Anisakiasis Caused by: Anisakis SimplexFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: Cook fish to proper Raw and undercooked temperatures. fish including: herring, If serving raw or cod, halibut, mackerel & undercooked fish, Pacific salmon purchase sushi-grade fish.
Disease: Cryptosporidiosis Caused by: Cryptosporidium ParvumFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: Use properly treated Contaminated water & water. produce. Keep foodhandlers with diarrhea out of the operation. Wash hands.
Disease: Giardiasis Caused by: Giardia DuodenalisFoods commonly Prevention measures: involved: (Time & Temperature) Contaminated water & Use properly treated produce. water. Keep foodhandlers with diarrhea out of the operation. Wash hands.
FungiFungi are known primarily for spoiling food but somecan make people sick. They can be found in air,water, soil, plants and some food. Mold & yeast arethe two fungi of primary concern.
Molds Molds spoil food and sometimes cause illness. Some molds produce toxins, such as aflatoxins.• Molds grow well in acidic foods with little or no moisture, such as jams & jellies and in salty meats like bacon, salami and ham.• Throw out moldy food unless mold is a natural part of the product.• The FDA recommends that mold on hard cheese, salami and firm produce may be cut away at least one inch (2.5 centimeters) around the moldy area.
Yeasts Yeasts can spoil foods quickly. Signs of spoilage include a smell or taste of alcohol. The yeast itself may appear as a white or pink discoloration or slime and may bubble. Like molds, yeasts grow well in acidic foods with little moisture, such as jams & jellies, syrup, honey and fruit and fruit juices.• Discard any food that shows signs of yeast spoilage.
Seafood Toxins Seafood toxins cannot be smelled or tasted nor can they be destroyed by freezing or cooking.• Fish Toxins may be a natural part of the fish or made by pathogens on the fish. Others occur when a predatory fish eats a smaller, contaminated fish that has consumed a toxin.• Shellfish Toxins can contaminate shellfish when they consume contaminated marine algae.
Disease: Scromboid Poisoning Caused by: HistamineWhen Scromboid fish are time and temperature abused,bacteria on the fish make the toxin, histamine. This toxincannot be destroyed by cooking, freezing, smoking, orcuring. Foods commonly Prevention measures: involved: Prevent time & Scromboid fish: tuna, temperature abuse. bonito, mackerel, and mahi-mahi.
Disease: Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Caused by: CiguatoxinCiguatoxin can be found in certain marine algae. It canbuild up in larger fish when they eat smaller fish thathave eaten these algae. Symptoms of Ciguatera poisoningcan last for months or years. Foods commonly Prevention measures: involved: Purchase fish from an Predatory tropical reef approved reputable fish: baracuda. snapper, supplier. grouper, and jacks.
Mushroom Toxins Almost all cases of mushroom-borne illnesses happen when amateur mushroom hunters collect and serve wild mushrooms. Often toxic and edible mushrooms appear nearly identical to one another.• Mushroom toxins cannot be destroyed by cooking or freezing.• Only use mushrooms that are grown by and purchased from approved, reputable suppliers.
Plant Toxins Illnesses caused by plant toxins occur when products are purchased from unapproved sources or if a particular product is not cooked or handled correctly. Here are some of the items that can make people sick.• Toxic plants may be confused for their edible versions, like fool’s parsley or wild turnips.• Honey gathered from bees that have harvested toxic nectar is toxic.• Undercooked kidney beans can make people ill.