Neutralizing bias in your classroom practice: futures conference

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The session is about exposing and helping you to neutralize passive, unintended discriminatory practice.
Discriminatory practice should not be seen as the act of individuals who are hostile to a group, or would like to do harm.

-introduce vocabulary
-actions for neutralizing bias
-create a group action plan

A sub-goal of mine is to help you rid yourself of the container myth: There are not two types of personalities…racist and nonracist. What I’m asking you to do is to remove the villain from the story in order for all of us to focus on meaningful social change.

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  • The session is about exposing and helping you to neutralize passive, unintended discriminatory practice.Discriminatory practice should not be seen as the act of individuals who are hostile to a group, or would like to do harm.-introduce vocabulary-actions for neutralizing bias-create a group action planA sub-goal of mine is to help you rid yourself of the container myth: There are not two types of personalities…racist and nonracist.What I’m asking you to do is to remove the villain from the story in order for all of us to focus on meaningful social change.Move away from the dichotomy –racist personality vs. nonracist personalityRepeated negative experience with a members of a particular groupExplicit normative evaluations reflect conscious consideration of what the group feels about the object of evaluation and this conscious reflection may bear little resemblance to how the object is depicted and treated, which we argue forms the basis of implicit normative evaluations. For example, when people consciously consider normativeevaluations of older people, they are likely to weigh heavily the behavior of people they know well, but such deliberations are likely to systematically bias their understanding of the way older peopleare treated in general by society.
  • In contrast, implicit normative evaluations that do not require thislevel of information processing are likely to be influenced by culturaldepictions and treatments of the elderly as they are portrayed in themedia and enacted by a much broader array of people.We have suggested that implicit normative evaluations form fromexposure to how groups are depicted and treated in society.Position yourself to treat all students fairly regardless of society’s evaluation of them.In a computer simulation, Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink,(2002) have found that individuals are faster at deciding to “shoot” anAfrican American versus a European American target with a gun andslower to decide not to “shoot” an unarmed African American versusa European American target.
  • Individuals may use cultural knowledge when making other quick decisionsas well, such as whether to “shoot” or not “shoot” an African Canadiantarget. In a computer simulation, Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink,(2002) have found that individuals are faster at deciding to “shoot” anAfrican American versus a European American target with a gun andslower to decide not to “shoot” an unarmed African American versusa European American target.we found that log transformedlength of time spent in Canada predicted implicit normativeideological beliefs, such that the longer Asian Canadians havespent in Canada the more negative were their implicit normativeThat is, exposure to how social groups, in this case theelderly, are depicted and treated can influence the implicit acquisitionof this normative information for Asian-Canadian immigrants withoutaffecting their implicit personal ideological beliefs. Thus, these data provideconverging evidence with Study 1 that implicit normative evaluationsare not redundant with implicit attitudes and explicit normativeevaluations.In North American media, AfricanCanadians are often depicted in the context of physical fights or shootings,reinforcing dangerous or violent images of African Canadians. In addition,people may observe how other people are cautious aroundAfrican Canadians or subtly avoid them(Chen & Bargh, 1999). Therefore,implicit normative evaluations toward African Canadians may reflect societalviews of African Canadians being more dangerous or violent thanthey really are.These implicit attitudes toward African Canadians may not be consistentwith implicit normative evaluations. Even if one has pleasant interactions withAfrican Canadians and has positive implicit attitudes towardthem, by living in North American society individuals are exposed to numerousmedia depictions that link African Canadians with shootings.These negative media depictions may shape both individuals' implicitnormative evaluations of African Canadians and their performance onthe shooter bias. In other words, to the extent that people have negativeimplicit normative evaluations toward African Canadians, these associations mayaffect their split second decision of whether an African Canadiantarget possesses a gun or not. Based on this reasoning, wehypothesized that the shooter bias would be related to implicit normativeevaluations but not implicit attitudes.
  • DiscriminationCognitive biasAttribution errorChannel factors
  • By discriminatory, I mean passive, unintended actions, words, that limit a student’s ability to perform, or saps their enthusiasm for learning.The three most volatile forms of discrimination revolve around race, gender, and sexual orientation.In our contemporary context discrimination is not blatant, or hostile, but more subtle.lowered academic expectationssex roles (boys lead, girls follow)ethnic group stereotypingdifferential discipline measuresYet, in terms of performance kids learn early that high and low achievers are treated differently.Rhona Weinstein, in her book Reaching Higher: The power of expectations in schooling, makes the case that children have a strong understanding and perception of the patterns of teacher interactions with different students. Five separate studies of 1st graders to 5th in urban elementary schools that reflect ethnically and socioeconomically diverse populations found that in children’s eyes, high and low achievers are treated quite differently in the classroom by their teachers. (more frequent endorsement to more frequent negative feedback)She developed a questionnaire (Teacher Treatment Inventory) to measure indirectly undesirable behavior on the part of their teachers.
  • Bias is the process of using a heuristic or rule of thumb that leads to suboptimal choices.Bias is like old-fashion wall paper, can hard to remove.
  • Backmasking is a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backward on to a track that is meant to be played forward.
  • Backmasking is a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backward on to a track that is meant to be played forward.
  • The truth is you were listening to random noise and I primed you to hear words from the phonetic reversal of the original song.
  • Bias is the process of using a heuristic or rule of thumb that leads to suboptimal choices.Bias is like old-fashion wall paper, can hard to remove.Attribution error is a significant bias in western cultures. It involves make inferences about a person’s character based on their behavior. It assumes that behavior is stable across different situations. We fail to take into account the environment of external factors such as incentives, constraints, pressures and expectations.
  • Bias is the process of using a heuristic or rule of thumb that leads to suboptimal choices.Attribution error is a significant bias in western cultures. It involves make inferences about a person’s character based on their behavior. It assumes that behavior is stable across different situations. We fail to take into account the environment of external factors such as incentives, constraints, pressures and expectations.
  • Channel factors include things like:incentivesconstraintspressuresexpectationsStudies on seminary studies….who, because of being under pressure to make an appointment, stepped over victims
  • The first mechanism for neutralizing bias is normative clarity. This sounds counter intuitive. However, social psychological research shows that making racial issues salient rather than obscuring them can actually reduce racial bias. Acknowledge the elephant in the room…Salient – make prominentunambiguous – identify bad behavior in order to prevent our biased attitudes and expectations to take controlDon’t be afraid to talk about white priviledgeIs black history month irrelevant – no if used to bring about normative clarity and shift the focus of depiction and treatment (shift cultural attitudes)
  • Many studies have been done exploring criminal trials involving racial difference between defendants and victim.Because we live in a society where racist norms are not acceptable, people are motivated not to appear racist. However, we are aware of the negative stereotypes about Blacks. Or you have had dealings with students.The table presents the outcomes of mock trials. The facts are the same for “not salient” and “made salient”. With the top row there is no mention of race-related issues in the opening remarks or summary of the trail lawyer. Jurors tended to judge Black defendants more harshly, view evidence against Black defendants as stronger.In the second row, racial issues are explicitly mentioned. The numbers suggest when trail lawyers draw attention to the defendants race or present evidence of racial tension in their opening and closing summaries this situational factor channels white jurors towards acting upon their egalitarian values.Bucolo, D. O., & Cohn, E. S. (2010). Playing the race card: Making race salient in defence opening and closing statements. Legal & Criminological Psychology, 15(2), 293-303. doi:10.1348/135532508X400824Cohn, E., Bucolo, D., Pride, M., & Sommers, S. (2009). Reducing White Juror Bias: The Role of Race Salience and Racial Attitudes 1. Journal Of Applied Social Psychology, 39(8), 1953-1973.
  • Many studies have been done exploring the helping behavior of White bystanders responding to the misfortunes of Black and White victims under various conditions. How does nonracial justification affect spontaneous decision making?When researchers introduced factors that could serve as a rational for not helping, subjects discriminated against Black victims.Channel factors that contribute to ambiguity include: social pressure (other people present not helping), or diffusion of responsibilityLee, A. K., & Craig-Henderson, K. M. (2005). INTERETHNIC AGGRESSION AND WILLINGNESS TO HELP: JUDGMENTS OF BLACK AND WHITE VICTIMS AND PERPETRATORS. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 33(5), 513-522.Frey, D. L., & Gaertner, S. L. (1986). Helping and the avoidance of inappropriate interracial behavior: A strategy that perpetuates a nonprejudiced self-image. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 50(6), 1083-1090. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.6.1083
  • Making race, sex, sexual orientation conspicuous leads us to be mindful of our egalitarian valuesHow might you implement the action statement?if it is not conspicuous, we don’t guard against bias. A great deal of research shows that attitudes can become automatic.Normative ambiguity, a situational factor, has the power to channel discriminatory behavior
  • Normative clarity in action:Study looking at normative evaluation (using societies depiction and treatment to make a decision) and its affect on behavior.Two groups…both groups watched a video in which a comedian makes a racist joke about people from the Middle East. Participants viewed videos of 3 white stand-up comedians each made one joke…one of the comedians made a racist joke – laughter condition participants heard the audience laughing and cheering, in the no laughter condition the audiences response was removed. Participants were asked, aftter a series of other tasks, to respond to an anonymous ballot from the Federation of students---they were asked to vote on budget cuts to various student organizations. One organization was the Muslim Student Association.
  • The first mechanism for neutralizing bias is normative clarity. This sounds counter intuitive. However, social psychological research shows that making racial issues salient rather than obscuring them can actually reduce racial bias. Acknowledge the elephant in the room…Salient – make prominentunambiguous – identify bad behavior in order to prevent our biased attitudes and expectations to take controlDon’t be afraid to talk about white priviledgeIs black history month irrelevant – no if used to bring about normative clarity and shift the focus of depiction and treatment (shift cultural attitudes)
  • Neutralizing bias in your classroom practice: futures conference

    1. 1. neutralizing bias in your classroom practice Charles L. Gordon Do you have a web enabled phone? – please go to pollEV.com/gord
    2. 2. Agenda 1. introductory vocabulary 2. mechanism neutralizing bias 3. create a group action plan remove the villain from the narrative false dichotomy – racist vs.. nonracist unhelpful in bring about meaningful social change
    3. 3. Cultural Knowledge Treat students fairly Regardless of Cultural Knowledge Computer simulation Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink Faster at deciding to Shoot African American vs. European American Engage cultural knowledge for quick decision
    4. 4. Cultural Knowledge Personal Evaluation vs. Implicit Normative Evaluation Cultural knowledge (depicted & treated) Quick decisions Canadian Shooter Bias Studies “people with more positive explicit attitudes toward African Canadians tended to show the stronger shooter bias”
    5. 5. Quote Leo Tolstoy 1828-1910, Novelist “Everyone thinks of changing the world, But no one thinks of changing themselves."
    6. 6. Language of Bias Discrimination Cognitive Bias Attribution error Channel factor
    7. 7. Definition Discrimination Discrimination Cognitive Bias Attribution error Channel factor passive, unintended actions, words, that limit a student’s ability to perform, or saps their enthusiasm for learning. race, gender, sexual orientation children learn about their abilities from teachers high-achievers low-achievers
    8. 8. Definition Discrimination Cognitive Bias Attribution error Channel factor Bias following a rule of thumb (stereotype) to make a decision
    9. 9. Let’s explore the workings of personal bias on thinking and acting
    10. 10. Evil Messages During the 80’s some religious groups supposedly found proof that Heavy Metal bands were planting evil messages in their songs
    11. 11. Question During the 80’s some religious groups supposedly found proof that Heavy Metal bands were planting evil messages in their songs
    12. 12. Answer During the 80’s some religious groups supposedly found proof that Heavy Metal bands were planting evil messages in their songs backmasking
    13. 13. Exploration Let’s see how the concept of highlights how what affects we belief what we observe about people
    14. 14. Exploration First, listen to a clip of a song forward and then backward Second, I’ll get you to tell me the message
    15. 15. READY! queen
    16. 16. Queen – Another one bites… Forward: Another one bites the dust. Another one bites the dust. Another one bites the dust. Another one bites the dust.
    17. 17. READY to hear it BACKWARDS?
    18. 18. Queen – Backwards Backwards: What did you hear?
    19. 19. queen What was the evil message?
    20. 20. XX XXX XX XXXXX XXXXXXXXX.
    21. 21. Priming It’s just Random Noise But I primed you to hear XX XXX XX XXXXX XXXXXXXXX
    22. 22. Definition Bias Discrimination Cognitive Bias Attribution error Channel factor following a rule of thumb (stereotype) to make a decision Attribution Error inferences about a person’s character based on their behavior character is not the sole determining factor incentives constraints pressures expectations
    23. 23. Attribution error How much you eat packaging / presentation, and pricing and not by simply a lack of will power Flu shot depends on external factors: location and hours not simply my awareness of the benefits of inoculation
    24. 24. Definition Channel Factor Discrimination Cognitive Bias Attribution error Channel factor small insignificant features of the social environment that direct or channel our behavior.
    25. 25. Environment & Behavior How temperature affects behavior
    26. 26. Video Not Included
    27. 27. Take Away Judgments don’t rest on neutral facts untainted by bias Channel factors
    28. 28. Neutralizing Bias mechanism for neutralizing bias 1. Normative clarity 2. Micro-affirmations Don’t focus on why you can’t But how you can
    29. 29. Clarity salient unambiguous normative clarity in the working personality of a teacher don’t be blind to color don’t smear over differences Don’t ignore the issues make race, gender, sexual orientation a conspicuous element of your classroom
    30. 30. Studies - salient studies on criminal trials racial difference between defendant & victim Not salient Made salient Conviction Rate Black White defendant defendant 90% 70% 69% 66% Implicit normative evaluation Cultural knowledge
    31. 31. Studies - ambiguity studies on helping behavior of White bystanders and Black victims normative clarity discouraged racial bias bystander perceived the victim’s plight as undeserved or another party signaled that it was not appropriate to withhold assistance
    32. 32. Clarity normative clarity in the working personality of a teacher there should be a clear articulation of right and wrong behavior action: make race, gender and sexual orientation conspicuous clearly define appropriate behavior
    33. 33. People’s Evaluation - Signaling Other people’s evaluation will affect my normative evaluation and behavior If I hear and see a crowd laughing at a racist joke, will I be more likely to discriminate? Racist joke targeting people from the Middle East Laughter Higher negatives No laughter Normative evaluation Discriminatory of Experimental Social Psychology 48(2012) pg 694-706 Allocated less Journal Not all automatic associations are created equal….. behavior money to the MSA
    34. 34. Summary - Clarity normative clarity Clear unambiguous signal of right and wrong salient unambiguous
    35. 35. Micro-affirmation in the working personality of a teacher compliment low-achievers Students outside your comfort zone
    36. 36. Micro-affirmation S.P.P.I.F.I. Specific Pure Positive Immediate Frequent Irregular
    37. 37. Tips 4 Big Ideas on dealing with personal bias
    38. 38. Tips Think critically about your beliefs and expectations concerning people (students) you have difficulty dealing with. Personal bias that can cause us to disrespect others don’t go away because someone says its wrong THERE ARE TATICS FOR NEUTRALIZING BIAS Be aware of hidden bias that FILTERS what you observe Neutralize by asking What would I expect to see if my belief and expectation were false? Be aware that we may cause people to act out our beliefs
    39. 39. Action Plan how will you integrate the ideas mentioned in your working personality Reflect and share on your own Work with someone else
    40. 40. Charles L. Gordon neutralizing bias in your classroom practice

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