PREMISES OF WEBINAR1) GLBTTIQQ persons exist and are your clients.2) Homophobia/Heterosexism exists in society and within our organizations.3) GLBTTIQQ clients have a right to access services from respectful, competent staff and volunteers.4) GLBTTIQQ employees and their families have a right to be treated with dignity and respect.
Cultural Competency DefinitionGaining cultural competence is a long term process of expanding horizons, thinking critically about issues of power and oppression, and acting appropriately.Culturally competent individuals have a mixture of beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills that help them establish trust and communicate with others. University of Oklahoma, National Resource Center for Youth Services, Tulsa, OK
5 Steps Toward Competency1. General Awareness & Acceptance of Differences How accepting am I of others?2. Self-Awareness Regarding Population What are my issues w/this population? (Pro & Con)3. Dynamics of Differences/Inter-Cultural Work Historical Distrust for Minority Pop. w/Majority & Authority/Not Easy4. Knowledge of an Individual’s Culture Within Group Variations5. Adaptation of Skills What skills do I have/need to develop? (Communication/Practice?) Terry Cross, Portland State University, OR
Four Areas of Competency-BasedServices to GLBTTIQQ1. Creating Intentional Invitations Conversation, attitude, and environment.2. Triage, Assessments, Counseling Best practices.3. Advocacy Giving voice & support!4. Referrals When I’m not the one to help, who is?
Agency Readiness Leadership Policies & Procedures Human Resources Knowledge & Development Climate & Environment Practices Community Relations
GLBTTIQQ Statistics Prevalence 5-20% + of your clients are gay, lesbian, bi, or two-spirit 1-10% of clients are transgender 1 in 2,000 newborns have ambiguous genitalia (inter-sex) 100-200 surgical reassignments annually; no surgeries prior to 1950 Prejudice and Discrimination (one national study reported) Rejection by family – Average of 34% Lesbians – 50%; Gay Men – 32%; Bi – 26% 75% of GLBTTIQQ report prejudice or discrimination 32% have been targets of physical violence to person/property Youth on the streets report higher rates
Challenges Physical/Psychological Threats &/or Harm (Bullying) Isolation/Ostrasized Rejection by Family, Friends, School, Religious Affil. Name-calling Self-Hatred
Challenges, Cont. These issues can put these youth at higher risk for: Homelessness Self-Harm, including suicide Substance Abuse Promiscuity, including human trafficking Etc.
GLBTTIQQ Racial/Ethnic Minorities Ethnic Community LBGTQQ Community Mainstream Society Acceptance/validation Acceptance/validation National identity of ethnic identity of LBGTQQ identity Access to multiple Family & community social & cultural support Access to community groupsPositive Buffer for racism & support Access to resources discrimination (e.g. education, experienced in Access to information employment, health & mainstream society & & LBGTQQ resources mental health services) LBGTQQ community Denial of Racism & Racism & homosexuality discrimination discrimination Homo/Trans phobia Homo/Trans phobiaNegative Rejection based on Rejection based on Rejection based on sexual orientation or ethnic/racial identity ethnic identity & sexual gender identity orientation/gender Invisibility Invisibility Invisibility
Religious/Faith Issues Explore own issues Expect faith issues Find out/explore concerns Acknowledge this isn’t your expertise (if isn’t) Provide alternative views within their own faith Ask families & friends to resist “reacting” discuss consequences of any actions Be an alternative voiceGLBTTIQQ PEOPLE OF FAITH HAVE NOT ABANDONED THEIR FAITH
Resources for Dealing with ReligiousIssuesIs the Homosexual My Neighbor by Scanzoni & Mollenkott PFLAG (Parents, Family, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) – religious materials: www.pflag.org
Language Words/Labels are powerful (Positive & Negative). Some youth self-identify, use their words. Language changes often, go with the flow/Get comfortable with the words. Ask when you don’t know what something means. ALWAYS CONFRONT NAME-CALLING/BULLYING!!!
Attitude/Willingness is Everything Heterosexist Assumption Historical Distrust/Impact of “Ism’s” Know your Values & Biases Readiness/Timing on their part Be Comfortable w/being Uncomfortable! Transference/Counter Transference – ours/theirs
Physical EnvironmentIs your…. Lobby Van Waiting room = Office Common staff area …open & affirming?
Sexual Orientation and/orGender Identity may/may not complicate current issues, trauma, or mental health concerns
Triage/Assessment Assess for Safety & Risk Behaviors Assess Support Network Stabilize & Support
Coming Out Process/Identity:CASS Model Confusion Comparison Tolerance Acceptance Pride Synthesis
Protecting Confidentiality Avoid pathologizing/DSMR… Strategize with Client (or your co-worker) Understand Insurance Impact HIPPA/Privacy vs. Inclusion/Documenting
Adjustment Counseling Validate the “Coming Out” Process Developmental Delays Dealing with Stigma/Rejection Internalized Homo/Trans Phobia Risky Behaviors/Healthy Decision-Making Redefining/Adjusting Expectations Issues in Relationships with Family, Partner, Friends, Employer
No data demonstrates that reparative orconversion therapies are effective and in fact, they may be harmful. NASW andmost other professional associations do not support these programs.
“Reparative” Programs/Therapy If a client decides to try one of these programs, stay in contact and monitor their feelings, behaviors – overall mental health. Most individuals fail in these programs and can become more at risk of self-harm. A few people use these programs to improve their overall functioning, but do not claim that their “gayness” --- sexual orientation is changed, it’s just not lived out. *Be ready to step back in to assess and/or provide services.
Trauma Issues Abuse Victimology: Child, Sex, Substance Dysfunctional Families Domestic Violence Impact of Risk Behaviors Dealing with a History of Rejection
Coming Out/Counselingwith Families 34% of GLBTTIQQ persons are rejected by their families Explore each members individual/personal issues: grief, “loss of dreams,” fears, etc. Help them adjust/redefine their expectations & use coping skills to deal w/anxieties, fears, beliefs, “hiding” Explore consequences of any actions Work for acceptance/Find common ground Your goal is to keep family talking/connected.
Transgender Issues – FTM/MTF Sexual Orientation Vs. Gender Identity Housing Developmental Delays Transphobia & Internalized Transphobia Relationship Issues – who will love me? Personnel Practices/Harry Benjamin Standards Stages of Transition Life After Surgery
Inter-sexed Issues We are beginning to see/become aware of youth dealing with issues of gender identity, sexual orientation, sexuality, etc. who were born with non- descript or multiple genitilia. Perhaps they were surgically changed at birth, perhaps not. And there is a growing network of these individuals who are advocating for non-surgical approaches until the child can make their own decisions.
INTERSEXED ISSUES Identity at Birth Surgery at Birth Prepare for Possible Stigmatization Later in Life Identity/Surgery? Work with this group in the same ways: assess, triage, counsel, support, advocate, network, etc.
Effective Advocacy Arm Yourself – Policies/Procedures w/in Agency/Professional Org., & Laws Be Willing to Advocate/Speak Up Look for “Blind Spots”/In Competencies Educate Those Around You Advocate for your GLBTIQQ Colleagues
Advocacy- What can you do?Agency/Company Readiness Checklist How ready is our agency/state Professional organizations?Educate colleagues, friends and family. How often do Professional Asso. host trainings on these topics? Does our local Association have training?Check your local library Donate books related to GLBTIQ issues. Does our college campus library have any books or journals on GLBTIQ issues?“52 things you can do for transgender equality.”Advocate for local, state and national legislation for equality.
Timely & Appropriate Referrals:Who, When, Where Build Your Professional Network Contact GLBTTIQ Community Centers If you don’t know, don’t refer. Check out a therapist or program yourself first. Asso. policies state that as a licensed therapist it is unethical to refer clients to therapists who participate in “reparative therapies or conversion programs.”
Additional Resources Kaiser Permanente – Health Protocols PFLAG (national and local chapters) Child Welfare League of America National Association of Social Workers Gay and Lesbian Student Alliance Network (safe zone stickers) COLLAGE (for youth whose parents are GLB)
TRANSGENDER PROTOCOLS Sample Policies Hayworth House Emergency Shelter Boston 1. Allows individuals to self-identify and staff strive to not make assumptions based on appearances. 2. If staff members are unsure of what pronoun (he, she) to use with a resident they will ask that person how they identify.
Hayworth House model policy3. Trans residents will not have any additionalclothing requirements imposed upon themdifferent than other residents (e.g. wearingmakeup or particular clothing.)4. If a person does not have identification,staff will not refuse the person.5. If the person uses a different name than ontheir identification, both names will be noted,and the preferred name will be used.
Hayworth House model policy 6. If the person identifies as particular sex or gender and presents or lives as that sex or gender, they will have access to the dorms of that sex/gender, or the dorm the individual feels most safe in. 7. If there are concerns about the safety of a resident (such as a transgender person) those who are threatening the safety of the resident (through intimidation, threats, violence, or other forms of unacceptable behavior) will be approached.
Hayworth House model policy 8. Hayworth House addresses behavior issues, not identification issues. If someone breaks the rules of the shelter that behavior will be addressed. 9. Residents who harass, abuse, assault, or discriminate against other residents will be dealt with based upon the suspicion of guideline violation. Heyworth House recognizes that harassment based upon sex or gender identity is discriminatory behavior and will be treated as such.
Hayworth House model policy Training: All staff working at Heyworth House are required to go through training regarding trans issues within 6 months of commencing work at the shelter. There will be regular training for residents regarding trans issues (at least three times a year.)