Psych 201 - Chapter 11 - Spring 2013

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  • Suburban Zombies:
  • According to realistic group conflict theory, competition between groups over limited resources is a sufficient condition for the development of intergroup bias and conflict. The Occupy Wall Street movement pitted two groups (the “99%” and the “1%”) against each other because they are in competition over the control of a limited resource (i.e., money). These interviews illustrate the negative emotions experienced by members of the “99%” toward members of the “1%” in direct response to this economic competition.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga4Zr7P25o0
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga4Zr7P25o0
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga4Zr7P25o0
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga4Zr7P25o0
  • Psych 201 - Chapter 11 - Spring 2013

    1. 1. This Week’s Playlist Artist Song / Psych Concept 1. Randy Newman Short People (Explicit Prejudice) 2. Madonna What It Feels Like For A Girl (HostileSexism) 3. Bob Dylan Just Like A Woman (Benevolent Sexism) 4. Chamillionaire Ridin’ Dirty (Illusory Correlation) 5. Avenue Q Everyone’s A Little Bit Racist (Modern Racism) 6. Michael Jackson Black Or White (Reducing Prejudice) 7. John Lennon Imagine (Reducing Prejudice)
    2. 2. CHAPTER 11: STEREOTYPES PREJUDICE DISCRIMINATION Melanie B. Tannenbaum Spring 2013
    3. 3. Chapter Overview  Characterizing Intergroup Bias  Intergroup Bias: Different Perspectives  Economic Perspective  Motivational Perspective  Cognitive Perspective  Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group  Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    4. 4. Chapter Overview  Characterizing Intergroup Bias  Intergroup Bias: Different Perspectives  Economic Perspective  Motivational Perspective  Cognitive Perspective  Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group  Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    5. 5. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination  Do these all mean the same thing?  A) Yes  B) No
    6. 6. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination  Do these all mean the same thing?  A) Yes  B) No  They are similar, but there are actually differences in what they refer to & mean
    7. 7. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination  Stereotype  Belief that certain attributes are characteristic of members of particular groups  Cognition  Prejudice A negative (or positive) attitude toward a certain group that is applied to its individual members  Emotion  Discrimination  Unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their membership in that group  Behavior
    8. 8. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination  If someone is “racist” towards a certain racial group...  Stereotype: People in Racial Group are all bad/stupid/lazy/smart/athletic/rich. I don’t like people in Racial Group, so I don’t like Bob because he is a member of this group.  Prejudice:  Discrimination: Bob applied for a job in my company, but I won’t hire him, because he’s in Racial Group.
    9. 9. But what does it mean to be “racist”?  Does all prejudice look the same? NO!  There are two main types:    Traditional Modern This applies to all forms of prejudice (sexism, homophobia, antiSemitism...), not just racism.
    10. 10. Traditional Racism  Prejudice against a racial group that is consciously acknowledged and openly expressed by the individual  Relatively rare in contemporary society
    11. 11. Modern Racism    Prejudice against a racial group that exists alongside therejection of explicit racist beliefs Example: Opposing racial segregation/discrimination, but treating outgroup members differently in more subtle ways (e.g. sitting further away, being less likely to hire them) More “subtle” indicators...not necessarily verbalized.
    12. 12. Modern Racism  Hodson et al., 2002   Participants filled out a modern racism scale about AfricanAmericans Participants rated a sample of job applicants   Half were White, and half were Black Results  When the applicant was either SUPER EXCELLENT or SUPER TERRIBLE, white and black applicants were rated the same.  When the applicant had a some-good-some-bad resume, people high in modern racism rated the white applicants higher.
    13. 13. Modern Racism  Gaertner&Dovidio, 1977     White participants entered the lab & told they would be interacting with a) 1 person or b) a group (all actors) All people were seated in single-person cubicles and spoke through an intercom system At one point, one of the confederates indicated he was having a medical emergency; the confederate was either a) White or b) Black. How many participants left their cubicles to go help?   When interacting 1-on-1, most help, whether Black (94%) or White (81%) When interacting with a group, most help the White victim (75%), but not the Black victim (38%)
    14. 14. Test Your Knowledge  What is the correct term for the following examples? If I’m the boss and I see an application from someone who went to Indiana or Michigan, I won’t hire them!  A. Stereotype  B. Prejudice
    15. 15. Test Your Knowledge  What is the correct term for the following examples? People who go to Indiana or Michigan instead of Illinois are stupid and clearly have poor judgment.  A. Stereotype  B. Prejudice
    16. 16. Test Your Knowledge  What is the correct term for the following examples? My friend Amanda decided to go to Indiana. I don’t like her anymore.  A. Stereotype  B. Prejudice  C. Discrimination
    17. 17. Ambivalent Sexism   Glick & Fiske, 2001 Two parts:   Hostile Sexism Benevolent Sexism
    18. 18. Hostile Sexism   What you typically think of when you think about “sexism.” Domination, hostility, and degradation “Women are less competent than men.”
    19. 19. Benevolent Sexism   Attitudes of protection, idealization, and affection towards women in traditional gender roles In other words, chivalry. “Women should be treated delicately” “In an emergency, women should be rescued before men.”
    20. 20. Ambivalent Sexism Hostile and benevolent sexism often co-exist “Women are incompetent… ...so men should protect them and take care of them.” 
    21. 21. Ambivalent Sexism  Benevolent is just as bad as Hostile…and in some ways, it’s worse.  Justifies negative stereotypes    “Women are so kind & nurturing, they don’t make good CEOs/presidents.” Feeling “responsible” for women’s welfare implies male superiority Women are only highly regarded if they fit traditional gender roles  If they step outside these roles, they suddenly face criticism & discrimination
    22. 22. Ambivalent Sexism  Women often view individual benevolent sexism acts as positive.   “He always pays!” “He always opens the door!”  As a result, women are less likely to “act out” against it.  Recognizing this (appropriately) as sexism can come across as being oversensitive and obnoxious, especially since so
    23. 23. Test Your Knowledge  Which one of the following statements is supported by research on ambivalent sexism?  A. Someone cannot endorse both benevolent sexism and hostile sexism.  B. Negative stereotypes are bad, but positive stereotypes are not.  C. Positive stereotypes can have troublesome consequences.
    24. 24. Measuring Prejudicial Attitudes  We’ve gone over some attitude measures  Remember  back to Chapter 7! Make sure you complete an IAT by this Thursday  https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/  This is a common way of measuring implicit attitudes towards various racial, gender, religious, etc. groups  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a29guLgQ3qs
    25. 25. IAT: Some Comments  Many people interpret the fact that this measures “implicit associations” to mean that it measures “hidden” or “secret” attitudes.  This is not necessarily true.  Two reasons implicit attitudes might differ from explicit:  1) People are trying to hide/mask their “true” attitudes.  2) People are not aware of these implicit associations
    26. 26. IAT: Some Comments  Some people believe that the IAT does not actually measure “attitudes” as much as it measures “cultural knowledge.”  People who work in activism, people who are members of minority groups, etc. often show “bias” on the IATs – sometimes even more than the average population!  This indicates that the “strength of the association” (e.g. between “White” and “Good”) might not indicate what you actually believe, but how much you know about cultural stereotypes/how much you’ve been exposed to
    27. 27. Test Your Knowledge  Jenny took the implicit association test (IAT) and found that she responded faster when “strong” words were paired with male names, compared with when “strong” words were paired with female names. What does this finding suggest?  A. She has a stereotype that women are stronger than men B. She has a stereotype that men are stronger than women C. She has a stereotype that male names are more attractive than female names D. She does not have any stereotypes about gender and   
    28. 28. Chapter Overview  Characterizing Intergroup Bias  Intergroup Bias: Different Perspectives  Economic Perspective  Motivational Perspective  Cognitive Perspective  Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group  Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    29. 29. Different Perspectives  Intergroup bias comes from...  Economic Perspective  Competition with outgroups over valuable/scarce resources.  Motivational Perspective  Identification with an ingroup, frustration, or social identity.  Cognitive Perspective
    30. 30. Different Perspectives  Intergroup bias comes from...  Economic Perspective  Competition with outgroups over valuable/scarce resources.  Motivational Perspective  Identification with an ingroup, frustration, or social identity.  Cognitive Perspective
    31. 31. Economic Perspective  Realistic Group Conflict Theory    LeVine& Campbell, 1972 When groups compete for limited resources, the groups experience conflict, prejudice, and discrimination. What are limited resources? Territory  Jobs  Power  Prejudice and discrimination should be strongest among
    32. 32. Economic Perspective  Some of the strongest anti-black prejudice occurred shortly after the Civil Rights Movement became successful.  This prejudice was strongest among the white working class.  Why? Working class jobs became a threatened commodity for White Americans once millions of Black Americans were allowed to apply.
    33. 33. Robber’s Cave  Sherif et al., 1961  22 fifth-grade boys (all strangers) participated in a 2 ½ week summer camp at Robbers Cave State Park in OK. The boys were divided into groups of 11 
    34. 34. Robber’s Cave  Phase One  Groups independently engaged in activities designed to foster unity (preparing meals, pitching tents, etc.)  Neither group knew about the other group’s existence
    35. 35. Robber’s Cave  Phase Two  The groups were brought together for a five-day tournament; winners got medals and pocket knives  The other group is now an obstacle to resources (prizes)  This led to conflict, trash-talking, stealing, and burning the other group’s flag, in addition to in-group favoritism. Eek!
    36. 36. Robber’s Cave  Phase Three  The researchers tried a few things in an attempt to “reverse” the prejudice and reduce conflict between the 2 groups  Attempt #1: Mere Exposure  The boys were brought together in noncompetitive settings  This failed…The boys insulted each other, fought, etc.
    37. 37. Robber’s Cave  Phase Three  The researchers tried a few things in an attempt to “reverse” the prejudice and reduce conflict between the 2 groups  Attempt #2: Superordinate Goals  The researchers created larger goals that made the groups of boys have to depend on each other in order to succeed  Disrupted the camp’s water supply (boys had to fix the pipes together), supply truck “broke down” (boys had to jump start it together)...  Required goal both groups to work together for a common
    38. 38. Robber’s Cave: Important Points  There were no differences in background, appearance, or history of conflict; intergroup hostility developed anyway  All that is required for conflict is economic competition  Economic Competition = Sufficient for intergroup bias  Competition against outgroups often increases cohesion  The intergroup conflict led the ingroups themselves to
    39. 39. Test Your Knowledge   What is the most important takeaway point from the Robbers Cave study? A. When resources are scarce, you won’t get ingroup cohesion.  B. A superordinate goal helps reduce intergroup conflict.  C. Simply seeing each other more helps conflict go away.
    40. 40. Robber’s Cave: Important Points  Intergroup conflict can be diminished by forcing groups to work together and depend on each other  Certain groups (like the military) do this very well  Certain groups (like Fortune 500 companies) do...not.  How do you think universities do at this?  A) Good  B) Bad
    41. 41. Military vs. Universities  Universities do surprisingly poorly...this is one reason why there might be a lot of self-segregation and early integration efforts were difficult.  Grade curves and the classroom structure encourages competition over cooperation.  No real efforts to make people from different groups work together for a common goal.  The military does this very well; makes people from many different groups work together, breaks down
    42. 42. Jigsaw Classroom  Proposed by Aronson  Different members of a class have to present different parts of a lesson to the other classmates  No one can learn without the help of the others; everyone plays a part, they all work together towards the “common goal” of learning  Students in these classrooms show lower levels of prejudice/discrimination, more intergroup friendships
    43. 43. Different Perspectives  Intergroup bias comes from...  Economic Perspective  Competition with outgroups over valuable/scarce resources.  Motivational Perspective  Identification with an ingroup, frustration, or social identity.  Cognitive Perspective
    44. 44. Motivational Perspective   Social Identity Theory A person’s self-concept and self-esteem are derived from personal identityANDingroup status/accomplishments. People are motivated to view their ingroups favorably because this enhances self-concept and
    45. 45. Self-Concept Social Identities UIUC Student Personal Identities Midwesterner Psychology Major Boyfriend/Girlfriend Son/Daughter Roommate Things associated with these groups will reflect well (or poorly) on YOU.
    46. 46. Minimal Group Paradigm  Researchers create groups based on arbitrary and meaningless criteria to see if they can get people to develop intergroup bias as a result.  Seriously meaningless...like flipping a coin. Shoelace color. Really stupid stuff.  Results: In many different experiments, we find that people show a preference and bias for the ingroup, even when these distinctions are meaningless.
    47. 47. Minimal Group Paradigm  You have developed superpowers, and you can now determine who will win basketball games next season. But, there’s a catch. You only have two options. Either...  A) Both Illinois and Indiana win the same number of games, and end up tied as Big Ten regular season champions. OR B) Illinois will finish in third place in the Big Ten conference, but you can guarantee that Indiana will 
    48. 48. Minimal Group Paradigm  Would you prefer for...  A. Illinois and Indiana to tie for the regular season win?  B. Illinois to do OK, but Indiana to come in dead last?
    49. 49. Minimal Group Paradigm  If given the chance to distribute rewards across the ingroup vs. outgroup, individuals want the ingroup to have more than the outgroup, even if it means they get less overall.  Would you prefer for...  The ingroup and outgroup to get $10 each?  The ingroup to get $7 and the outgroup to get $3?
    50. 50. Minimal Group Paradigm  People overwhelmingly prefer the $7/$3 option because it maximizes ingroup success relative to the outgroup.  Ingroup Bias: Because identity-related self-esteem is based in part on group membership, we’re motivated to boost the status of our ingroups.
    51. 51. Basking In Reflected Glory  Self-esteem can be enhanced by positive ingroup evaluations.  Cialdini et al., 1976  Basking in Reflected Glory  Taking pride in the accomplishments of those we feel associated with in some way  When ingroups succeed, we have higher selfesteem.
    52. 52. Basking In Reflected Glory  People who take particularly strong pride in their group affiliations are more vulnerable to ingroup favoritism when placed in minimal group situations  People who are highly identified with a group react to criticism of the group as if it were criticism of the self.
    53. 53. This can also work the other way...  Self-esteem can also be enhanced by negative evaluations of outgroup.  Remember...people are motivated for ingroup
    54. 54. Test Your Knowledge   Which of the following is not basking in reflected glory? A. Wearing your school’s T-Shirt the day after a big NCAA win.  B. Feeling happy when you get an A on a paper.  C. Posting more pictures of you with a friend on Facebook after that friend wins a big campus election, so everyone sees you know her.
    55. 55. Test Your Knowledge  What do studies using the minimal group paradigm show?  A. You only get ingroup favoritism for important, meaningful groups.  B. Ingroup favoritism is stronger in diverse groups.  C. Ingroup favoritism is stronger in very similar groups.  D. Ingroup favoritism will happy for any group, even those based on arbitrary or meaningless criteria.
    56. 56. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance?  Fein & Spencer, 1997  Participants told that they failed or aced an intelligence test  Self-esteem either threatened or affirmed  Participants watched an interview of a job applicant  She  was either clearly Jewish or clearly Non-Jewish Participants...  Rated the job applicant
    57. 57. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance? Maria D’Agostino Julie Goldberg  Volunteer for Hillel  Member of Jewish Sorority Non-Cultural Sorority   Volunteer for Catholic Social Services    Cross necklace  Hair down Star of David necklace Hair back in a “JAP Clip”  Participant words, not mine.
    58. 58. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance? 100 Candidate’s Personality Rating 90 80 70 60 50 Maria D'Agostino Julie Goldberg 40 30 20 10 0 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    59. 59. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance? 100 Candidate’s Personality Rating 90 If their self-esteem wasn’t threatened, they didn’t derogate the Jewish candidate because there was no reason to do so. 80 70 60 50 Maria D'Agostino Julie Goldberg 40 30 20 10 0 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    60. 60. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance? 100 Candidate’s Personality Rating 90 However, if they got negative feedback, they coped with self-esteem threat by dissing the Jewish candidate 80 70 60 50 Maria D'Agostino Julie Goldberg 40 30 20 10 0 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    61. 61. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance? 10.0 Self-Esteem After Rating Candidate 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 Maria D'Agostino Julie Goldberg 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    62. 62. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance? 10.0 Self-Esteem After Rating Candidate 9.0 Furthermore, the negative ratings helped to boost their selfesteem. 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 Maria D'Agostino Julie Goldberg 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    63. 63. Is Prejudice Really Self-Image Maintenance?     Sinclair &Kunda, 1999: Doctors & Race Participants were praised or criticized by a doctor The doctor was either black or white Participants then performed a lexical decision task (LDT)  This is basically an implicit measure (like the IAT!)  Participants see strings of letters and have to decide as quickly as they can if it’s a word or not  The more “accessible” certain knowledge is (i.e. the more recently you’ve thought about it), the faster you’ll be to recognize words related to that knowledge
    64. 64. Stereotype Activation & Threat 630 Reaction Time (ms) for Recognizing “Doctor” Stereotype Words 620 610 600 590 580 White Doctor Black Doctor 570 560 550 540 530 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    65. 65. Stereotype Activation & Threat How Quickly They Recognize “Doctor” Stereotype Words 0.0018 0.0017 White Doctor Black Doctor 0.0016 0.0015 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    66. 66. Stereotype Activation & Threat How Quickly They Recognize “Doctor” Stereotype Words 0.0018 When people got positive feedback from the doctor, it activated “Doctor” stereotypes. 0.0017 White Doctor Black Doctor 0.0016 0.0015 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    67. 67. Stereotype Activation & Threat 620 Reaction Time (ms) for Recognizing “Black” Stereotype Words 610 600 590 580 White Doctor Black Doctor 570 560 550 540 530 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    68. 68. Stereotype Activation & Threat How Quickly They Recognize “Black” Stereotype Words 0.0018 0.0017 White Doctor Black Doctor 0.0016 0.0015 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    69. 69. Stereotype Activation & Threat How Quickly They Recognize “Black” Stereotype Words 0.0018 When people got negative feedback from the doctor, it activated “Black” stereotypes. 0.0017 White Doctor Black Doctor 0.0016 0.0015 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    70. 70. Stereotype Activation & Threat For Black Doctors... 0.0018 0.0017 Doctor Stereotypes Black Stereotypes 0.0016 0.0015 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    71. 71. Stereotype Activation & Threat For White Doctors... 0.0018 0.0017 Doctor Stereotypes Black Stereotypes 0.0016 0.0015 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback
    72. 72. Stereotype Activation & Threat For Black Doctors... For White Doctors... 0.0018 0.0018 0.0017 0.0017 Doctor Doctor Black Black 0.0016 0.0016 0.0015 0.0015 Positive Negative Positive Negative
    73. 73. Different Perspectives  Intergroup bias comes from...  Economic Perspective  Competition with outgroups over valuable/scarce resources.  Motivational Perspective  Identification with an ingroup, frustration, or social identity.  Cognitive Perspective
    74. 74. Summed up in two sentences... “The real environment is altogether too big, too complex, and too fleeting for direct acquaintance. We are not equipped to deal with so much subtlety, so much variety, so many permutations and combinations... we have to reconstruct it on a simpler model before we can manage with it.”
    75. 75. Summed up in one picture...
    76. 76. The Cognitive Perspective Schemas, schemas, schemas and Heuristics, heuristics, heuristics
    77. 77. The Cognitive Perspective  Stereotypes are just schemas about groups of people  Schemas are knowledge structures that use information you already have as a shortcut for assessing new situations  Stereotypes can be useful because they decrease
    78. 78. The Cognitive Perspective  Stereotypes become harmful when rigidly overapplied.  When you rely on schemas and automatic judgments to dictate how you respond in any one particular situation (or to any one person), that’s when it’s a big problem.
    79. 79. The Cognitive Perspective    Bodenhausen, 1990 Participants who self-identified as “morning” or “night” people came into the lab early in the morning or late at night They read scenarios in which the main character belonged to different stereotyped groups, and he is accused of engaging in an undesirable behavior (like cheating on a test).
    80. 80. The Cognitive Perspective   Participants at the “low point” of their circadian rhythms (e.g. “night people” were there in the AM or “morning people” were there in the PM) were more likely to rely on stereotypes when making their judgments. Example: “Night people” tested in the morning were more likely to say that an athlete cheated.
    81. 81. How Stereotypes Can Be Useful  Participants performed two tasks at the same time  Task 1: Form impression of a hypothetical person described by a bunch of traits presented on the computer  Task 2: Listen to a tape-recorded lecture about Indonesia
    82. 82. Stereotypes Can Be Useful  For half of the participants, the trait terms were accompanied by a relevant stereotype  Example:  “Rebellious,” “Aggressive,” “Skinhead.” At the end, participants were given a quiz on the trait terms and on Indonesia
    83. 83. Quiz Scores 9 People who had stereotypes to help remembered more of both types of info. 8 7 6 5 Trait Quiz Indonesia Quiz Overall Quiz Score 4 3 2 1 0 Stereotype No Stereotype
    84. 84. Test Your Knowledge  You will be most likely to form judgments based on stereotypes if you are...  A. Introverted  B. Sleepy  C. Making these judgments early in the morning  D. Poorly Educated
    85. 85. Stereotypes Can Be Harmful  Even though our knowledge of schemas and the cognitive perspective says that stereotypes can be useful (for processing speed), they are also harmful.  They are especially harmful when people rely on stereotypes in an exclusive, rigid, or automatic way
    86. 86. Stereotypes Can Be Harmful  Outgroup Homogeneity Effect The tendency to assume that members of outgroups are “all alike,” whereas members of ingroups are varied and distinct.  You encounter the ingroup all the time, so unique/identifying information is most useful, frequent, and attention-grabbing.  If you rarely encounter outgroup members, the only information you may have about them are stereotypes. 
    87. 87. Stereotypes Can Be Harmful  Princeton & Rutgers Study  Princeton and Rutgers participants watched a videotape of a student making a simple decision.  “Should I listen to rock or classical music?” ½ of them thought the student was from Princeton  ½ of them thought the student was from Rutgers “What percent of students from the same university as this student would make the same choice?”
    88. 88. Stereotypes Can Be Harmful  Princeton & Rutgers Study  Participants made higher percentage estimates when they thought the student was from the other university. People assume more variability of habits/opinions in their ingroup, but assume that “all outgroup members are alike.”
    89. 89. Stereotypes Can Be Harmful  Illusory Correlation  An incorrect belief that two things are related when they actually are not  Distinctive (low frequency) events capture attention  Minority members are, by definition, low frequency  Negative behaviors also occur less frequently than positive   As a consequence, negative behaviors from minority members are doubly distinct. Negative behaviors from minority members are likely to seem much more correlated than they really are.
    90. 90. Automatic vs. Controlled Processing  Dovidio et al., 2002   White participants were brought into the lab Measured explicit and implicit attitudes toward AAs  Engaged in two 3-minute conversations (recorded)  One  with a white student, one with a black student Independent judges either saw the entire videos, or the visual footage with the sound removed
    91. 91. Automatic vs. Controlled Processing  Dovidio et al., 2002  Explicit Attitudes Predicted: How differentially friendly they were in the whole videos, participants’ ratings of their own differential levels of friendliness.  Implicit Attitudes Predicted: How differentially friendly they were in the visual-only videos, the conversation partners’ ratings of their friendliness.
    92. 92. Police Officer’s Dilemma  Correll et al., 2002  Participants played a videogame in which they moved through a virtual building. At unpredictable points, a person would pop out from behind an obstacle.  Some were white, some were black  Some held a gun, some held a neutral object (phone)   Participants had to shoot as quickly as possible if the target was armed, and not do anything if he wasn’t  http://home.uchicago.edu/~jcorrell/TPOD.html
    93. 93. Police Officer’s Dilemma
    94. 94. Police Officer’s Dilemma  Correll et al., 2002  People were more likely to accidentally shoot unarmed Black targets than unarmed White targets  People were more likely to accidentally fail to shoot armed White targets than armed Black targets
    95. 95. Police Officer’s Dilemma  Correll et al., 2002  Rationale: Many people hold stereotypes that associate African-Americans with hostility and violence; the targets’ race primes these thoughts, which temporarily influences how participants perceive the objects in their hands  Extensive experience with this sort of task can reduce the tendency to overshoot unarmed black targets, which is...hopeful, at least.
    96. 96. Construal “Stereotypic beliefs about women’s roles, for example, may enable one to see correctly that a woman in a dark room is threading a needle rather than tying a fishing lure... ...but they may also cause one to mistakenly assume that her goal is embroidery rather than cardiac surgery.”
    97. 97. Construal    The “Shoving Study” (Duncan, 1976) White participants watched a video of two men in a heated discussion; coded behavior into categories At one point, one man shoved the other ½ saw a white man do the shoving, ½ saw a black man How did participants code this behavior?
    98. 98. Construal  The “Shoving Study” (Duncan, 1976) White Pusher: Coded the behavior as “playing around.” Black Pusher: Coded the behavior as “aggressive.”
    99. 99. Construal   Fundamental Attribution Error (Sort Of) Revisited If someone is prejudiced against a certain group/person...  Stereotype-Inconsistent Behavior = Situational Attribution  Stereotype-Consistent Behavior = Dispositional Attribution Joke/Stunt What She Likes Reading
    100. 100. Chapter Overview  Characterizing Intergroup Bias  Intergroup Bias: Different Perspectives  Economic Perspective  Motivational Perspective  Cognitive Perspective  Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group  Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    101. 101. Attributional Ambiguity  Members of stigmatized groups may be uncertain if the treatment they receive is due to themselves personally or due to their group membership  Why didn’t you get hired?  Why did you get into that school?  Why did you get that award?  Have you ever experienced this?  A) Yes  B) No
    102. 102. Attributional Ambiguity  Crocker et al., 1991: Feedback and Ambiguity  ½ White participants ½ Black participants     ½ got positive feedback ½ got negative feedback ½ thought the other person could see them through a one-way mirror
    103. 103. Attributional Ambiguity  Crocker et al., 1991: Feedback and Ambiguity  Self-esteem for White participants went up after positive feedback, down after negative feedback, no matter what.  Self-esteem for Black participants only changed if they thought the other person could not see them.  “Do they really feel this way, or just saying that because they know what I look like and are changing their response because of it?”
    104. 104. Stereotype Threat  The fear that we will confirm a stereotype that others have because of a group we’re in  Group members typically know the stereotypes that others hold about them/their groups
    105. 105. Stereotype Threat  In a performance situation, people often want to prove that the stereotype’s not true  This leads to anxiety about accidentally confirming it  This actually makes it more likely one will confirm it  Claude Steele on stereotype threat
    106. 106. Stereotype Threat  ½ participants told that there’s “no gender difference”  ½ told that men tend to do better  In the second condition, women do worse.
    107. 107. Stereotype Threat  Which of the following findings illustrates stereotype threat?  (A) White male students do worse on math tests when they are surrounded by Asian students. (B) Female Asian students do worse on math tests when prompted to think about being female, but better when prompted to think about being Asian. (C) Black students perform worse at golf when it’s described as a test of “sports intelligence,” but White students do worse on the same task when it’s described as a test of “natural athletic ability” (D) Black students perform worse on aptitude tests when asked to indicate their race on the test booklet before starting. (E) All of the above.    
    108. 108. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies  Interview Study (Word et al., 1974)  White Princeton undergrads interviewed black and white men pretending to be job applicants; these interviews were recorded.  When coders analyzed these videos, they found that interviewers faced with black applicants were more likely to sit further away, cut the interview short, and perform other “modern racism” behaviors.
    109. 109. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies  Interview Study (Word et al., 1974)  In a follow-up study, actors were trained to act like the interviewers from the first study when they interacted with either White or Black applicants.  The actors then interviewed a new batch of participants, all of whom were White.  Independent judges rated the applicants from this study.
    110. 110. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies  Interview Study (Word et al., 1974) Applicants who were interviewed by actors trying to act like how the first interviewers had interviewed the Black applicants were rated more negatively.
    111. 111. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies  Interview Study (Word et al., 1974)  Interviewers came in with negative expectations.  They acted in ways that elicited negative behaviors they expected.  Yes, the Black applicants usually acted more negatively in Study 1...  ...but so did a later sample of White applicants when they
    112. 112. Chapter Overview  Characterizing Intergroup Bias  Intergroup Bias: Different Perspectives  Economic Perspective  Motivational Perspective  Cognitive Perspective  Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group  Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    113. 113.  A Class Divided: “Eye Of The Storm”
    114. 114. Other Videos  More about the IAT
    115. 115. Top Ten Things To Know  Stereotypes vs. Prejudice vs. Discrimination  Modern vs. Traditional Racism   What is the minimal group paradigm? How does it relate to self-esteem?  Automatic vs. Controlled Processes  Outgroup Homogeneity Effect  Illusory Correlations & Stereotypes  Stereotype Threat Ambivalent Sexism    What are the differences?  How do benevolent and hostile sexism relate to each other? What are they? Realistic Group Conflict Theory   Why does prejudice/discrimination arise? Which group is better for intergroup relations, the military or universities?   What is it? Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

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