C3 Prejudice


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C3 Prejudice

  1. 1. PREJUDICE SW 6103: Human Behaviour and Social Environment Group- ”D”
  2. 2. Synopsis <ul><li>Concept and Characteristics – Ms. Sarita </li></ul><ul><li>Origin and Process of Prejudice – Mr. Rupesh </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Prejudice – Mr. Ravi </li></ul><ul><li>Applicability in Social Work – Ms. Sakshi </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks – Mr. Ravi </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prejudice…Negative Attitude “ Prejudice decides our perception of reality”
  4. 4. Concept <ul><li>Prejudice is an attitude that predisposes a person to think, perceive, feel and act in favorable or unfavorable way </li></ul><ul><li>In social psychology ...is defined as a negative attitude </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics <ul><li>… required </li></ul><ul><li>… has emotional terms </li></ul><ul><li>… directed towards the group as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>… based on rigid/inflexible generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>… not factual </li></ul>Prejudice
  6. 6. Origin and Process <ul><li>Prejudice is learned </li></ul><ul><li>Develops during Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Views expressed by parents, friends, teachers and others </li></ul>Early Experience: The Role of Social Learning
  7. 7. Early Experience: The Role of Social Learning <ul><li>Social Norms of groups: “If the members of my group dislike the person ‘X’, many children seem to reason, ‘then I should too!” </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul>
  8. 8. Origin and Process contd… Direct Intergroup Conflict “ Competition as a source of Prejudice”
  9. 9. Origin and Process contd… <ul><li>Things people want and value most are always in short supply </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic Conflict Theory: Prejudices stems from competition among social groups over valued commodities or opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>As such competition continues – members of group involved come to view each other in increasingly negative terms </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Social Categorization: The ‘Us’ vs. ‘Them’ Effect </li></ul>Origin and Process contd… <ul><li>View other person as belonging either to their own group (ingroup) or another group (outgroup) </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly based on gender, religion, age, ethnic background, occupation, income… </li></ul><ul><li>People view ‘Us’ category in favorable terms – ‘Them’ category – perceived more negatively </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Social Cognition: ways in which we think about others and make judgements about them </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes: allow us to make quick and dirty judgements about others without engaging in complex and more effortful thought </li></ul>Origin and Process contd…
  12. 12. Sources of Prejudice <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul>An outcome of the intricate interplay of three distinct sources:
  13. 13. Social Sources of Prejudice <ul><li>Inequality and Prejudice: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unequal status breeds prejudice” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Discrimination breeds prejudice, and prejudices legitimize discrimination” (Pettigrew, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion and Prejudice: </li></ul><ul><li>“ By defining and deciding what is sacred/sin or ethical/unethical” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Sources of Prejudice contd… <ul><li>In Group and Out Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Most of the people tend to follow the path of least resistance and conform to the existing trend” </li></ul><ul><li>- David G. Myers </li></ul><ul><li>An inherent human need to get liked and accepted </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Self fulfilling Prophecy: </li></ul><ul><li>Social beliefs tend to be self confirming </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Support: </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-political Institutions [schools, governments, media etc] reflect and reinforce prevailing attitudes </li></ul>Social Sources of Prejudice contd…
  16. 16. Emotional Sources of Prejudice <ul><li>“ Prejudice is bred by social situations, emotional factors add fuel to fire” </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration and Aggression: </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidating or Vague causes to frustration redirect or hostility in prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deprivation leads to passions which provoke prejudices” </li></ul><ul><li>- Neal Miller and Richard Bugelski, 1948 </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Personality Factor: </li></ul><ul><li>Two people with equal reasons need not be equally prejudiced </li></ul><ul><li>“ People hold to beliefs and attitudes that satisfy unconscious needs” </li></ul><ul><li>- Sigmund Freud </li></ul>Emotional Sources of Prejudice contd…
  18. 18. <ul><li>Need for status: </li></ul><ul><li>to perceive ourselves as having status, we need people below us </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prejudice is often greater among those low or slipping on the socio-economic ladder and among those whose positive self image is being threatened” </li></ul><ul><li>- Lemyre & Smith, 1985; Thompson & Crocker, 1985 </li></ul>Emotional Sources of Prejudice contd…
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Authoritarian Personality </li></ul><ul><li>“ Authoritarian People often are harshly disciplined…leading them to repress their hostilities and impulses…makes them to project these onto outgroups” </li></ul><ul><li>David G. Myers </li></ul>Emotional Sources of Prejudice contd…
  20. 20. Cognitive Sources of Prejudices <ul><li>Prejudice is also a by-product of normal thinking process </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization: to organize the world by clustering objects into groups…exaggerating the uniformity within a group and the differences among groups </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Distinctive Stimuli: Distinctive cases fuel stereotypes …assumes a correlation between group membership and individual’s characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate attribution Error: </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning outgroup members’ negative behaviour to their natural character </li></ul><ul><li>- Thomas Pettigrew (1979, ’80) </li></ul>Cognitive Sources of Prejudices
  22. 22. Prejudices and social work practice <ul><li>Principles of social work seek to help the social worker adopt an objective approach while dealing with the client. </li></ul><ul><li>The social worker has to rise above his own prejudices and stereotypes to be effective in helping the client. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to learn to accept the person as s/he is irrespective of his/her cultural, social, economic background. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Discrimination based on prejudice is not acceptable, especially not in social work or any public service. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination founded on a professional judgment on a presenting issue, based on knowledge, assessed evidence and interpretation, is at the heart of good social work practice. </li></ul>Prejudices and social work practice contd…
  24. 24. <ul><li>&quot;These anxieties about discrimination have deep roots, we argue - in social work training, professional identity and organizational cultures - and the remedies for these go beyond the remit of any single council or inquiry report” </li></ul><ul><li>The social worker should understand the cultural context which gives rise to prejudices. </li></ul>Prejudices and social work practice contd…
  25. 25. Personal Field Experience… <ul><li>All the practitioners working in this field [HIV and AIDS] have to be cautious to keep themselves protected . </li></ul><ul><li>Even doctors who have been associated to the field of HIV and AIDS have been unable to rise from their prejudices about such people. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases of discrimination have been reported from various hospitals etc. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>It is equally important for a person to know how the disease is not spread as it is for a person to know how it is spread because incorrect knowledge gives rise to prejudices and discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>The major cause of transmission of the disease is through sexual route therefore people living with hiv and aids fear discrimination and stigmatization. </li></ul>Personal Field Experience…
  27. 27. Concluding Remarks… <ul><li>Stereotypes (Belief) </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice (Attitude) </li></ul><ul><li>Biasness (Behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination (Action) </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation (Phenomenon) </li></ul>
  28. 28. References <ul><li>Baron, R.A. & Byrne, D., 1999. Social Psychology (8thEdition), Prentice Hall, New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Kuppuswamy, B., 1980. Introduction to Social Psychology, Asia Publishing House (P.) Ltd., New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Myers, David G., 2000. Social Psychology, Mc Graw-Hill, Inc, London </li></ul>