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Diversity Studies Unit III

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Diversity Studies Unit III

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Diversity Studies - this course contains 4 units of learning materials. 3 credits.
Textbook: Meaning of Difference
by Rosenblum and Travis
This is Unit 3 learning materials and activities.

Diversity Studies - this course contains 4 units of learning materials. 3 credits.
Textbook: Meaning of Difference
by Rosenblum and Travis
This is Unit 3 learning materials and activities.

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Diversity Studies Unit III

  1. 1. The Meaning of Difference Section III (kony 12) Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  2. 2. Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  3. 3. 1. Differentiate the basic concepts of race, ethnicity, gender, minority group, components of culture, and the role of cultural transmission in perpetuating inequality. 2. Practice behaviors that influence others to respect those who are different from themselves. 3. Accept responsibility for the implications of personal biases. State Required Competencies Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  4. 4. Wisconsin State Required Competencies Focus on: 1. Understand ideology is critical to comprehend the specific meanings that are attributed to difference. 2. Examine potential legal, political, social and/or economic outcomes of personal behavior as they relate to diverse populations. Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  5. 5. 1. Ideology vs. Hegemonic Ideology 2. Conveying Ideologies: Natural-Law Language and Stereotype. 4. Social Institutions and the Support of Ideologies Essay III Key points 3. Darwinism vs. Social Darwinism Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  6. 6.  Race and Ethnicity  Sex and Gender  Social Class  Disability  Sexual Orientations  Religions  Ageism  Political Affiliations  Physicality/Appearance  Language/accents Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  7. 7. 3 Models of Mental Organization Expressed in exclusive categories for purposes of theoretical clarity Admitting to a range of sophistication From black-white, simple, awkward rationalizations to highly sophisticated, creative, and intellectually resourceful egocentric and sociocentric rationalizations Admitting to a range of developmental levels From the fair- mindedness that an individual is able to exercise to that of the most profound thinkers Critical thinking skills internalized in the service of balanced truth, rationality, autonomy and self insight Critical thinking skills internalized in the service of one’s vested interests and desires Not Self- Awareness Self- Awareness The Self-Serving Critical Person (Weak Sense) The Fair-minded Critical Person( strong sense) No Self- Awareness Self- Awareness The Uncritical Person Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  8. 8. The Johari Window (Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham) Known to self Not known to self Known to Others Not known to others Open Self Blind Self Hidden Self Unknown Self Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  9. 9. General Critical Thinking Model A General Critical Thinking Method to examine an ideology/hegemonic ideology  What is said?  How it is said? (Partial facts)  Who says so? (power)  To whom it is said?  For whose best interest? (Benefits)  What interests/benefits are gained?  When it is said?  Where it is said? (dissemination) Examples: Inquiries or counterpoints regarding the definitions or understanding Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  10. 10. Apply Critical Thinking - SEADS Model to examine an ideology/hegemonic ideology S- Identify sources (reliability, and validity) E- Evidence (enough? objective?) A- What are the assumptions hidden behind that message? D- What is the definition of the buzz words or hot button issues in the message? S- How biased? Slanted? 50 Assumptions : http://www.lifehack.org/articles/communication/50-wrong-assumptions-that-make-you-a-dumbass.html Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  11. 11. We can make wrong assumptions about almost anything in life. Sometimes we make mistakes from them, sometimes they misguide us and sometimes we can even use them as an excuse. They can be misleading or sometimes even irrational. There are assumptions about anything from work ethics, mathematics and even relationships and happiness. Here are fifty of the most common misassumptions. Perhaps you have heard these or even said some yourself. Just ignore it the problem will go away. he person next to me is better off! I have enough time for exam, I will start studying tomorrow. I am being perfectly logical and fair and everyone that disagrees with me is just plain stupid. They have the right to be loved. Quick to attribute to malice what can be explained by ignorance. My moral system is the social norm, if you don’t agree with me, something is wrong with you. Rational persuasions are persuasive. Being in a relationship gives you the right of ownership of your partner. Things will work out. They have sufficient informational for a rational decision. What is important to them is as important to others. The grass is greener on the other side. I can get a partner as long as I’m smart and attractive and friendly. It will not happen to me. One day, they will be wrong. There are no lessons to be learned from history. We all believe to be a bit smarter than somebody else, specially when our ego is involved. We are free and we can be completely free, in thinking, behavior and actions… The reward comes later. I am not appreciated because no one has told me recently. The harder you chase, the closer you get. You can balance things by taking revenge. Having more money can make them happy forever. Having fun costs money. I am important and I am right. Everything happens for a reason. Finding your true self is an on-going and endless process. Any assumption made is wrong. Love is respite to every other problem in life. If you’ve seen one, you’ve seen them all. Society watches you closely on whatever you do. Good times will eventually come. If I do this, people will think I am wrong. All eyes are on you. We can own something out there. We all are here to conquer something. Everyone is having an affair or cheating on their partner. We are making it up as we go along, some better than others. People are always completely to blame for their own actions regardless of the situation. You can fake it to make it, when there is someone else who will readily do it with more talent. My girlfriend splits up with me. ‘Ah, good thing I didn’t marry her and end up in a divorce. My wife splits up with me. ‘Ah, good thing we don’t have children yet. Could have been far more stickier. My wife who I have children with splits up with me. ‘Ah, good thing I’m not too old to remain single for the rest of my life. Everyone else is paying close attention to everything you do and judging you for it. They have been perfectly clear, so the onus of understanding is on the listener. Assumptions about race and gender: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/frank-h-wu/whos-in-charge-our-assumptions-about-race-and-gender_b_7671868.html http://theracecardproject.com/tag/assumptions/ race card archive White skin is the best camouflage 0 Comments C. Badour, MI. In America today, the best way to fly under the radar is to be white. Assumptions are made about blacks, asians, and hispanics based purely upon race, which cannot be said about whites. Non-whites seem to stick out in America, as if being white is considered a social norm and being non-white […] Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  12. 12. Constructionism vs. Essentionalism Experiencing difference The meaning of difference Bridging differences Constructing and Bridging of Differences Framework I What is race? What is sex and gender? What is social class? What is sexual orientation/identity? Framework II Race and ethnicity Sex and gender Sexual orientation/identity Social class Disability Framework III Intersectionality Law, public, and economy Language Framework IV Influencing public policy What can we do? -Becoming part of the solution In defense of rich kids Uprooting Racism Diversity Studies. Dr. Crystal LC Huang
  13. 13. Section III- Meaning of Difference Ideology Charles Darwin: 1. Common Ancestry, 2. Traditional Christian belief; Spencer : Social Darwinism Agassiz and Morton: size of skull Binet and Terman: IQ tests Eugenics Movement; IQ test. Science (Nature vs. Nurture); Law, religion, politics, the economy, military, medicines, mass media, and popular culture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPBHtjZmSpw M Moore History Social Institutions and the support of Ideologies Minstrel shows: Happy slave, Zip Coon, and the Mammy Stereotypes: Asian Americans African Americans StereotypesNatural-Law Language http://www.buzzle.com/articles/stereotypes-list.html stereotype lists Common stereotype https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3FmEjDaWqA4 History of racism
  14. 14. Framework Essay III: Key Points  The concept of ideology is critical to understanding the specific meanings that are attributed to difference. The readings in Part III focus on law and politics, economy, science, and popular culture as social institutions that construct and interpret what difference means.  Review the concept of Ideology in next slide  Learn to de-constructed ideology
  15. 15. Key Concepts  Aversive racism: Unrecognized/unaware prejudice that affect behavior (p.341 Gaertner and Dovidio)  Ideology- A widely shared belief that primarily reflects the experiences of those with power, but is presented as universally valid.  Hegemonic- Dominating or ruling. Hegemonic ideology is a belief that is pervasive in a culture.  Natural-Law Language- Language that treats human behavior as bound by natural law inferring something is inevitable, pre-determined, or cannot be changed. List several natural-law language: Natural- something is inevitable, pre-determined, or outside human control. (e.g.,I am against racism, but it’s only natural).
  16. 16. Definitions cont.  Stereotype- A characterization of a category of people as all alike, as possessing the same set of characteristics and likely to behave in the same ways. Example: Most/some great American athletes are African American. vs. African Americans are good athletes.  Social Institution- Established system for meeting societal needs, such as, the family.  Social Darwinism: The belief that those who dominate a society are necessarily the fittest (p.344).  Popular Culture: Forms of entertainment to society such as movies and music. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7P0iP2Zm6a4 IAT https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=Jt0f5WyAoGU race p d https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MYHBrJIIF U Jane
  17. 17. 1. Aversive racism: 2. Ideology: 3. Hegemonic: 4. Hegemonic ideology: 5. Natural-Law Language: 6. Natural-Law: A. Language that treats human behavior as bound by natural law. B. Dominating or ruling. C. Something is inevitable, pre-determined, or cannot be changed. D. Unrecognized/unaware prejudice that affect behavior (p.341 Gaertner and Dovidio) E. A widely shared belief that primarily reflects the experiences of those with power, but is presented as universally valid. F. is a belief that is pervasive in a culture. In-class Matching quiz 6 points http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/11/racially-coded-phrases-black-people/ 7 racially coded phrases
  18. 18. 6. Stereotype: 7. Social Institution: 8. Social Darwinism: 9. Popular Culture: 10. Darwinism (Original) : A. The belief that those who dominate a society are necessarily the fittest B. The “nature vs. nurture” debate offered 2 ways to explain human variation. Explanations from the nature side were biologically driven. Explanations from the nurture side argued that human diversity resulted from historical, environmental and cultural difference. C. Forms of entertainment to society such as movies and music. D. Established system for meeting societal needs, such as, the family. E. A characterization of a category of people as all alike, as possessing the same set of characteristics and likely to behave in the same ways. In-class Matching quiz 5 points
  19. 19. Relevant Video Files http://examples.yourdictionary.com/ideology-examples.html Ideology examples
  20. 20. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6mJbquNKyY 10 minutes false consciousness https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bnh_USI3vxg 7 minutes Explain ideology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vX_Vzl-r8NY Institutional structural inequality https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51DhvS9abyI Gramsci People’s concerns https://www.facebook.com/Le360fr/videos/593202694166864/ Implicit images and biases of glasses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ygBjvKKQqM Westboro significant minority https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tZ5Gom8CxzA Wesboro family documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJwAMa94_q0 Phelps family Westboro http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dMoK48QGL8 Monkey equality https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOP5_rGtALw bloodline of elite https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UD4rFQwZhJ4 bloodline https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mDNlftoOeU MEET THE ROCKEFELLERS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RXybHZAKLIk 6 heart transplants https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=js8E6C3ZnJ0 Hegemony https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2eTTJMrINNo types of discriminations Individuals or groups willfully participate in their Own Oppression – false consciousness: Ideology
  21. 21. Ideology Examples7th grade8th grade9th gradeMiddle SchoolHigh SchoolCollege image: http://www.yourdictionary.com/index.php/image/articles/18992.ThinkstockPhotos-496158460.jpg Ideology is a set of shared beliefs within a group, such as a nation or social class. This body of beliefs influence the way individuals think, act, and view the world. Common Ideology Examples Political Ideologies Here are some examples: •Political parties embody a range of ideals covering government, economics, education, healthcare, foreign policy, and more. Some examples are Republican, Democrat, Libertarian, and the Green Party. •Classical liberalism is a capitalistic ideology which stands for a limited government with political freedom, civil liberties and laissez-faire economic policies. •Social or modern liberalism is liberalism which focuses on social and economic issues while ensuring individual freedom. •Social democracy advocates a peaceful change from capitalism to socialism with a representative democracy including collective bargaining and public services. •Neo-liberalism embodies free trade, privatization, deregulation and laissez-faire economic policies. •Bolshevism was primarily workers that wanted to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat, the working class. •Marxism is socialism with the goal of a classless society. Principles include the class struggle, a labor theory of value and a proletariat dictatorship. •Leninism focused on a proletariat dictatorship based on Lenin’s theories of government. •Communism promotes collective ownership of property with one political party controlling social and economic policy. •Trotskyism advocated a revolution of the working class bringing freedom and democracy. •Stalinism is an authoritarian ideology with one person having all the power. In Stalinism, political and ideological dissidents are strongly suppressed. •Maoism emphasizes the revolutionary power of the peasants and was the interpretation of Marxist and Lenin theories by Mao Zedong. Cultural and Social Ideologies Here are some examples: •Concentration on the environment and green practices has led to an ecological ideology including green economics. •Racism places the blame for certain social conditions on one or more races of people. This can lead to division among races and racial prejudice and discrimination. •Feminism advocates equality for women economically, socially and politically. It also deals with the rights of women, including reproductive rights. •Gender ideology is concerned with the attitudes of men and women on their place in society, their rights and responsibilities. •Individualism deals with inherent worth of each individual and focuses on self-sufficiency and freedom. •Anti-intellectualism includes the attitudes of people who let the government tell them how to view the world rather than become informed themselves of the government’s policies. This gives the government more control since the people believe its propaganda.
  22. 22. list of ideologies https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_political_ideologies This is a list of political ideologies. Many political parties base their political action and election program on an ideology. In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, and/or large group that explains how society should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely, while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. The popularity of an ideology is in part due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their own interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions: Goals: How society should be organized. Methods: The most appropriate way to achieve this goal. An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. democracy, autocracy, etc.), and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism, socialism, etc.). Sometimes the same word is used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, "socialism" may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which supports that economic system. Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science";[1] however, ideologies tend to
  23. 23. This is a list of political ideologies. Content 1 Anarchism 1.1Anarchism without adjectives 1.2Individualist anarchism 1.3Religious anarchism 1.4Social anarchism 1.4.1Anarchist communism 1.5Other 2 Conservatism 2.1General 2.2Regional variants 2.3Other 3 Environmentalism 4 Gender equality 4.1Feminism 4.1.1General 4.1.2Non-Religious feminism 4.1.3Religious feminism 4.2LGBT 4.3Masculism 5 Liberalism 5.1General
  24. 24. A real life story for pondering: God Makes Me a Slave In class activity Fatima Mint Mamadou is a young woman living in North Africa’s Republic of Mauritania. She has no idea what she was born. All she knows is tending camels, herding sheep, hauling bags of water, sweeping, and serving tea to her owners. This young woman is one of perhaps 90,000 slaves in Mauritania. In the central region of this country, having dark brown skin almost means being a slave to an Arab owner. She always accepted her situation. She has known nothing else. She explains in a matter-of-fact voice that she is a slave, as was her mother before and her grandmother before that. “Just as God created a camel to be a camel, “ she shrugs, “he created me to be a slave.” In this region, slavery began 500 years ago, abut the time Columbus sailed to the new World. As Arab and Berber tribes moved across the continent, they raided local villages and made slaves of the people. In 1905 the French colonial rulers of Mauritania banned slavery. After the nation gained independence in 1961, the strong traditions still exist. People like Fatima have no idea what freedom to choose means. The next question is more personal:” Are you and other girls ever raped?” Again Fatima hesitates. With no hint of emotion, she responds," of course, in the night the men come to breed us. Is that what you mean by rape?”
  25. 25. IAT - implicit Association Test https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7 P0iP2Zm6a4&nohtml5=False implicit association/bias: Psy crash IAT – prejudice http://www.understandingprejudice.org/iat/ Project Implicit: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/selectatest.htm Harvard Univ. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html Aversive Racism
  26. 26. Review the concept of Ideology  The concept of ideology originated with the work of Marx and Engels, particularly in The German Ideology (1846).  Ideology can be defined as a widely shared belief or idea that has been constructed and disseminated by the powerful, reflects their experiences, and functions for their benefit.  Ideologies are anchored in the experiences of their creators, thus offering a partial view of the world. They are presented as being universally valid and are “produced by specifiable, complex social conditions.” Karl Marx Friedrich Engels
  27. 27. Terms- Hegemonic or ruling ideology  - An ideology that so dominates a culture as to become the prevailing and unquestioned belief is described in the 1920s by Antonio Gramsci as hegemonic or ruling ideology. As Gramsci pointed out, hegemonic ideologies often take the form of commonsense beliefs and are especially embodied in stereotypes and natural law language.
  28. 28. Classroom activities: Ideology vs. Stereotype  Examples from your assignment Everyone gives an example Such as, homosexual is sinful; Sodomy violates the laws; Poor people are lazy; Women are better home keepers…etc Men are stronger and better breadwinner.  Counterpoints One extra point for Inquiries or counterpoints regard the definitions or understanding
  29. 29. Hegemony: When socially powerful people use their influence to convince less powerful people it is in their best interest to do what is actually in the most powerful people's best interest, that's hegemony. Ideological hegemony (false consciousness) arises in a situation where a particular ideology is pervasively reflected throughout a society in all principal social institutions and permeates cultural ideas and social relationships. IT is a system of thought control. Ideology is a linked set of ideas and beliefs that act to uphold and justify an existing or desired arrangement of power, authority, wealth and status in a society. Hegemony vs. Hegemonic Ideology
  30. 30. Classroom activities: Hegemonic or ruling ideology. Quiz: Give 2 examples of hegemonic or ruling ideology in the US. 1._________________ 2._________________
  31. 31. Terms - Natural Law Language  The word “natural” usually implies that something is inevitable, predetermined, or outside human control; and is often used in the same way as human nature and instinct. Consequences of using natural law language are threefolds: (1) in its equation of natural with inevitable, it ends discussion; (2) it treats behavior as predetermined, and thereby overlooks the actual cultural and historical variation of human societies; (3)and it treats individuals as passive, lacking an interest in or control over social life. Natural-law language, which is used to convey hegemonic ideas, tells us not to question the world around us. In this sense it creates and maintains ideas about difference.
  32. 32. Classroom activities: Natural Law Language  Examples from your assignment Everyone gives an example Such as Fatma : God made me a slave; Foot Binding; FGM to keep female’s virginity to be marriageable…etc.; Jesse Owen  Counterpoints One extra point for Inquiries or counterpoints regard the definitions or understanding Kony 12
  33. 33. 1. Give 2 examples about natural law. Give 2 examples about natural law language. 2. T/F Natural Law and Natural Law Language are the same concepts in both animal and human worlds. Why? _________________________________ 3. Short answer: What are the 3 consequences of using Natural Law Language? 1/.________________________________________ 2/._______________________________________ 3/.________________________________________ In-class Quiz 5 points
  34. 34. Terms  Stereotype  A stereotype is a prediction that “members of a group will behave in a certain way.”  Stereotypes explain life outcomes by attributing some essential, shared quality to all those in the same category.  Stereotypes persist despite evidence to the contrary because they are not formulated in a way that is testable or falsifiable.  Stereotypes differ from descriptions because descriptions offer no prediction.  Stereotypes deny the reality of historical and cultural variation.  Abner Louima, Trayvon Martin
  35. 35. Terms  Stereotype vs. Description  Which of the following is stereotype? Most great American athletes are African American => testable and explainable African Americans are good athletes. => deny the inevitable differences among the people in the category  Jesse Owen Short version
  36. 36. Classroom activities:  Examples from your assignment Everyone gives an example  Counterpoints One extra point for Inquiries or counterpoints regard the definitions or understanding Stereotype
  37. 37. In-class Quiz 4 points 1. T/F Stereotype is different from description because stereotypes offer no prediction. 2. Which of the following denies the reality of historical and cultural variation? (A) Stereotype (B) generalization (C) description
  38. 38. Best Answers - Chosen by Voters I'M SKINNY, so I MUST be bulimic. I'm BLONDE, so I MUST be a stupid ditz. I'm JAMAICAN so I MUST smoke weed. I'm ASIAN, so I MUST be smart. I'm NOT LIKE EVERYONE ELSE, so I MUST be a loser. I'm JEWISH, so I MUST be greedy. I'm GAY, so I MUST have AIDS. I'm a LESBIAN, so I MUST hate men. I'm ARAB, so I MUST be a terrorist. I SPEAK MY MIND, so I MUST be a ***** I'm RELIGIOUS, so I MUST shove my beliefs down your throat. I'm an ATHEIST, so I MUST hate the world. I DON'T HAVE A RELIGION, so I MUST be "evil" and not have any morals. I'm REPUBLICAN, so I MUST not care about poor people. I'm DEMOCRAT, so I MUST not believe in being responsible. I am LIBERAL, so I MUST be gay. I'm SOUTHERN, so I MUST be white trash. I take ANTI-DEPRESSANTS, so I MUST be crazy. I'm a GUY, so I MUST only want to get into your pants. I'm IRISH, so I MUST have a bad drinking problem. I'm INDIAN, so I MUST own a convenient store. I'm MORMON so I MUST be perfect
  39. 39. Best Answers - Chosen by Voters I'm NATIVE AMERICAN, so I MUST dance around a fire screaming like a savage. I'm a CHEERLEADER, so I MUST be a whore I'm a DANCER, So i must be stupid, stuck up, and a whore I wear short SKIRTS a lot, so I MUST be a slut. I'm YOUNG, so I MUST be naive. I'm RICH, so I MUST be a conceited snob. I WEAR BLACK, so I MUST be a goth or emo. I'm a WHITE GIRL, so I MUST be a nagging, steal-your-money kind of girlfriend. I'm CUBAN, so I MUST spend my spare time rolling cigars. I'm MEXICAN, so I MUST have hopped the border. I'm NOT A VIRGIN, so I MUST be easy. I FELL IN LOVE WITH A MARRIED MAN, so I MUST be a home-wrecking whore. I'm a TEENAGE MOM, so I MUST be an irresponsible slut. I'm POLISH, so I MUST wear my socks with my sandals. I'm ITALIAN, so I must be in the mafia. I'm EGYPTIAN, so I must be a TERRORIST!! I GOT A CAR FOR MY BIRTHDAY, so I MUST be a spoiled brat. I'm PRETTY, so I MUST not be a virgin. I HAVE STRAIGHT A'S, so I MUST have no social life. I DYE MY HAIR CRAZY COLORS, so I MUST be looking for attention. I DRESS IN UNUSUAL WAYS so I MUST be looking for attention. I'm INTO THEATER & ART, so I MUST be a homosexual. I'm a VEGETARIAN, so I MUST be a crazy political activist. I HAVE A BUNCH OF GUY FRIENDS, so I MUST be doing them all.
  40. 40. Best Answers - Chosen by Voters I HAVE A BUNCH OF GIRLS WHO ARE FRIENDS, so I MUST be gay. I have BiG BOOBS, so I MUST be a hoe. I'm COLOMBIAN, so I MUST be a drug dealer. I WEAR WHAT I WANT, so I MUST be a poser. ‘ I'm RUSSIAN, so I MUST be cool and that how Russians roll. I'm GERMAN, so I MUST be a Nazi. I hang out with GAYS, so i must be GAY TOO. I'm BRAZILIAN, so I MUST have a BIG BUTT. I'm SALVADORIAN, so I MUST be in MS 13. I'm POLISH, so I MUST be greedy. I'm HAWAIIAN so I MUST be lazy. I'm PERUVIAN, so I MUST like llamas. Im a STONER so i MUST be going in the wrong direction. Im a VIRGIN so i MUST be prude. Im STRAIGHT EDGE so i must be violent. I'm a FEMALE GAMER, so I MUST be ugly.. or crazy. I'm BLACK so I MUST love fried chicken and kool-aid. I'm BI so I MUST get around the block. I'm ASIAN so I MUST have a small penis. I'm a GIRL who actually EATS LUNCH, so i MUST be fat. I'm SINGLE so I MUST be ugly. I'm ASIAN so i must be a NERD that does HOMEWORK 24/7 I'm CHRISTIAN so I MUST hate homosexuals. I'm MIXED so i must be SEXY I'm MUSLIM so i MUST be covered up at all times. I'm in BAND, so i MUST be a Band Geek . I'm BLACK so I MUST believe JESUS WUZ A BROTHA
  41. 41. Wisconsinites: you define Summer as three months of bad sledding...your definition of a small town is one that only has one bar... snow tires come standard on all your cars... you refer to the Packers as "we"... at least 50% of your relatives work on a dairy farm... you can make sense out of the words upnort and Trivers... you have ever gotten frostbitten and sunburned in the same week... you can identify a Michigan accent... you know what "cow-tipping" is..... you learned to drive a tractor before the training wheels were off your bike... "Down South" to you means Chicago... traveling coast to coast means going from Superior to Milwaukee... the "Big Three" means Miller, Old Milwaukee & PBR... a brat is something you eat ... you were offended by the movie "Fargo"... you know that Eau Claire is not something you eat..... you have no problem spelling Milwaukee.. you consider Madison "exotic".. you got a passport to go to Minnesota... your idea of foreign culture is listening to Da Yoopers... you don't have a coughing fit from one sip of Pabst Blue Ribbon... you've seen a hodag... you used to think Deer Season was included as an official school holiday...
  42. 42. Cases of Stereotyping Stereotyping and Asian-Americans  Asian-Americans are often depicted as the “model minority” in comparison to African- Americans.  Stereotypes about model minorities mask economic, educational, and occupational heterogeneity among Asian-Americans.  In American culture, stereotypes are often driven by the necessity to explain why some categories of people succeed more than others.
  43. 43. Stereotyping and Asian-Americans  American immigration policy explains the misguided nature of the comparison between African and Asian minorities.  In 1965, Congress replaced the national-origin quotas, which had been in place since 1921, with an annual 20,000-person limit per nation regardless of its size. Preference went to those with relatives in the U.S. and then to those with occupational skills needed in America. Those immigrating to the U.S. since 1965, therefore, have had high educational and occupational profiles.
  44. 44. Cases of Stereotyping Stereotyping and Asian-Americans  The high Asian-American educational and occupational profile has yielded the country’s highest median household income, but not its highest individual income.  Despite a higher educational profile, Asian- Americans per capita income lags behind that of non-Hispanic whites (Census Bureau 2000).  The circumstances of arrival and resettlement for Asians who have fled their home countries make the refugee population exceedingly heterogeneous and quite different from those others who have immigrated to the U.S.
  45. 45. Cases of Stereotyping Stereotyping and African-Americans  African-Americans (and other people of color) are likely to understand discrimination as institutionally based, while whites attribute it to isolated events or individuals.  Although whites recognize that discrimination plays some part in higher rates of unemployment and poverty, etc., the central cause is usually understood to be the level of effort and cultural patterns of the minority groups themselves.
  46. 46. Cases of Stereotyping Stereotyping and African-Americans  Alongside an increased commitment to equality and integration, research reveals a persistence in negative stereotypes about blacks among whites, which effect everything from support of social policies to interpersonal interactions.  Whites continue to be more fearful of a black stranger than a white stranger.  Whites and blacks disagree about the extent of discrimination.
  47. 47. What is a Wisconsinite? Some stereotypes. You know that Gotham is a real city... You can actually pronounce and spell Oconomowoc... you know what a bubbler is..... the snow on your roof in August weighs more than you do... your idea of creative landscaping is a statue of a cow next to your bluespruce... you think there should be a "FIB go home" bumper sticker on every car north of Madison... Your neighbor throws a party to celebrate his new machine shed... a Friday night out is taking your girlfriend shining for deer... you go out for fish fry on every Friday... you go to work in a snowsuit in the morning and return home wearing shorts... when you tell someone where you are from and they say: 'I thought that was part of Canada... Bernie Brewer is your idol because he gets to dive in a giant beer mug... your idea of the seasons is Winter, Spring and the 4th of July... you know how to polka.... your idea of diversity is having black, white, and brown cows... you drink "soda" and refer to your dad as "pop"... formal wear is a flannel shirt, blue jeans and a baseball cap... You tried to tap the "World's Largest Six Pack"... your children describe their summer vacation out of state as a "trip to Door County..."
  48. 48. you were unaware there is a legal drinking age... you have to go to Florida to get a tan in August... You have caught a fish in Lake Michigan and it glowed in the dark... you define "swimming season" as Labor Day weekend... your 4th of July Family Picnic was moved indoors due to frost... you know where the city of Waunakee is AND can pronounce it...(by the way, Waunakee is a village!) You can visit Luxemburg, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, and Poland all in one afternoon... you have more fishing poles than teeth... you decided to have a picnic this summer because it fell on a weekend... you have been involved in a "drive-by hay bailing"..... 10776
  49. 49. Social Institutions and the Support of Ideologies  During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, social institutions (i.e. the established mechanisms by which societies meet their predictable needs, such as economy, government, family, religion, education, health care, and mass media etc.) offered explanations of what differences in race, class, sex, and sexual orientation meant. Ideology supported by social institutions, in this book focusing on Science and Popular Culture.
  50. 50. A real life story for pondering: God Makes Me a Slave In class activity Fatima Mint Mamadou is a young woman living in North Africa’s Republic of Mauritania. She has no idea what she was born. All she knows is tending camels, herding sheep, hauling bags of water, sweeping, and serving tea to her owners. This young woman is one of perhaps 90,000 slaves in Mauritania. In the central region of this country, having dark brown skin almost means being a slave to an Arab owner. She always accepted her situation. She has known nothing else. She explains in a matter-of-fact voice that she is a slave, as was her mother before and her grandmother before that. “Just as God created a camel to be a camel, “ she shrugs, “he created me to be a slave.” In this region, slavery began 500 years ago, abut the time Columbus sailed to the new World. As Arab and Berber tribes moved across the continent, they raided local villages and made slaves of the people. In 1905 the French colonial rulers of Mauritania banned slavery. After the nation gained independence in 1961, the strong traditions still exist. People like Fatima have no idea what freedom to choose means. The next question is more personal:” Are you and other girls ever raped?” Again Fatima hesitates. With no hint of emotion, she responds," of course, in the night the men come to breed us. Is that what you mean by rape?”
  51. 51. Terms - Original Darwinism  The “nature vs. nurture” debate offered 2 ways to explain human variation. Explanations from the nature side were biologically driven. Explanations from the nurture side argued that human diversity resulted from historical, environmental and cultural difference.  The discussion of the meaning of human difference always assumed that people could be ranked as to their worth. The need to explain the meaning of human difference emerged when 15th century Europeans encountered previously unknown regions and peoples.
  52. 52. Terms: Social Darwinism continued  In its broadest terms, Darwin’s conclusions regarding: (1) Evolutionary change challenged “traditional, Christian belief in a single episode of creation of a static, perfect and unchanging world,” (2) and implied that all humans share a common ancestry.  Darwin’s work coincided with the rise of social thinker Herbert Spencer’s concept of “survival of the fittest.” Charles Darwin shifted the weight of popular and scholarly opinions toward the nature side of the equation with the publication of The Origin of the Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).
  53. 53. Classroom activities: Social Darwinism  Examples from your assignment Everyone gives an example: Such as survival of the fittest; weakest links deserve their predicament; Stop the welfare system; Indian Removal Act of 1830…etc.  Counterpoints One extra point for Inquiries or counterpoints regard the definitions or understanding
  54. 54. Terms: Social Darwinism  Through Social Darwinism the prevailing social hierarchies could be attributed to natural processes and justified as inherent differences among categories of people. Thus, the ideology of Social Darwinism was used to justify slavery, colonialism, Capitalism, immigration quotas, the criminalization of homosexuality, the forced relocation of Native Americans, and the legal subordination of women Spencer’s position, called social Darwinism, argued that those who were superior naturally rose to the top of the stratification ladder. He argued that the specialization of tasks (the division of labor) was the outcome of biologically mandated evolution; and the sexual division of labor “was a product of the organic law of progress.”
  55. 55. Terms - Social Darwinism-continued  When the question of human difference was being posed during the 1800s, it was in the context of many historical changes, including:  the Indian Removal Act of 1830  the 1848 signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the Mexican-American War  the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act  the debates over slavery and women’s suffrage  the influx of poor and working-class immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe  the much publicized trial of Oscar Wilde, who was sentenced 2 years in prison for homosexuality (Kinsey report)
  56. 56. How Social Darwinism was used to justify social inequality  Thus, the ideology of Social Darwinism was used to justify slavery, colonialism, immigration quotas, the criminalization of homosexuality, the forced relocation of Native Americans, and the legal subordination of women.  Homosexuality was seen as the product of “hereditary weakness.”  The concept of the survival of the fittest supported the belief that whites were superior to all people of color.  In 1873 biologist Edward Clarke argued that the physical energy education required would endanger women’s reproductive ability (an idea first put forth by Spencer)
  57. 57. How Social Darwinism was used to justify social inequality  In the 1840s, scientists Louis Agassiz and Samuel Morton theorized that there were biological differences among different races.  Eventually, Social Darwinism, lacking a socially or historically grounded explanation for social stratification, was discredited.  The scientific defense of immutable hierarchy was eroded by the steady accumulation of contradictory evidence, much of which was produced by scholars of color who had formerly been denied access to higher education.  In the 1920s, the meaning of race was challenged by increased interracial contact as a result of events such as the Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance.
  58. 58. How Popular Culture convey and support ideology  3 primary characters of the minstrel show were the happy slave, Zip Coon, and the mammy.  The “happy slave” gave the impression that blacks held in slavery were contented and cared for.  “Zip Coon” was a free black man characterized by laughable attempts to emulate whites.  “Mammy” was depicted as large, unattractive, unthreatening, and contented, fulfilled by her work with her white family.  These characters hid the reality of slavery.
  59. 59. How Popular Culture convey and support ideology  Minstrel shows offered an ideology about slavery constructed by and in the interests of those with power.  Minstrel shows legitimized the status quo.  Within popular culture, the publication of numerous slave narratives countered the ideology conveyed through minstrel shows.  Countering the images of the minstrel show, slave narratives provided whites with the first opportunity to see a shared humanity between themselves and the enslaved.
  60. 60. Classroom activities: Social Institutions race: institutional  Examples from your assignment Everyone gives an example  Counterpoints One extra point for Inquiries or counterpoints regard the definitions or understanding
  61. 61. How Popular Culture convey and support ideology Popular culture (the forms of entertainment available for mass consumption) conveys ideologies about difference and social stratification.  At the same time social Darwinism gained popularity, minstrel shows, which offered a defense of slavery, were first organized in the United States.  Minstrel shows wiki were musical variety shows in which white males in “blackface” ridiculed blacks, abolitionism, and women’s suffrage.  3 primary characters of the minstrel show were the happy slave, Zip Coon, and the mammy.
  62. 62. In-class quiz Give 3 examples to “How was the ideology of Social Darwinism used to justify social inequality ?” 1._______________________ 2._______________________ 3._______________________
  63. 63. Video clips relate to Diversity 6 major themes Practical Theme- How can business go wrong? What about diversity issues in other countries? Examples- Europe; Canada and US Specific themes a. Race/Ethnicity- case studies; Jesse Owen The Loving case mixed race b. Social Class- who owns USA c. Sexual Orientation- Got hates fags d. Language beer; case two cat ; Accent case two e. Disability
  64. 64. Classroom activities:  Examples from your assignment Everyone gives an example  Counterpoints Inquiries or counterpoints regard the definitions or understanding Jim Crow Laws: The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. De jure segregation mainly applied to the Southern United States. Northern segregation was generally de facto, from blacks predominately living in urban ghettos.
  65. 65. Freedom Riders Freedom Riders History Part I Part II Part III Part IV Rosa Parks A brief history in cartoon format https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zqh6Ap9ldTs
  66. 66. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7WAXe7MBuw Interview Douglas Blackmon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPlk41mNDuM Slavery by another name History of Lynching http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CiyQFG6uHgg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRfFfr-tYh0&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qa5RGa_hAJw Toby http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-yuMoGFpGM&feature=related trade http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jc1RbUxQv4E Slavery history part1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsdosE10EjU&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPXHrMDvBm0&feature=related part2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZkpU_ioRKw&feature=related part3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=is5sTaUImls&feature=related productivity
  67. 67. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tfVpHYyDcY&feature=related black and white http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMp20fZ6PSM&feature=related passing History in brief – a cartoon version Jim Crow Laws Drapetomania was a supposed mental illness described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity. Today, drapetomania is considered an example of pseudoscience, and part of the edifice of scientific racism.
  68. 68. The phrase "Jim Crow Law" first appeared in 1904 according to the Dictionary of American English, although there is some evidence of earlier usage.The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of negroes performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro" by 1838 and when the laws of racial segregation – directed against blacks – were enacted at the end of the nineteenth century they became known as Jim Crow laws
  69. 69. I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings The free bird leaps on the back of the wind and floats downstream till the current ends and dips his wings in the orange sun rays and dares to claim the sky. But a bird that stalks down his narrow cage can seldom see through his bars of rage his wings are clipped and his feet are tied, so he opens his throat to sing. The caged bird sings with fearful trill of the things unknown but longed for still and his tune is heard on the distant hill for the caged bird sings of freedom The free bird thinks of another breeze an the trade winds soft through the sighing trees and the fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright lawn and he names the sky his own. But a caged bird stands on the grave of dreams his shadow shouts on a nightmare scream his wings are clipped and his feet are tied so he opens his throat to sing The caged bird sings with a fearful trill of things unknown but longed for still and his tune is heard on the distant hill for the caged bird sings of freedom. ------------Maya Angelou
  70. 70. Owen
  71. 71. A brief pre/review: In-class Quiz 1.__What is a social institution: a. family b. religion c. education d. all of the above 2.__ T/F A stereotype is a prediction that members of a group will behave in certain way. 3. ___T/F “It’s only natural to marry and settle down.” The above statement is an expression of the natural Law. 4.___ T/F Most great American athletes are African American. The above statement is a stereotype. 5.___ In the essay, which of the following 2 concepts convey Ideology? (Pick two answers). a. social institutions b. hegemonic ideology c. natural law language d. stereotype
  72. 72. A brief pre/review: In-class Quiz 6.___ T/F Those in stigmatized categories do not control the production or distribution of the prevailing ideas; their experience is not likely to be reflected in the dominant groups. 7.___T/F Antonio Gramsci argued that social control was primarily accomplished by the control of ideas. 8.___ Which of the following concept refers to as an unrecognized prejudice that affect behaviors a. reverse discrimination b. reverse racism c. aversive racism d. converse racism 9.__ T/F As description is to prediction, so as generalization to stereotype. 10.__ T/F In the essay, there are 3 consequences following by using natural-law language.
  73. 73. A brief pre/review: In-class Quiz 11.___ T/F Darwin’s idea that change in the physical environment resulted in the perpetuation of some species and demise of others bolstering a pre-existent concept of survival of the fittest. 12.___T/F Darwinism and Social Darwinism, both propounded the idea that those who are more advanced naturally rise to the top of the social stratification. 13.___Which of the following scholars/researchers supported Social Darwinism? A. Edward Clarke B. Louis Agassiz C. Morton D. all of the above 14.__ T/F Scientists and scholars such as Herbert Spencer Alfred Binet, Lewis Termin, and Karl Marx did not support Social Darwinism. 15.__ T/F By 1942, there were 13 states that had laws allowing the sterilization of criminals.
  74. 74. A brief pre/review: In-class Quiz 16.___T/F According to the texts, Social Darwinism affirmed that difference meant defect. 17.__ One sociologist once pointed out that “under the tutelage of Darwinism, the world returns again to the idea that might (biological) as evidence of fitness has something to do with ___. a. ability b. family background c. right d. legality 18.__ T/F Charles Darwin developed the concept of “Survival of the fittest” which led to Social Darwinism. 19. What are the three consequences as results of using Natural Law Language? 20. List 3 social institutions that support hegemonic ideology mentioned in the Essay.
  75. 75. Louis Agassiz and Samuel Morton
  76. 76. I don't want a nation of thinkers, I want a nation of workers. - John D. Rockefeller Sr.
  77. 77. Question for reaching your potential- by working hard and with talent, one’s dream will come true…. Necessary conditions Work Ethics, self- discipline, motivation, responsibility, some degree of talents…etc. Sufficient conditions- Race, Gender, Genetics, DES- social class, cultural capitals Combination of Necessary and Sufficient Elements By choice By chance, or by design, or by Luck By happenstance? Genetics, ascribed (+ And -) Social-culture, achieved ( + and -) Tip of the iceberg (your are here now)
  78. 78.  Race and Ethnicity  Sex and Gender  Social Class  Disability  Sexual Orientations  Religions  Ageism  Political Affiliations  Physicality/Appearance  Language/accents… and more
  79. 79. 3 Models of Mental Organization Expressed in exclusive categories for purposes of theoretical clarity The Uncritical Person Admitting to a range of sophistication From black-white, simple, awkward rationalizations to highly sophisticated, creative, and intellectually resourceful egocentric and sociocentric rationalizations Admitting to a range of developmental levels From the fair- mindedness that an individual is able to exercise to that of the most profound thinkers Critical thinking skills internalized in the service of balanced truth, rationality, autonomy and self-insight Critical thinking skills internalized in the service of one’s vested interests and desires No Self- Awareness Self- Awareness The Self-Serving Critical Person (Weak Sense) The Fair-minded Critical Person (strong sense) No Self- Awareness Self- Awareness
  80. 80. Classroom activities: A General Critical Thinking Method to examine an ideology/hegemonic ideology  Who says so?  To whom it is said?  For whose best interest?  When it is said?  Where it is said? Examples: Inquiries or counterpoints regarding the definitions or understanding
  81. 81. Apply SEADS critical thinking model to examine an ideology/hegemonic ideology S- Identify sources (reliability, and validity) E- Evidence (enough? objective?) A- What are the assumptions hidden behind that message? D- What is the definition of the buzz words or hot button issues in the message? S- How biased? Slanted? Classroom activities:
  82. 82. Video clips relate to Diversity 6 major themes Practical Theme- How can business go wrong? What about diversity issues in other countries? Examples- Europe; Canada and US Specific themes a. Race/Ethnicity- case studies; Jesse Owen The Loving case mixed race b. Social Class- who owns USA c. Sexual Orientation- Got hates fags d. Language beer; case two cat ; Accent case two e. Disability
  83. 83. Social Structures History Biography Individual How does sociology make your mind-eyes sharp and see things differently? Capitalism. Representative Democracy. Religiosity, social class, Diverse population Revolutionary war, waves of immigration, wars against Native Americans, industrialization, Slavery, Civil War, Suffrage movement, WWI, Union movement, Great Depression, WWII, Civil right movement, Korean war, Vietnam war, oil crunch, gulf wars, war on Iraq… Ascribed (race,/ethnicity gender, sexual orientation, social class, disability…etc) vs. Achieved status; Genetics vs. Environment. Family upbringing, education, occupation, peers, media…etc.
  84. 84. Dimension of Diversity
  85. 85. Social Forces Shape Who and What We Are Individual Internal forces External forces I and ME/ Individual Positive Forces - push you up Invisible social Forces Negative Forces - drag you downVisible Social Forces Genetics/ Biology Environment/ social-culture
  86. 86. Constructionism vs. Essentionalism Experiencing difference The meaning of difference Bridging differences Individual How differences were/are Constructed and Ways to Bridge the Differences Framework I What is race? What is sex and gender? What is social class? What is sexual orientation/identity? Framework II Race and ethnicity; Sex / gender Sexual orientation/identity Social class Disability Framework III Intersectionality Law, public, and economy Language Framework IV Influencing public policy What can we do? Becoming part of the solution In defense of rich kids Uprooting Racism

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