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Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
Open Education: The Business andPolicy Case for OER
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Open Education: The Business and Policy Case for OER

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FHSU & UMASS Slides (April, 2013)

FHSU & UMASS Slides (April, 2013)

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  • Big idea – why are we talking about this?Education / Research Dream is simple: Everyone in the world can attain all the education they desire. It will require we share the educational resources we produce and that we spend our limited public resources wisely.WA K-12 is a common core state – opportunity to share.
  • And the world needs this dream to come true … and quickly… if we are to meet the global demand for higher / tertiary education.Sir John Daniel, President & DEO of the Commonwealth of Learning notes:What do you think the odds are the world will buildfour major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years?
  • This isn’t just my dream. Many have this Dream In 2006, Cathy Casserly and Mike Smith (@ Hewlett Foundation) wrote: “At the heart of the movement towards Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse it.”------------------(Smith, M.S. and Casserly, C.M. 2006. The promise of Open Educational Resources. Change, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 8-17)
  • CC is the law catching up with the way the internet actually works.But think about all the ways the internet has changed in the past ten years. It’s time to think about how CC will evolve.
  • within the jurisdiction, public and legal lead volunteers help to make the licenses work in their individual countries’ legal systemwe have 70 active affiliate teams with several more in process
  • Open license is key.Free as in free beer and free as in freedom
  • We have to help policy leaders understand the affordances of digital things… and how digital courses, textbooks, data, research, science… can be non-rivalrous resources IF educational resources are openly licensed.
  • But we have a Policy ProblemMost policy makers don’t understand 21st century technical and legal tools and how they collectively enable “the learning machine”. Understanding the opportunity afforded by wielding these tools is key to even understanding that the dream is possible. Without this understanding, policy makers can only make decisions within existing frameworks, within existing business models.Tools:Internetaffordances of digital things: storage, distribution, copieshardware costs downbandwidth speed up mobility upOpen content licensing is 10+ years oldMass willingness to share Taken together these tools collectively enable affordable, high quality, continuously improving, openly licensed educational resources.Case in point: http://utahopentextbooks.org/2011/08/26/the-5-textbook/ : $5.35 textbook (including shipping) – ask David Wiley and CK-12David Wiley’s recent open K-12 textbook study in Utah found– NSD: Simply substituting open textbooks for proprietary textbooks does not impact learning outcomes.http://utahopentextbooks.org/2011/10/12/efficacy-data-are-inMoreover, we are already moving from a print based to a digital based environment. In the digital environment, the technology enables a range of reuses that were not possible in the print based world. Thus, it becomes the copyright license terms of use, and technological protection measures, that hobble the teacher, student, and school district from making the fullest use of the materials. Why should school districts pay for digital materials accompanied by such restrictive terms of use and technological formats?
  • Clearly, the Internet has empowered us to copy and share with an efficiency never before known or imagined. However, long before the Internet was invented, copyright law began regulating the very activities the Internet makes essentially free (copying and distributing).Consequently, the Internet was born at a severe disadvantage, as preexisting laws discouraged people from realizing the full potential of the network.
  • The current market is failing because existing publishers are not offering what we’re asking for. We would welcome it if they chose to compete to provide what the new environment demands.
  • Global GDP comes in at just about $58.3T – World Bank Data (2009)If countries spend roughly 5% of GPD on education = $58.3T x 5% = US $2.9T / year If we can move to a simple open public policy, hundreds of billions of dollars of educational resources will be available under an open license and will be freely available to the public that paid for them.National / state / provincial governments and education systems all play a critical role in setting policies that drive education investments, and have an interest in ensuring that public funding in education make a meaningful, cost-effective contribution to socio-economic development.Given this role, these policy-making entities are ideally positioned to encourage or mandate recipients of public funding to produce educational resources under an open license.
  • This is why Open Policies are important. If we get this simple idea right, OER sustainability will cease to be an issue because:(a) there will be plenty of public funding to build and maintain all of the teaching, learning and research resources the world needs, and, (b) “open” becomes the default and “closed” becomes the exception. … and the bar for receiving an exception should be high.Wrong frame (today) – how do we sustain that [pilot] project?Right frame – how do we maximize the investments we’re already making (& have already made – sunk costs) on learning resources we need for our students… for our university … our state … our nation?OER becomes the default output of normal work -- so no new money required. It’s part of normal business. Sustaining OER = sustaining the academy.This was our sustainability plan in WA State – we are only going to be selfish and build / maintain what we would have done anyway for WA students. We’re also going to put a CC BY license on everything we build because (a) we believe education is about sharing and (b) good things happen to us when we share: updates, new partners, grant opportunities, translations…The point is that there is a choice between spending X dollars on the old model. Or spending X dollars in a different way. The vision should show how, if you kept X constant, the state would get a much bigger bang for its buck even though it would be enabling free riding from other state that might want to realign their budgets to X – Y. We need to acknowledge and confront this issue head on.There will still need to be ongoing investments … but if we collectively need quality, affordable learning resources that are iteratively improved based on data from assessments … shouldn’t we:(a) demand that we get access to what we, the taxpayers, paid for so we’re not starting from scratch and;(b) share what we build as we have a collective goal of educating more people to higher levels? Are we educators or not?
  • What about something small – local? Do open policies make sense on a smaller scale?Even one open textbook for a top 100 course makes sense.But WA should (a) ask if anyone else has already done this and openly licensed it (e.g., CK12), (b) alert other states / countries that it is going to make this investment and share.
  • Challenge: Existing Structures are Difficult to Change  Most educational content business models built on gatekeeping and locking up resources (to make them rivalrous) are challenged by these trends that allow digital resources to be non-rivalrous. Existing business models are starting to fight, and they have money and lobbyists.  
  • The US House Appropriations Committee released a draft fiscal year 2012 funding bill. Included in this bill is the following provision, which would appear to strip the ability of the DOL to support any further OER investments:Really? No one is allowed to build anything with public funds, with our tax dollars, “…unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development…"?Really?If the American people want to get maximum benefit from their precious public investments, the US Congress would rewrite the budget language to:"SEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to purchase proprietary, non-openly licensed new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive Open Educational Resources analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available under an open license that allows free reuse for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs."Let’s get to the crux of the issue. This is not about duplicating publisher works - this is about we, the tax payers, getting free and legal access to what we paid for... and our students, tax paying citizens, having access to high quality, affordable, openly licensed learning materials.The Department of Labor (DOL) has put forth a simple, rational public policy: Taxpayer-funded educational resources should be open educational resources. Information that is designed, developed and distributed through the generosity of public tax dollars should be accessible to the public that paid for it. If the publishers wish to debate, it will be on this point.What publishers and industry trade associations would do well to recognize is the CC BY license does not restrict commercialization of the open content produced by the DOL grantees. To be clear, the commercial publishers can take ALL of the content created in this DOL grant, modify it, make it better, add value, and sell it. The consumer (states, colleges, students) will then have a choice: (a) use the free openly licensed version(s) or (b) purchase the commercial for-a-fee version. If the commercial content / services are worth paying for, people will pay. If not, they won’t. Releasing information created with public funds should be a public right – not viewed as a disadvantage to commercial interests.How can you tell me I can’t have access to what I paid for – that’s crazy.
  • Essentially, the bill seeks to prohibit federal agencies from conditioning their grants to require that articles reporting on publicly funded research be made accessible to the public online. Translation and Comments:"If public tax money is used to fund research, that research becomes "private research" once a publisher "adds value" to it by managing the peer review.”Comment: Researchers do the peer review for the publisher for free, just as researchers give their papers to the publisher for free, together with the exclusive right to sell subscriptions to it, on-paper and online, seeking and receiving no fee or royalty in return.
  • Essentially, the bill seeks to prohibit federal agencies from conditioning their grants to require that articles reporting on publicly funded research be made accessible to the public online. Translation and Comments:"If public tax money is used to fund research, that research becomes "private research" once a publisher "adds value" to it by managing the peer review.”Comment: Researchers do the peer review for the publisher for free, just as researchers give their papers to the publisher for free, together with the exclusive right to sell subscriptions to it, on-paper and online, seeking and receiving no fee or royalty in return.
  • If we are to fight this nonsense, Open Policy strategy must follow NEW RULES.  Disruptive Innovation Lessons (Clayton Christensen): Never attack existing business models head-on – incumbents typically win because you are playing by their rules rather play by new rules that “the trends” afford – KEY point to remind policy makers – I’ve found this is NOT obvious to people.e.g., Open Course Library – we changed the rules - $30 cap – want to play? We will do this with or without you… would rather partner, but don’t oppose us – we have all the best arguments and the public is on our side.And as Professor Eben Moglen reminds us: when we openly license our work, and leverage the Internet as a free distribution channel, we put the creator / the author, and not the distributor, in control of human knowledge.We make things and we give them away. Here we made this, would you like it? Take some it's freehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tN00_v7gpbo&feature=youtu.be&t=6m45s----------------(1) Choose the most open license (e.g., public domain, CC BY) possible to (a) increase the degrees of freedom for downstream use, (b) increase interperability among licenses = more re-mix opportunities, and (c) reduce concern from existing for-profit businesses.
  • We have to think bigger and make smarter decisions collectively. Winston Churchill said: “If you have knowledge, let others light their candles with it.”This is the opportunity of our time – we can share, for the marginal cost of 0, give up nothing, and share knowledge with the world. We ought be straight, honest, expose the amount and flow of the $$$, make the open policy argument, and force the opposition to make their best arguments – and be ready to counter quickly.The open community is passionate and powerful if called to action for an important cause. Don’t work alone – share new policies with each otherWe all need to try to implement open policies where we can – some policies will take quicker than others due to local opportunities and challenges.We need to help one another pass open policies (testify, meetings, webinars)we can revise and remix others’ policies and legislationWhat can WE (the global Open community) do to help Governments, Foundations, States / Provinces, Systems, Institutions to adopt open policies?PresentationsInsert open policy into strategic plans – system efficiency plans – education reform plans – government efficiency plans, etc. Every opportunity!Share what their peers have done – no one wants to be left behindProvide draft open policy language, translated, customized for local needs.
  • Most important, take Policy makers back to first principles…
  • A closing thought, in the 21st century…
  • Thank you.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Open Education: The BusinessandPolicy Case for OERDr. Cable GreenDirector of Global Learningcable@creativecommons.org@cgreen
    • 2. Children Reading Pratham Books and Akshara By Ryan Lobo http://www.flickr.com/photos/prathambooks/3291CC BY
    • 3. “Nearly one-third of the world’spopulation (29.3%) is under15. Today there are 158 millionpeople enrolled in tertiaryeducation1. Projectionssuggest that that participationwill peak at 263 million2 in2025. Accommodating theadditional 105 million studentswould require more than fourmajor universities (30,000students) to open every weekfor the next fifteen years.1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures2 British Council and IDP Australia projectionsBy: COLhttp://www.col.org/SiteCollectios/JohnDaniel_2008_3x5.jpg
    • 4. Dreaming Girls Head By: Elfleda http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolinespics/1531CC BY-NC-ND
    • 5. A simple, standardizedway to grant copyrightpermissions to yourcreative work.
    • 6. Step 1: Choose ConditionsAttributionShareAlikeNonCommercialNoDerivatives
    • 7. Step 2: Receive a License
    • 8. most freeleast free
    • 9. Creative Commons License Chooserhttp://creativecommons.org/choose/http://youtu.be/iHDYenuFFtA
    • 10. Over 500 million items
    • 11. Our vision is nothing less than realizing the full potential of the Internet – universal access to research,education, & full participation in culture, driving a new era of development, growth, & productivity.Develops, supports, & stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, & innovation.
    • 12. Over 77,000 contributorsworking on over 22 millionarticles in 285 languages
    • 13. 175+ Million CC Licensed Photos on Flickr1
    • 14. Higher Ed
    • 15. K-12
    • 16. Open Educational Resources (OER)
    • 17. OER areteaching, learning, andresearch materials in anymedium that reside in thepublic domain or have beenreleased under an openlicense that permits their freeuse and re-purposing by
    • 18. Search & Discovery
    • 19. Translations & Accessibility
    • 20. Customization & Affordability
    • 21. What is theBusiness / PolicyCase for OER?
    • 22. vs.Rivalrous vs. Non-RivalrousResources
    • 23. BY SA: By Harvey Barrison http://www.flickr.com/photos/hbarrison/6920142558/
    • 24. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.90• Copy by computer - $0.00084CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
    • 25. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• $0 with print-on-demand (2000+ copies)• Distribute by internet - $0.00072CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
    • 26. Copy and Distribute are “Free”This changes everythingCC BY: David Wiley, BYU
    • 27. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, andTextbooksMovies and TV Shows:• Amazon Prime – $6.59/month($79/year) for access to 10,000 moviesand TV shows• Netflix – $7.99/month for access to20,000 movies and TV shows• Hulu Plus – $7.99/month for access to45,000 movies and TV showsCC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
    • 28. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, andTextbooksMusic:• Spotify – $9.99/month for access to 15million songs• Rhapsody – $14.99/month for accessto 14 million songsCC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
    • 29. CC BY ND / Delta Initiative / http://tinyurl.com/bw3ztnt
    • 30. When the Marginal Cost of Sharing is $0…- educators have an ethical obligation to share- governments need to get maximum ROI byrequiring publicly funded resources be openlylicensed resources- governments and educators need openlylicensed content: (a) so you can revise & remix(b) buying and maintaining is cheaper thanleasing (w/time bombs)
    • 31. There is a direct relationship betweentextbook costs and student success60%+ do not purchase textbooksat some point due to cost35% take fewer courses dueto textbook cost31% choose not to register fora course due to textbook cost23% regularly go withouttextbooks due to cost14% have dropped acourse due to textbook cost10% have withdrawn from acourse due to textbook costSource: 2012 student surveyby Florida Virtual Campuswww.projectkaleidoscop
    • 32. The Vision100% of students have100% free, digital access to all materials on day1Drive student success bydesigning, adopting, measuring andimproving OER-based courseswww.projectkaleidoscop
    • 33. Student ratings of quality of open texts0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Better qualitySame qualityWorse qualityNumber of Students• “It was very concise and aligned with exactly what we wereworking on in the class.”• “Having the textbook catered to us by our teacher wasperfect.”3%56%41%Source: Bliss, Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012
    • 34. Student preference for Kaleidoscopecourses0 20 40 60 80 100Prefer KscopePrefer traditionalNo preferenceNumber of Students• “I enjoy having online texts provided for me because Impoor. I spend the money I have left after rent on school, sohaving free online texts provided for me benefits me verymuch.”• “GREAT WAY TO DO ONLINE CLASSES!!!!”13%13%73%Source: Bliss, Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012
    • 35. 0102030405060708090Historical Success Kaleidoscopewww.projectkaleidoscop
    • 36. $60 trillionx 5% =$ 3 trillion
    • 37. CC BYLinesofBikesBy:KOMUNewshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/komunews/6176280963
    • 38. Partner with Legislatorswho care about:(a) efficient use of national /state tax dollars;(b) saving students money;increasing access to publiclyfunded research and data;(c) increasing access to
    • 39. CC-BY licensed textbooksfor 90 university courses
    • 40. $500 million - Wave 2($2 billion over four years)
    • 41. Publicly fundedresources should beopenly licensedresources.
    • 42. • Cooperate & share = We all Win– Faculty have new choices when building learningspaces.– …the more eyes on a problem, the greaterchance for a solution.• Affordability: students can’t afford textbooks• Self-interest: good things happen when Ishare• It’s a social justice issue: everyone shouldhave the right to access digital knowledge.Why is “Open” Important?
    • 43. Building EffectiveTeams & Shiftingthe Culture toOpen as Default
    • 44. http://techplan.sbctc.edu“We will cultivate the culture andpractice of using and contributing toopen educational resources.”
    • 45. But using open educationalresources – and contributingto them – requires significantchange in the culture of highereducation. It requires thinkingabout content as a commonresource that raises all boatswhen shared. (p.11)
    • 46. English Composition I• 55,000+ enrollments / year• x $175 textbook• = $9.6+ Million every year
    • 47. English Composition I• 55,000+ enrollments / year• x $175 textbook• = $9.6+ Million every year
    • 48. Does it make any sense WA State andK-12 Districts together spend$130M/yearon textbooks and the results are:• Books are (on average) 7-10 years out ofdate• Paper only / no digital versions.• Students can’t write / highlight in books• Students can’t keep books at end ofyear• All rights reserved… teachers can’t
    • 49. massive change By: sookieCC BY
    • 50. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012Labor, Health and Human Services funding billSEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Actfor the Department of Labor may be used to developnew courses, modules, learning materials, or projects incarrying out education or career job training grantprograms unless the Secretary of Laborcertifies, after a comprehensive market-basedanalysis, that such courses, modules, learningmaterials, or projects are not otherwise available forpurchase or licensing in the marketplace or underdevelopment for students who require them toparticipate in such education or career job training grantprograms.http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
    • 51. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012Labor, Health and Human Services funding billSEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Actfor the Department of Labor may be used to developnew courses, modules, learning materials, or projects incarrying out education or career job training grantprograms unless the Secretary of Laborcertifies, after a comprehensive market-basedanalysis, that such courses, modules, learningmaterials, or projects are not otherwise available forpurchase or licensing in the marketplace or underdevelopment for students who require them toparticipate in such education or career job training grantprograms.http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
    • 52. H.R. 3699"No Federal agency mayadopt, implement, maintain, continue, orotherwise engage in anypolicy, program, or other activity that -- (1)causes, permits, or authorizes networkdissemination of any private-sectorresearch work without the prior consent ofthe publisher of such work; or (2) requiresthat any actual or prospective author, orthe employer of such an actual orprospective author, assent to network
    • 53. H.R. 3699"No Federal agency mayadopt, implement, maintain, continue, orotherwise engage in anypolicy, program, or other activity that -- (1)causes, permits, or authorizes networkdissemination of any private-sectorresearch work without the prior consent ofthe publisher of such work; or (2) requiresthat any actual or prospective author, orthe employer of such an actual orprospective author, assent to network
    • 54. But even better, the bill sponsorsaid:• "As the costs of publishing continue to bedriven down by new technology, we willcontinue to see a growth in open accesspublishers.• This new and innovative model appears tobe the wave of the future. The transitionmust be collaborative, and must respectcopyright law and the principles of openaccess.• The American people deserve to haveaccess to research for which they havehttp://maloney.house.gov/press-release/issa-maloney-statement-research-works-act
    • 55. “The Americanpeople deserve tohave access toresearch for whichthey have paid.”http://maloney.house.gov/press-release/issa-maloney-statement-research-works-actPublic
    • 56. CC BY-NC-ND046: Rule #2: See Rule #1 By: William Couchhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/wcouch/226861055
    • 57. ByMichaelGwyther-Joneshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/12587661@N06/7906811250/CC BY
    • 58. • Efficient use of public funds toincrease student success andaccess to quality educationalmaterials.• Everything else (including allexisting business models) issecondary.Only ONE thing Matters:
    • 59. the opposite of open isn’t “closed”
    • 60. the opposite of open is “broken”Attribution: John Wilbanks
    • 61. Dr. Cable GreenDirector of Global Learningcable@creativecommons.orgtwitter: cgreen

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