When the DOL TAACCCT grant was announced – I was working with the WA Community Colleges.It was just another grant – until we saw this.Our 34 Colleges realized something profound – not only did they want to get a grant and build a successful program.They wanted everyone other project, in every State, to be successful… because everyone is required to share everything they build with these public tax dollars.Conversation changed from – how can I succeed – to: how can everyone succeed so we can leverage one another’s good work?-----------------Grant solicitation said that all new material produced with grant funds must be licensed with a Creative Commons BY license…allows subsequent users to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the copyrighted work and requires such users to attribute the work in the manner specified by the Grantee.Baked into the grant solicitation. If you want the money, you need to promise to share what you create with other colleges, and with the worldextremely exciting; first large scale inclusion of CC at the US federal level the program is a giant leap forward in how grant funds are managed this provides public access to publicly funded educational materials CC BY maximizes the public benefit of the funding dollars expended Innovative use of these materials may be made by any teacher, parent, and school district, nationwide and beyond materials will be available for reuse and value-add by creative entrepreneurs, education start-ups, and traditional commercial businesses.
We read the SGA and asked – what is required in the SGA – where Community Colleges might need help?And what organizations have turn-key solutions that are uniquely suited to help projects be successful?So we put together this consortia. We call it OPEN: the Open Professionals Education Network.I’ll let them share their expertise, and how they can help your projects, in sessions later today.
We thought this was a good idea, but we wanted to get it funded so it could be FREE technical assistance for your projects.The Gates Foundation thought it was a good idea too.And we thank them for their vision and their support.
So what is The Opportunity?WE are educators.Many of us have a common dream: that everyone in the world can attain all the education they desire. That everyone have access to high quality, affordable, accessible learning opportunities.It will require we share the educational resources we produce and that we spend our limited public resources wisely.
And just like the United States … the rest of the world needs this dream to come true … and quickly… if we are to meet the global demand for higher education.Sir John Daniel, President & CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning notes:What do you think the odds are the world will buildfour major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years?
This isn’t just my dream. Many have this Dream In 2006, Cathy Casserly and Mike Smith (@ Hewlett Foundation) wrote: “At the heart of the movement towards Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse it.”------------------(Smith, M.S. and Casserly, C.M. 2006. The promise of Open Educational Resources. Change, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 8-17)
The next year, there was a meeting in Cape Town, South Africa.TheCape Town Declaration begins:We are on the cusp of a global revolution in teaching and learning. Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free for all to use. These educators are creating a world where each and every person on earth can access and contribute to the sum of all human knowledge.
Sharing educational resources is a global movement.In 2002 UNESCOparticipants expressed “their wish to develop together a universal educational resource available for the whole of humanity”10 years later = 2012 Global OER Conference in a few weeks.195 nations – debating and signing a Declaration moving toward open policies and support for OER
What are they talking about? They are talking about:* how Open Educational Resources (OER) can help their nations educate more people at higher levels* how their governments can maximize their public education investmentsThey are talking about OER.
Why are they talking about this?Because the technical and legal rules regarding educational content (textbooks, courses, simulations, etc.) have changed.Technology has driving the marginal costs of sharing digital resources to $0.Costs: production and maintenanceNo Costs: replication, storage, distribution
Clearly, the Internet has empowered us to copy and share with an efficiency never before known or imagined. However, long before the Internet was invented, copyright law began regulating the very activities the Internet makes essentially free (copying and distributing).Consequently, the Internet was born at a severe disadvantage, as preexisting laws discouraged people from realizing the full potential of the network.
Creative Commons works to make it easy for creators to share … to realize the full potential of the internet – universal access to research, education, full participation in culture – to drive a new era of development, growth, and productivity.CC Licenses make it easy and legal to share… so anyone can: reuse, revise, remix and redistribute.Everything you build with your TAACCCT grants will be shared under a Creative Commons Attribution license.
To understand the Opportunity, we need to understand what was once scarce is now abundant.We have to understand the affordances of digital things… and how digital courses, textbooks, data, research, science… can be non-rivalrous resources IF educational resources are openly licensed.
10 years ago, MIT opened all of its courses to the world… hundreds of other Universities have followed.And it’s not just Universities.WA Community Colleges are part of the OPEN project – they will tell you how and why they put their entire general education curriculum online, under a CC BY license.The call it the “Open Course Library.”
Our Open Access colleagues:SPARCRight to ResearchAnd all of the Universities, Libraries and Faculty who share their creative works…seek to return scholarly publishing to its original purpose: to spread knowledge and allow that knowledge to be built upon.
And we have many new interesting projects like Saylor.org… where your projects can go, review, and reuse and remix existing OER…as you build your courses – your programs.The Saylor Foundation believes that everyone, everywhere should have access to a college education.
But we have a Policy ProblemMost policy makers don’t understand 21st century technical and legal tools and how they collectively enable this Learning Opportunity.Understanding the Opportunity afforded by wielding these tools is key to event understanding that the dream is possible. Without this understanding, policy makers can only make decisions within existing frameworks, within existing business models.Tools:Internetaffordances of digital things: storage, distribution, copieshardware costs downbandwidth speed up mobility upOpen content licensing is 10+ years oldMass willingness to share Taken together these tools collectively enable affordable, high quality, continuously improving, openly licensed educational resources.DOL is leading the way and other US Federal agencies and other Nations are watching.They want to know – what will you do with this Opportunity. Will you leverage existing OER?Will you work together, across projects, on modules, courses and textbooks you collectively need?How will you share what you build… so others may reuse, revise, remix, translate it into new language?
So what? Why should we care about Open Policy? Why am I talking about it?Open Policy = Publicly funded resources are openly licensed resources.Why focus on Publicly funded educational resources = LOTS of $$$Brazil: approximately 5% of GDP ($2.1T dollars) on educationEuropean Union – 5% of GDP ($16.2T) on EducationArgentina spends 6% of GDP ($307B) on EducationUnited States spends just over 5% of GDP ($14.1T)Malaysia has been spending between 20 and 25% of its annual budget on education [ a third of it in HE], for the last two decades.================These might be useful - though they're both very dated: http://www.oclc.org/reports/escan/economic/educationlibraryspending.htmhttp://www.nationmaster.com/graph/edu_edu_spe-education-spending-of-gdpThis gives you a thorough break down of Australia's GDP expenditure on education between 2003 and 2008: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/0E0701553637F843CA25773700169C99?opendocument
Global GDP comes in at just about $58.3T – World Bank Data (2009)If countries spend roughly 5% of GPD on education = $58.3T x 5% = US $2.9T / year If we can move to a simple open public policy, hundreds of billions of dollars of educational resources will be available under an open license and will be freely available to the public that paid for them.National / state / provincial governments and education systems all play a critical role in setting policies that drive education investments, and have an interest in ensuring that public funding in education make a meaningful, cost-effective contribution to socio-economic development.Given this role, these policy-making entities are ideally positioned to encourage recipients of public funding to produce educational resources under an open license.
What about something small – local? Do open policies make sense on a smaller scale?Even one open textbook for a top 50 course makes sense.But WA should (a) ask if anyone else has already done this and openly licensed it (e.g., CK12), (b) alert other states / countries that it is going to make this investment and share.California - $25M – 50 open textbooks – community colleges – all CC BY … just cleared the Senate appropriators committees this week – and CA has no money.The state's budget shortfall for the rest of this fiscal year and next, estimated to be $28 billion, is the size of the total general fund budget of 12 states combined: Delaware, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont and West Virginia.Yet – this is viewed as the right public investment – investing in OER to help more people go to Community Colleges… to help more people learn and get jobs.
Challenge: Existing Structures are Difficult to Change Most educational content business models built on gatekeeping and locking up resources (to make them rivalrous) are challenged by these trends that allow digital resources to be non-rivalrous. Existing business models are starting to fight, and they have money and lobbyists.
The US House Appropriations Committee released a draft fiscal year 2012 funding bill. Included in this bill is the following provision, which would appear to strip the ability of the DOL to support any further TAACCCT-like investments:No one is allowed to build anything with public funds, with our tax dollars, “…unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development…"?Releasing information created with public funds should be a public right – not viewed as a disadvantage to commercial interests.
Essentially, the bill sought to prohibit federal agencies from conditioning their grants to require that articles reporting on publicly funded research be made accessible to the public online. Translation:"If public tax money is used to fund research, that research becomes "private research" once a publisher "adds value" to it by managing the peer review.”Researchers do the peer review for the publisher for freeresearchers give their papers to the publisher for free, together with the exclusive right to sell subscriptions to it, on-paper and online, seeking and receiving no fee or royalty in return. Publishers sell the research back to your libraries – you have library budget cuts – and now your faculty / students (federal tax payers) – cannot access the research they paid for
We have to think bigger and make smarter decisions collectively. December 1, 1862. One month before signing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln sent a long message to the US Congress: in it he said:The dogmas of the quiet past, are inadequate to the stormy present. The occasion is piled high with difficulty, and we must rise -- with the occasion. As our case is new, so we must think anew, and act anew. We must disenthrall ourselves, and then we shall save our country. Can we disenthrall ourselves from our current behaviors and think and act anew? I think we can.-------------Over the next two days (in fact – over the next two years), you have an opportunity to connect with similar projects, to think about how you can work together, how you can use existing OER as you build your courses, your programs.If we are going to help existing and future Community College students get access to the state-of-the-art programs you are building… so they can take the next gen jobs with your industry partners, we’re going to have to work together.We’ll need to identify common course and curriculum needs and opportunities across programs. We’ll need to find and review existing OER before we start from scratch… because recreating the wheel will slow you down and deplete your budgets.OPEN is here to support you as you do so. We are your partners. We share your goals. And is our honor to be part of this historic grant.
The world is watching and learning.Welcome to The Opportunity.
“…as a condition of the receipt of a TradeAdjustment Assistance Community College andCareer Training Grant (“Grant”), the Grantee willbe required to license to the public (not includingthe Federal Government) all work created with thesupport of the grant (“Work”) under a CreativeCommons Attribution 3.0 License (“License”).”
“OPEN” Consortia will Support ALL DOL TAACCCT Grantees
CC BY Children Reading Pratham Books and Akshara By Ryan Lobo http://www.flickr.com/photos/prathambooks/3291
“Nearly one-third of the world’spopulation (29.3%) is under15. Today there are 158 millionpeople enrolled in tertiaryeducation1. Projectionssuggest that that participationwill peak at 263 million2 in2025. Accommodating theadditional 105 million studentswould require more than fourmajor universities (30,000students) to open every weekfor the next fifteen years. By: COL1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures http://www.col.org/SiteCollectio2 British Council and IDP Australia projections s/JohnDaniel_2008_3x5.jpg
CC BY-NC-ND Dreaming Girls Head By: Elfleda http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolinespics/1531
Global GPD = US $58.3 Tx 5% = US $2.915 T / yearHow much of that is spent:• creating courseware?• subsidizing or directly purchasing textbook
English Composition I• 55,000+ enrollments / year• x $175 textbook•= $9.6+ Million every year
English Composition I• 55,000+ enrollments / year• x $175 textbook•= $9.6+ Million every year
http://openstaxcollege.org• OpenStax College texts are CC BY and can be adopted and adapted by faculty• OpenStax College texts meet scope/sequence requirements of course and are professionally developed• Any format, on any device, at any time
U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012Labor, Health and Human Services funding billSEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Actfor the Department of Labor may be used to developnew courses, modules, learning materials, or projects incarrying out education or career job training grantprograms unless the Secretary of Labor certifies,after a comprehensive market-based analysis, thatsuch courses, modules, learning materials, or projectsare not otherwise available for purchase or licensingin the marketplace or under development forstudents who require them to participate in sucheducation or career job training grant programs.http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012Labor, Health and Human Services funding billSEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Actfor the Department of Labor may be used to developnew courses, modules, learning materials, or projects incarrying out education or career job training grantprograms unless the Secretary of Laborcertifies, after a comprehensive market-basedanalysis, that such courses, modules, learningmaterials, or projects are not otherwise available forpurchase or licensing in the marketplace or underdevelopment for students who require them toparticipate in such education or career job training grantprograms.http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
H.R. 3699"No Federal agency mayadopt, implement, maintain, continue, orotherwise engage in anypolicy, program, or other activity that -- (1)causes, permits, or authorizes networkdissemination of any private-sectorresearch work without the prior consent ofthe publisher of such work; or (2) requiresthat any actual or prospective author, orthe employer of such an actual orprospective author, assent to network
H.R. 3699"No Federal agency may adopt,implement, maintain, continue, orotherwise engage in any policy, program,or other activity that -- (1) causes,permits, or authorizes networkdissemination of any private-sectorresearch work without the prior consent ofthe publisher of such work; or (2) requiresthat any actual or prospective author, orthe employer of such an actual orprospective author, assent to network
Interestingly, the bill sponsor said: • "As the costs of publishing continue to be driven down by new technology, we will continue to see a growth in open access publishers. • This new and innovative model appears to be the wave of the future. The transition must be collaborative, and must respect copyright law and the principles of open access. • The American people deserve to have access to research for which they havehttp://maloney.house.gov/press-release/issa-maloney-statement-research-works-act
“The American people deserve to have access to research for which they have paid.”http://maloney.house.gov/press-release/issa-maloney-statement-research-works-act