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Open Scotland Keynote - Cable Green

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Keynore presented by Dr Cable Green, Creative Commons Director of Global Learning, at Open Scotland, Edinburgh, 27th June 2013.

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Open Scotland Keynote - Cable Green

  1. 1. Open Education: The Business and Policy Case for OER Dr. Cable Green Director of Global Learning cable@creativecommons.org @cgreen
  2. 2. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  3. 3. Children Reading Pratham Books and Akshara By Ryan Lobo http://www.flickr.com/photos/prathambooks/3291CC BY
  4. 4. “Nearly one-third of the world’s population (29.3%) is under 15. Today there are 158 million people enrolled in tertiary education1. Projections suggest that that participation will peak at 263 million2 in 2025. Accommodating the additional 105 million students would require more than four major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years.1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures 2 British Council and IDP Australia projections By: COL http://www.col.org/SiteCollectio s/JohnDaniel_2008_3x5.jpg
  5. 5. Dreaming Girls Head By: Elfleda http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolinespics/1531CC BY-NC-ND
  6. 6. http://www.capetowndeclaration.org
  7. 7. By: UNESCO: http://www.moveoneinc.com/blog/wp-
  8. 8. A simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to your creative work.
  9. 9. Step 1: Choose Conditions Attribution ShareAlike NonCommercial NoDerivatives
  10. 10. Step 2: Receive a License
  11. 11. most free least free
  12. 12. http://creativecommons.org/choose/ http://youtu.be/iHDYenuFFtA
  13. 13. Over 500 million items
  14. 14. Our vision is nothing less than realizing the full potential of the Internet – universal access to research, education, & full participation in culture, driving a new era of development, growth, & productivity. Develops, supports, & stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, & innovation.
  15. 15. Over 77,000 contributors working on over 22 million articles in 285 languages
  16. 16. 175+ Million CC Licensed Photos on Flickr 2
  17. 17. Higher Ed
  18. 18. By: MIT OCW: http://conferences.ocwconsortium.org/2011/cambridge/images/logo-ocwc-
  19. 19. Primary
  20. 20. Open Educational Resources (OER)
  21. 21. OER are teaching, learning, and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.
  22. 22. Education grant making
  23. 23. Search & Discovery
  24. 24. Translations & Accessibility
  25. 25. Customization & Affordability
  26. 26. What is the Business / Policy Case for OER?
  27. 27. vs. Rivalrous vs. Non-Rivalrous Resources
  28. 28. Current research funding cycle does not maximize dissemination, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, research grants awarded Scientific research conducted and papers written Articles submitted to journals and peer review occurs Acceptance in journals; authors transfer copyright to publishers Articles published in mainly closed access journals Libraries subscribe or public pays per article fee to view on publisher's website Public granted little or no reuse rights beyond access to read articles Slow scientific progress, poor return on public investment
  29. 29. Optimized research funding cycle maximizes public access, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, open license requirements included, research grants awarded Scientific research conducted and papers written Acceptance in journals; public access policy ensures deposit in open repository Articles published in traditional journals under embargo Public can download articles from open access repository Public granted full reuse rights under open licenses Accelerated scientific progress, optimal return on public investment Articles submitted to journals and peer review occurs
  30. 30. Current educational resource funding cycle does not maximize dissemination, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, education grants awarded Educational resources produced Peer review limited to grantee's institution Copyright with grantee, no obligation to share Content only used at grantee institution Public does not know about education resources Public granted little or no reuse rights Slowed learning, poor return on public investment
  31. 31. Optimized educational resource funding cycle maximizes public access, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, open license requirements included, education grants awarded Educational resources produced Peer review broadene d to education communit y Copyright vests with grantee, all resources openly licensed Content used by grantee and beyond Public knows about education resources Public granted full reuse rights Accelerated learning, maximum return on public investment
  32. 32. BY SA: By Harvey Barrison http://www.flickr.com/photos/hbarrison/6920142558/
  33. 33. Cost of “Copy” For one 250 page book: • Copy by hand - $1,000 • Copy by print on demand - $4.90 • Copy by computer - $0.00084 CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
  34. 34. Cost of “Distribute” For one 250 page book: • Distribute by mail - $5.20 • $0 with print-on-demand (2000+ copies) • Distribute by internet - $0.00072 CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
  35. 35. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
  36. 36. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, and Textbooks Movies and TV Shows: • Amazon Prime – $6.59/month ($79/year) for access to 10,000 movies and TV shows • Netflix – $7.99/month for access to 20,000 movies and TV shows • Hulu Plus – $7.99/month for access to 45,000 movies and TV shows CC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
  37. 37. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, and Textbooks Music: • Spotify – $9.99/month for access to 15 million songs • Rhapsody – $14.99/month for access to 14 million songs CC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
  38. 38. CC BY ND / Delta Initiative / http://tinyurl.com/bw3ztnt
  39. 39. When the Marginal Cost of Sharing is $0… - educators have an ethical obligation to share - governments need to get maximum ROI by requiring publicly funded resources be openly licensed resources - governments and educators need openly licensed content: (a) so you can revise & remix (b) buying and maintaining is cheaper than leasing (w/time bombs)
  40. 40. Partner with Governments who care about: (a) efficient use of national / state tax dollars; (b) saving students money; increasing access to publicly funded research and data; (c) increasing access to
  41. 41. CC-BY licensed textbooks for 110 university courses
  42. 42. $500 million – Round 2 ($2 billion over four years)
  43. 43. “as a condition of the receipt of a TAACCCT grant, the grantee will be required to license to the public (not including the Federal Government) all work created with the support of the grant (Work) under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) license. Work that must be licensed under the CCBY includes both new content created with the grant funds and modifications made to pre-existing, grantee-owned content using grant funds.” SGA, Round 2 (p. 8 / Section I.D.5 )
  44. 44. White House issues directive supporting public access to publicly funded research
  45. 45. Publicly funded resources should be openly licensed resources.
  46. 46. English Composition I • 55,000+ enrollments / year • x $175 textbook • = $9.6+ Million every year
  47. 47. English Composition I • 55,000+ enrollments / year • x $175 textbook • = $9.6+ Million every year
  48. 48. http://opencourselibrary.org
  49. 49. Does it make any sense WA State and K-12 Districts together spend $130M/year on textbooks and the results are: • Books are (on average) 7-10 years out of date • Paper only / no digital versions. • Students can’t write / highlight in books • Students can’t keep books at end of year • All rights reserved… teachers can’t
  50. 50. massive change By: sookieCC BY
  51. 51. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012 Labor, Health and Human Services funding bill SEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to develop new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs. http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
  52. 52. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012 Labor, Health and Human Services funding bill SEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to develop new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs. http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
  53. 53. CC BY-NC-ND 046: Rule #2: See Rule #1 By: William Couch http://www.flickr.com/photos/wcouch/226861055
  54. 54. ByMichaelGwyther-Jones http://www.flickr.com/photos/12587661@N06/ 7906811250/ CC BY
  55. 55. • Efficient use of public funds to increase student success and access to quality educational materials. • Everything else (including all existing business models) is secondary. Only ONE thing Matters:
  56. 56. the opposite of open isn’t “closed”
  57. 57. the opposite of open is “broken” Attribution: John Wilbanks
  58. 58. Dr. Cable Green Director of Global Learning cable@creativecommons.org twitter: cgreen

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