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Open Education: The Business and Policy Case for OER

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FHSU & UMASS Slides (April, 2013)

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Open Education: The Business and Policy Case for OER

  1. 1. Open Education: The BusinessandPolicy Case for OERDr. Cable GreenDirector of Global Learningcable@creativecommons.org@cgreen
  2. 2. Children Reading Pratham Books and Akshara By Ryan Lobo http://www.flickr.com/photos/prathambooks/3291CC BY
  3. 3. “Nearly one-third of the world’spopulation (29.3%) is under15. Today there are 158 millionpeople enrolled in tertiaryeducation1. Projectionssuggest that that participationwill peak at 263 million2 in2025. Accommodating theadditional 105 million studentswould require more than fourmajor universities (30,000students) to open every weekfor the next fifteen years.1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures2 British Council and IDP Australia projectionsBy: COLhttp://www.col.org/SiteCollectios/JohnDaniel_2008_3x5.jpg
  4. 4. Dreaming Girls Head By: Elfleda http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolinespics/1531CC BY-NC-ND
  5. 5. A simple, standardizedway to grant copyrightpermissions to yourcreative work.
  6. 6. Step 1: Choose ConditionsAttributionShareAlikeNonCommercialNoDerivatives
  7. 7. Step 2: Receive a License
  8. 8. most freeleast free
  9. 9. Creative Commons License Chooserhttp://creativecommons.org/choose/http://youtu.be/iHDYenuFFtA
  10. 10. Over 500 million items
  11. 11. Our vision is nothing less than realizing the full potential of the Internet – universal access to research,education, & full participation in culture, driving a new era of development, growth, & productivity.Develops, supports, & stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, & innovation.
  12. 12. Over 77,000 contributorsworking on over 22 millionarticles in 285 languages
  13. 13. 175+ Million CC Licensed Photos on Flickr1
  14. 14. Higher Ed
  15. 15. K-12
  16. 16. Open Educational Resources (OER)
  17. 17. OER areteaching, learning, andresearch materials in anymedium that reside in thepublic domain or have beenreleased under an openlicense that permits their freeuse and re-purposing by
  18. 18. Search & Discovery
  19. 19. Translations & Accessibility
  20. 20. Customization & Affordability
  21. 21. What is theBusiness / PolicyCase for OER?
  22. 22. vs.Rivalrous vs. Non-RivalrousResources
  23. 23. BY SA: By Harvey Barrison http://www.flickr.com/photos/hbarrison/6920142558/
  24. 24. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.90• Copy by computer - $0.00084CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
  25. 25. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• $0 with print-on-demand (2000+ copies)• Distribute by internet - $0.00072CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
  26. 26. Copy and Distribute are “Free”This changes everythingCC BY: David Wiley, BYU
  27. 27. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, andTextbooksMovies and TV Shows:• Amazon Prime – $6.59/month($79/year) for access to 10,000 moviesand TV shows• Netflix – $7.99/month for access to20,000 movies and TV shows• Hulu Plus – $7.99/month for access to45,000 movies and TV showsCC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
  28. 28. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, andTextbooksMusic:• Spotify – $9.99/month for access to 15million songs• Rhapsody – $14.99/month for accessto 14 million songsCC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
  29. 29. CC BY ND / Delta Initiative / http://tinyurl.com/bw3ztnt
  30. 30. When the Marginal Cost of Sharing is $0…- educators have an ethical obligation to share- governments need to get maximum ROI byrequiring publicly funded resources be openlylicensed resources- governments and educators need openlylicensed content: (a) so you can revise & remix(b) buying and maintaining is cheaper thanleasing (w/time bombs)
  31. 31. There is a direct relationship betweentextbook costs and student success60%+ do not purchase textbooksat some point due to cost35% take fewer courses dueto textbook cost31% choose not to register fora course due to textbook cost23% regularly go withouttextbooks due to cost14% have dropped acourse due to textbook cost10% have withdrawn from acourse due to textbook costSource: 2012 student surveyby Florida Virtual Campuswww.projectkaleidoscop
  32. 32. The Vision100% of students have100% free, digital access to all materials on day1Drive student success bydesigning, adopting, measuring andimproving OER-based courseswww.projectkaleidoscop
  33. 33. Student ratings of quality of open texts0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Better qualitySame qualityWorse qualityNumber of Students• “It was very concise and aligned with exactly what we wereworking on in the class.”• “Having the textbook catered to us by our teacher wasperfect.”3%56%41%Source: Bliss, Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012
  34. 34. Student preference for Kaleidoscopecourses0 20 40 60 80 100Prefer KscopePrefer traditionalNo preferenceNumber of Students• “I enjoy having online texts provided for me because Impoor. I spend the money I have left after rent on school, sohaving free online texts provided for me benefits me verymuch.”• “GREAT WAY TO DO ONLINE CLASSES!!!!”13%13%73%Source: Bliss, Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012
  35. 35. 0102030405060708090Historical Success Kaleidoscopewww.projectkaleidoscop
  36. 36. $60 trillionx 5% =$ 3 trillion
  37. 37. CC BYLinesofBikesBy:KOMUNewshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/komunews/6176280963
  38. 38. Partner with Legislatorswho care about:(a) efficient use of national /state tax dollars;(b) saving students money;increasing access to publiclyfunded research and data;(c) increasing access to
  39. 39. CC-BY licensed textbooksfor 90 university courses
  40. 40. $500 million - Wave 2($2 billion over four years)
  41. 41. Publicly fundedresources should beopenly licensedresources.
  42. 42. • Cooperate & share = We all Win– Faculty have new choices when building learningspaces.– …the more eyes on a problem, the greaterchance for a solution.• Affordability: students can’t afford textbooks• Self-interest: good things happen when Ishare• It’s a social justice issue: everyone shouldhave the right to access digital knowledge.Why is “Open” Important?
  43. 43. Building EffectiveTeams & Shiftingthe Culture toOpen as Default
  44. 44. http://techplan.sbctc.edu“We will cultivate the culture andpractice of using and contributing toopen educational resources.”
  45. 45. But using open educationalresources – and contributingto them – requires significantchange in the culture of highereducation. It requires thinkingabout content as a commonresource that raises all boatswhen shared. (p.11)
  46. 46. English Composition I• 55,000+ enrollments / year• x $175 textbook• = $9.6+ Million every year
  47. 47. English Composition I• 55,000+ enrollments / year• x $175 textbook• = $9.6+ Million every year
  48. 48. Does it make any sense WA State andK-12 Districts together spend$130M/yearon textbooks and the results are:• Books are (on average) 7-10 years out ofdate• Paper only / no digital versions.• Students can’t write / highlight in books• Students can’t keep books at end ofyear• All rights reserved… teachers can’t
  49. 49. massive change By: sookieCC BY
  50. 50. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012Labor, Health and Human Services funding billSEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Actfor the Department of Labor may be used to developnew courses, modules, learning materials, or projects incarrying out education or career job training grantprograms unless the Secretary of Laborcertifies, after a comprehensive market-basedanalysis, that such courses, modules, learningmaterials, or projects are not otherwise available forpurchase or licensing in the marketplace or underdevelopment for students who require them toparticipate in such education or career job training grantprograms.http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
  51. 51. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012Labor, Health and Human Services funding billSEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Actfor the Department of Labor may be used to developnew courses, modules, learning materials, or projects incarrying out education or career job training grantprograms unless the Secretary of Laborcertifies, after a comprehensive market-basedanalysis, that such courses, modules, learningmaterials, or projects are not otherwise available forpurchase or licensing in the marketplace or underdevelopment for students who require them toparticipate in such education or career job training grantprograms.http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
  52. 52. H.R. 3699"No Federal agency mayadopt, implement, maintain, continue, orotherwise engage in anypolicy, program, or other activity that -- (1)causes, permits, or authorizes networkdissemination of any private-sectorresearch work without the prior consent ofthe publisher of such work; or (2) requiresthat any actual or prospective author, orthe employer of such an actual orprospective author, assent to network
  53. 53. H.R. 3699"No Federal agency mayadopt, implement, maintain, continue, orotherwise engage in anypolicy, program, or other activity that -- (1)causes, permits, or authorizes networkdissemination of any private-sectorresearch work without the prior consent ofthe publisher of such work; or (2) requiresthat any actual or prospective author, orthe employer of such an actual orprospective author, assent to network
  54. 54. But even better, the bill sponsorsaid:• "As the costs of publishing continue to bedriven down by new technology, we willcontinue to see a growth in open accesspublishers.• This new and innovative model appears tobe the wave of the future. The transitionmust be collaborative, and must respectcopyright law and the principles of openaccess.• The American people deserve to haveaccess to research for which they havehttp://maloney.house.gov/press-release/issa-maloney-statement-research-works-act
  55. 55. “The Americanpeople deserve tohave access toresearch for whichthey have paid.”http://maloney.house.gov/press-release/issa-maloney-statement-research-works-actPublic
  56. 56. CC BY-NC-ND046: Rule #2: See Rule #1 By: William Couchhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/wcouch/226861055
  57. 57. ByMichaelGwyther-Joneshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/12587661@N06/7906811250/CC BY
  58. 58. • Efficient use of public funds toincrease student success andaccess to quality educationalmaterials.• Everything else (including allexisting business models) issecondary.Only ONE thing Matters:
  59. 59. the opposite of open isn’t “closed”
  60. 60. the opposite of open is “broken”Attribution: John Wilbanks
  61. 61. Dr. Cable GreenDirector of Global Learningcable@creativecommons.orgtwitter: cgreen

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