So what is The Opportunity? Many of us have a common dream: Thateveryone in the world can attain all the education they desire. That everyone have access to high quality, affordable, accessible learning opportunities.It will require we share the educational resources we produce and that we spend our limited public resources wisely.
We start with the Internet. Internet connectivity is virtually everywhere, and it provides the greatest distribution channel we have ever known.When we add digital content to the World Wide Web, we should be able to lower costs, increase access, and increase quality… right?
And just like the United States … the rest of the world needs this dream to come true … and quickly… if we are to meet the global demand for higher education.Sir John Daniel, President & CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning notes:What do you think the odds are the world will build four major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years?
In 2006, Cathy Casserly and Mike Smith (@ Hewlett Foundation) wrote: “At the heart of the movement towards Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse it.”
The next year, there was a meeting in Cape Town, South Africa.The Cape Town Declaration begins:We are on the cusp of a global revolution in teaching and learning. Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free for all to use. These educators are creating a world where each and every person on earth can access and contribute to the sum of all human knowledge.
Sharing educational resources is a global movement.In 2002 UNESCO participants expressed “their wish to develop together a universal educational resource available for the whole of humanity”10 years later = 2012 Global OER Conference this week in Paris.195 nations – debating and signing a Declaration moving toward open policies and support for OER
What are they talking about? They are talking about:* how Open Educational Resources (OER) can help their nations educate more people at higher levels* how their governments can maximize their public education investmentsThey are talking about OER.
Why are they talking about this?Because the technical and legal rules regarding educational content (textbooks, courses, simulations, etc.) have changed.Technology has driving the marginal costs of sharing digital resources to $0.Costs: production and maintenanceNo Costs: replication, storage, distribution
Clearly, the Internet has empowered us to copy and share with an efficiency never before known or imagined. However, long before the Internet was invented, copyright law began regulating the very activities the Internet makes essentially free (copying and distributing).Consequently, the Internet was born at a severe disadvantage, as preexisting laws discouraged people from realizing the full potential of the network.
To understand the Opportunity, we need to understand what was once scarce is now abundant.We have to understand the affordances of digital things… and how digital courses, textbooks, data, research, science… can be non-rivalrous resources IF educational resources are openly licensed.
We need a way to make sharing digital content easy, legal, and scalable. This is where open licensing comes in.
10 years ago, MIT opened all of its courses to the world… hundreds of other universities have followed.And it’s not just universities.WA Community Colleges are part of the open movement – they have put their entire general education curriculum online, under a CC BY license.The call it the “Open Course Library.”
In 2010 the State Board approved the first “open” policy.
The Open Course Library is a collection of expertly developed educational materials – including textbooks, syllabi, course activities, readings, and assessments – for 81 high-enrollment college courses. 42 courses have been completed so far, providing faculty with a high-quality option that will cost students no more than $30 per course.
The Opportunity Is Open
The Opportunity is Open Tom Caswell Open Education Policy AssociateWA State Board for Community & Technical CollegesIntegrated Teaching & Learning Gateway Symposium NC Community College System June 18, 2012
CC BY-NC-ND Dreaming Girls Head By: Elfleda http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolinespics/1531
Iron Triangle “In the view of many college and university presidents, the three main factors in higher education—cost, quality, and access—exist in what we call an iron triangle. These factors are linked in an unbreakable reciprocal relationship, such that any change in one will inevitably impact the others.” - Public Agenda research on opinions of higher education presidents Source: The Iron Triangle: College Presidents Talk About Costs, Access, and Quality, Public Agenda, October 2008.
Iron Triangle Quality vs. Cost vs. Access The “Iron Triangle” suggests institutions are constrained in their ability to adapt. Access Quality Cost
Global Trends Internet + Digital Content = Lower Cost Greater Access Greater Quality Right?
Who’s the audience?How do students drive this?How do faculty guide them?“It’s going to be done by themasses, not the masters.” Slide by Myk Garn
“Nearly one-third of the world’spopulation (29.3%) is under15. Today there are 158 millionpeople enrolled in tertiaryeducation1. Projectionssuggest that that participationwill peak at 263 million2 in2025. Accommodating theadditional 105 million studentswould require more than fourmajor universities (30,000students) to open every weekfor the next fifteen years. By: COL1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures http://www.col.org/SiteCollectio2 British Council and IDP Australia projections s/JohnDaniel_2008_3x5.jpg
How do we currentlyattempt to harness digitalnetworked technologies?
OER DefinitionOpen Educational Resources (OER): Teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or repurposing by others.
Cost of “Copy” For one 250 page book: • Copy by hand - $1,000 • Copy by print on demand - $4.90 • Copy by computer - $0.00084 CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
Cost of “Distribute” For one 250 page book: • Distribute by mail - $5.20 (2000+ copies print-on-demand) • Distribute by internet - $0.00072 CC BY: David Wiley, BYU CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything…
Affordability SBCTC Example: English Composition I 50,000+ enrollments / year x $175 textbook = $8.7+ Million every year
http://techplan.sbctc.edu“We will cultivate the culture andpractice of using and contributing toopen educational resources.”
State Board “Open” Policy All digital software, educational resources and knowledge produced through competitive grants, offered through and/or managed by the SBCTC, will carry a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Open Course Library A collection of openly licensed (CC BY) educational materials for 81 high-enrollment college courses Project Goals: 1. Lower textbook costs for students 2. Improve course completion rates 3. Provide new resources for faculty Credit: Timothy Valentine & Leo Reynolds CC-BY-NC- SA Please visit: http://opencourselibrary.org
Open Course Library The first 42 courses were released October 31, 2011 Over 80 media mentions worldwide Over 35,000 visits from 125 countries to http://opencourselibrary.org
Open Course Library Initial Impact In the first year, students will save $1.1 million in textbook costs That’s more than we spent to develop the courses… in year 1.
Open Course LibrarySaylor.org ReusesOpen CourseLibrary Materials
Next Steps: Open Course Library Driving Open Course Library Course Adoptions • Regional conferences and workshops • New faculty trainings • Marking OCL courses in class schedules Building open sharing into existing teaching workflows and technologies • Lecture capture • Next LMS will have “open sharing” feature
WA Education Master PlanEducate More CitizensRaise educational attainment to create prosperity,opportunity • Policy Goal: Increase the total number of degrees and certificates… • By 2018, raise mid-level degrees and certificates to 36,200 annually, an increase of 9,400 degrees annually.
More? Better? Faster? How does OER help teach more students and teach them better? 1. Non-rivalrous, scalable, searchable 2. Allows students to preview and review • Paves the way for lifelong learning 3. Can be customized, translated, improved • Data feedback loops are useless without the ability to change the content
What if… • What if all publicly funded educational content was open access? • What kind of efficiencies could higher education yield? • Simple idea: public access to publicly funded educational materials.
Only ONE Thing Matters: • Efficient use of public funds to increase student success and access to quality educational materials. • Everything else (including all existing business models) is secondary.
Conclusion:We can break the “Iron Triangle” IF we:1. Ask “what is best for students?”2. Openly license and share our educational and scientific resources3. Explore more affordable, scalable models for higher education using digital, networked, open technologies
Tom CaswellOpen Education Policy AssociateWA State Board for Community & Technical CollegesEmail: email@example.comBlog: http://tomcaswell.comPlease visit:http://whyopenedmatters.orghttp://creativecommons.orgSlides available at: http://slideshare.net/tom4cam