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Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas
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Chapter 7.1 : Chemical Names and Formulas

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  • 1. Chemical Formulas and chemical compounds
    Chapter 7.1
  • 2. Objectives:
    Explain the significance of a chemical formula.
    Determine the formula of an ionic compound formed between two given ions.
    Name an ionic compound given its formula.
    Using prefixes, name a binary molecular compound from its formula.
    Write the formula of a binary molecular compound given its name.
  • 3. Chemical names and Formulas
    There are millions of natural and synthetic chemical compounds
    Calcium carbonate – limestone
    Sodium chloride – table salt
    Dihydrogen monoxide – water
    These are their chemical and common names
    Chemical names help to describe the atomic makeup of the compounds
  • 4. Significance of a Chemical Formula
    Chemical formula
    Indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound.
    • Molecularformula
    • 5. Indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a molecule. (Covalently bonded)
    C8H18
    Subscript indicates there are 8 atoms of carbon in a molecule of octane
    Subscript indicates there are 18 atoms of hydrogen in a molecule of octane
  • 6. Chemical formula for ionic compound
    Ionic compound consists of lattice of positive and negative ions held together by mutual attraction.
    Chemical formula represented by one formula unit
    Simplest ratio of the compounds positive and negative ions
    Aluminum sulfate below consists of aluminum cations and sulfate ions
    Al2(SO4)3
    Subscript 3 refers to everything inside the parentheses giving 3 sulfate ions, with a total of 3 sulfur atoms and 12 oxygen atoms
    Subscript 2 refers to 2 Aluminum atoms
    Subscript 4 refers to 4 oxygen atoms in the sulfate ion
    Note: when you only have one of an atom, no subscript is used
    Note: parentheses are used to identify polyatomic ion as one unit
  • 7. Monatomic ions
    Ions formed from a single atom
    Examples
    Na+1 lose one electron
    Mg2+
    S2- gain two electrons
    N-3
    Cl1-
    • Not all main-group elements readily form ions
    • 8. Examples
    • 9. Carbon & Silicon form covalent bonds
    • 10. d-block elements form variable charges
    • 11. examples
    • 12. Copper, can be Cu+1 or Cu+2
    • 13. Iron, can be Fe+2 or Fe+3
    • 14. Lead, can bePb+2, Pb+3, or Pb+4
  • Naming Monatomic ions
    Positive ions
    Name of element
    Ex: K+ Potassium
    Mg+2 Magnesium
    Al+3 __________
    Sr+2 __________
    • Negative ions
    • 15. Base of element + -ide ending
    • 16. Ex: F-1 Fluoride
    N-3 Nitride
    O-2 _______
    Br-1 _______
  • 17. Binary Ionic Compounds
    Compounds composed of two different elements
    Total # of positive charges must be equal to total # of negative charges
    • Writing formulas, Ex: Aluminum oxide
    Write the symbols for ions (Cation first)
    Al+3 O-2
    Cross over the charges as subscripts
    Al2O3
    Check to make sure total charges are equal, divide by largest number, to give smallest whole-number ratio
    Al2O3
    +3
    -2
    2 x (+3) = +6
    3 x (-2) = -6
  • 18. Naming binary ionic compounds
    Nomenclature
    Naming system
    • Name Al2O3
    • 19. Name cation first : full name of cation
    • 20. Aluminum
    • 21. Name Anion last : base of anion + -ide
    • 22. oxide
    Al2O3
    aluminum oxide
  • 23. Practice Naming and Writing Formulas
    Name
    AgCl
    ZnO
    SrF2
    silver chloride
    zinc oxide
    strontium fluoride
    • Write the formulas for
    Zinc iodide
    Zinc sulfide
    Aluminum sulfide
    ZnI2
    ZnS
    Al2S3
  • 24. Stock System of Nomenclature
    Some cations may have two or more different charges
    Use stock system of naming (usually with d-block elements)
    • Roman numeral represents charge in parentheses
    • 25. Fe+2 Fe+3
    Iron(II) Iron(III)
    • Some cations that commonly form only one cation
    • 26. Do not use roman numerals ( main group elements)
    • 27. No Anions form more than one charge
    +2
    -1
    CuCl2
    copper(II)
    chloride
  • 28. Practice stock system
    Write formula and give name for compound formed by ions Cr+3 and F-1
    CrF3
    chromium(III) fluoride
    • Write formulas and give name for the following ionic compounds:
    CuBr2
    copper(II) bromide
    Cu+2 and Br-1
    Fe+2 and O-2
    FeO
    iron(II) oxide
    Fe+3 and O-2
    Fe2O3
    iron(III) oxide
  • 29. Compounds containing Polyatomic Ions
    All but NH4+, ammonium ion, are negatively charged
    Most are oxyanions
    Examples
    NO3-1 NO2-1
    nitrate
    nitrite
    • Most common anion has –ate ending
    • 30. Anion with one less oxygen has –ite ending
    • 31. Anion with two less oxygen has hypo prefix and –ite ending
    • 32. Anion with one extra oxygen has per prefix and –ate ending
    ClO3-1
    ClO2-1
    ClO-1
    ClO4-1
    hypochlorite
    perchlorate
    chlorate
    chlorite
  • 33. Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
    Same as naming for ionic compounds except
    Name polyatomic ion as one unit
    Example:
    AgNO3
    Use parentheses if more than one polyatomic ion
    Example
    Al2(SO4)3
    silver nitrate
    Show 2 Al+3 ions and 3 SO4-2 ions
    aluminum sulfate
  • 34. Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
    Write the formula for these:
    tin(IV) sulfate
    calcium chloride
    lithium nitrate
    calcium nitrite
    potassium perchlorate
    Sn(SO4)2
    CaCl2
    LiNO3
    Ca(NO2)2
    KClO4
    • Write the names for these:
    Ag2O
    Ca(OH)2
    NH4OH
    FeCrO4
    KClO
    silver oxide
    calcium hydroxide
    ammonium hydroxide
    iron(II) chromate
    potassium hypochlorite
  • 35. Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
    May use stock system to name these
    New system – must understand oxidation numbers
    • Prefix system
    • 36. Old system – must know numerical prefixes
    mono-
    di-
    tri-
    tetra-
    penta-
    hexa-
    hepta-
    octa-
    nona-
    deca-
  • 37. Rules for prefix system of Nomenclature
    less-electronegative element is given first
    Second element is named by combining
    Prefix indicating number of atoms
    Root of name of second element
    -ide ending
    • First element only gets a prefix if it has more than one
    Ex: P4O10
    Ex:
    tetra
    phosphorus
    dec
    ox
    ide
    The o or a at the end of a prefix is usually dropped when the word following the prefix begins with another vowel
  • 38. The 6 binary compounds of Nitrogen and Oxygen
    N2O
    NO
    NO2
    N2O3
    N2O4
    N2O5
    dinitrogen
    monoxide
    nitrogen
    monoxide
    dioxide
    nitrogen
    dinitrogen
    trioxide
    dinitrogen
    tetroxide
    pentoxide
    dinitrogen
    • Name the following molecular compounds
    • 39. Write formulas for the following molecular compounds
    SO3
    ICl3
    PBr5
    sulfur trioxide
    carbon tetraiodide
    phosphorus trichloride
    oxygen difluoride
    CI4
    iodine trichloride
    PCl3
    Phosphorus pentabromide
    OF2

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