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  • 1. Chapter 22.2
    Radioactive Decay
  • 2. Objectives:
    Define and relate the terms radioactive decay and nuclear radiation.
    Describe the different types of radioactive decay and their effects on the nucleus.
    Define the term half-life, and explain how it relates to the stability of a nucleus.
    Define and relate the terms decay series, parent nuclide, and daughter nuclide.
    Explain how artificial radioactive nuclides are made, and discuss their significance.
  • 3. Radioactive Decay
    • Radioactive decayis the spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.
    • 4. Nuclear radiationis particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay.
    • 5. An unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay is a radioactive nuclide.
    • 6. All of the nuclides beyond atomic number 83 are unstable and thus radioactive.
  • Types of Radioactive Decay
    • A nuclide’s type and rate of decay depend on the nucleon content and energy level of the nucleus.
    • 7. Alpha Emission
    • 8. An alpha particle(α) is two protons and two neutrons bound together and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
    • 9. Alpha emission is restricted almost entirely to very heavy nuclei.
  • 10.
    • Beta Emission
    • 11. Abeta particle(β) is an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
    • 12. To decrease the number of neutrons, a neutron can be converted into a proton and an electron.
    • 13. The atomic number increases by one and the mass number stays the same.
    • Positron Emission
    • 14. A positronis a particle that has the same mass as an electron, but has a positive charge, and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
    • 15. To decrease the number of protons, a proton can be converted into a neutron by emitting a positron.
    • 16. The atomic number decreases by one and the mass number stays the same.
    • Electron Capture
    • 17. In electron capture,an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom.
    • 18. To increase the number of neutrons, an inner orbital electron combines with a proton to form a neutron.
    • 19. The atomic number decreases by one and the mass number stays the same.
    • Gamma Emission
    • 20. Gamma rays() are high-energy electromagnetic waves emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state.
  • Radioactive Nuclide Emissions
  • 21. Half-Life
    • Half-life,t1/2, is the time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay.
    • 22. Each radioactive nuclide has its own half-life.
    • 23. More-stable nuclides decay slowly and have longer half-lives.
  • Potassium-40 Half-Life
  • 24. Rate of Decay
  • 25. Half-Lives of Some Radioactive Isotopes
  • 26. Sample Problem B
    Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of 14.3 days. How many
    milligrams of phosphorus-32 remain after 57.2 days if
    you start with 4.0 mg of the isotope?
    Given:original mass of phosphorus-32 = 4.0 mg
    half-life of phosphorus-32 = 14.3 days
    time elapsed = 57.2 days
    Unknown:mass of phosphorus-32 remaining after 57.2 days
    Solution:
  • 27.
  • 28. Decay Series
    • A decay seriesis a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached.
    • 29. The heaviest nuclide of each decay series is called the parent nuclide.
    • 30. The nuclides produced by the decay of the parent nuclides are calleddaughter nuclides.
  • Uranium-238 Decay
  • 31. Artificial Transmutations
    • Artificial radioactive nuclidesare radioactive nuclides not found naturally on Earth.
    • 32. They are made by artificial transmutations,bombardment of nuclei with charged and uncharged particles.
    • 33. Transuranium elementsare elements with more than 92 protons in their nuclei.
    • 34. Artificial transmutations are used to produce the transuranium elements.
  • Fermi International Accelerator Lab
    In Illinois
  • 35. Dark Matter