Jat Chapter 14

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Jat Chapter 14

  1. 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 Early Japan Section 2 Shoguns and Samurai Section 3 Life in Medieval Japan Reading Review Chapter Assessment Medieval Japan Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Describe the role of geography in the development of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the rise and influence of shoguns and samurai in medieval Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the impact of religion on Japan’s culture. </li></ul>Medieval Japan
  3. 4. Medieval Japan
  4. 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the geography of Japan, its early peoples, China’s early influences on the country, and the origin of the religion of Shinto. Early Japan
  5. 7. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Early Japan <ul><li>Japan’s mountains and islands isolated Japan and shaped its society. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was settled by people who came from northeast Asia. They were organized into clans and ruled by warriors. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Shotoku created Japan’s first constitution and borrowed many ideas from China. </li></ul>Focusing on the Main Ideas
  6. 8. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.) Early Japan <ul><li>The Japanese religion called Shinto was based on nature spirits. </li></ul>Locating Places <ul><li>Japan (juh·PAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkaido (hah·KY·doh) </li></ul><ul><li>Honshu (HAHN·shoo) </li></ul><ul><li>Shikoku (shih·KOH·koo) </li></ul><ul><li>Kyushu (kee·OO·shoo) </li></ul>
  7. 9. Get Ready to Read (cont.) <ul><li>Jomon (JOH·mohn) </li></ul><ul><li>Yayoi (YAH·yoy) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Jimmu (jeem·mu) </li></ul>Early Japan <ul><li>Shotoku (shoh·toh·koo) </li></ul>
  8. 10. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>clan (KLAN) </li></ul><ul><li>constitution ( KAHN ·stuh·TOO·shuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>animism (A·nuh· MIH ·zuhm) </li></ul>Early Japan <ul><li>shrine (SHRYN) </li></ul>
  9. 11. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 484 of your textbook to show the basics of the Shinto religion. Early Japan
  10. 12. Japan’s Geography <ul><li>Japan is a chain of islands that stretches north to south in the northern Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>The islands of Japan’s are mountaintops that rise from the floor of the ocean. </li></ul>(page 485) <ul><li>The four largest islands of Japan are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. </li></ul>Early Japan <ul><li>Many of the mountains are volcanoes. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Japan’s Geography <ul><li>Very little of Japan’s land is farmable. </li></ul>(page 485) <ul><li>Throughout history, Japanese people have fought for good farming land. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Japanese people settled in coastal villages to fish for food. </li></ul>Early Japan <ul><li>Because Japan is surrounded by water, merchants could travel easily on ships from town to town for trade. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Japan’s Geography (cont.) <ul><li>As a result, Japan developed an independent society with its own distinct culture. </li></ul>(page 485) <ul><li>The ocean around the islands kept Japan isolated from outside influences. </li></ul>Early Japan
  13. 15. Why did Japanese people settle along the coast? Japan’s rugged, mountainous terrain left little farmable land, so people settled along the coast to fish for food. Early Japan
  14. 16. The First Settlers <ul><li>The first people to arrive in Japan probably came from northeast Asia between 30,000 and 10,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, Japan was connected to the mainland of Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Wandering groups of people developed the Jomon culture around 5000 B.C. </li></ul>(pages 486 –487 ) Early Japan <ul><li>The Jomon people settled along the coast of Japan and fished for food. </li></ul>
  15. 17. The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>Around 300 B.C., the Yayoi people appeared . </li></ul><ul><li>The Yayoi are ancestors of the Japanese people. </li></ul><ul><li>The Yayoi were skilled farmers, potters, and metalworkers . </li></ul>(pages 486 –487 ) Early Japan <ul><li>The Yayoi people were organized in clans, or groups of families related by blood or marriage. </li></ul>
  16. 18. The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>Warrior chiefs headed each clan and protected the people in return for a share of the rice harvest each year . </li></ul><ul><li>The Yayoi buried their chiefs in large mounds called kofun . </li></ul><ul><li>According to a Japanese myth, two gods created Japan along with two gods to rule over Earth . </li></ul>(pages 486 –487 ) Early Japan <ul><li>The children of one of the gods were the first Japanese people. </li></ul>
  17. 19. The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>The Yamato clan brought most of Japan under its rule in the A.D. 500s . </li></ul><ul><li>According to myth, a Yamato leader named Jimmu founded a line of rulers of Japan that has never been broken. </li></ul>(pages 486 –487 ) Early Japan
  18. 20. How did the Yayoi people bury their chiefs? The Yayoi buried their chiefs in large, dirt mounds surrounded by ditches. The mounds were filled with personal belongings, such as tools, weapons, and armor. Early Japan
  19. 21. Prince Shotoku’s Reforms <ul><li>About A.D. 600, a Yamato prince named Shotoku took charge of Japan for his aunt, the empress Suiko. </li></ul><ul><li>Shotoku wanted to reform Japan and based his reforms on the Chinese government, which had a strong emperor and trained officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Shotoku created a constitution, or plan of government. </li></ul>(page 488) Early Japan
  20. 22. Prince Shotoku’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>The constitution set out rules officials had to follow that were based on the ideas of Confucius. </li></ul><ul><li>The constitution gave the emperor all the power and the ability to appoint all officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Shotoku sent officials and students to schools in China and ordered Buddhist temples and monasteries to be built throughout Japan. </li></ul>(page 488) Early Japan
  21. 23. Prince Shotoku’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Horyuji is Japan’s oldest Buddhist temple and the world’s oldest surviving wooden building. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Change in A.D. 646 divided Japan into provinces run by officials who reported to the emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials, instead of clan leaders, were responsible for collecting taxes. </li></ul>(page 488) Early Japan
  22. 24. What did Japanese officials and students learn in China? They learned about Buddhist teachings and about Chinese art, medicine, and philosophy. Early Japan
  23. 25. What is Shinto? <ul><li>Animism is the belief that all natural things are alive and have their own spirits . </li></ul><ul><li>Early Japanese people believed in animism. </li></ul>(page 490) <ul><li>The kami were nature spirits. </li></ul>Early Japan
  24. 26. What is Shinto? (cont.) <ul><li>Shinto developed from animism and means “way of the spirits.” </li></ul>(page 490) Early Japan <ul><li>Japanese people worshiped at shrines, or holy places, to honor the kami. </li></ul>
  25. 27. What religious activities occurred at shrines? Musicians, priests, and dancers performed for people who asked the gods for favors. Early Japan
  26. 28. What skills did the Yayoi practice that they may have learned from the Chinese and Koreans? using a potter’s wheel and growing rice in paddies Early Japan
  27. 29. Early Japan In the Shinto religion, what do people worship? How are they worshiped? People worship spirits called kami , which reside in all natural things. They are worshiped through rituals at shrines.
  28. 30. Summarize Describe Japanese society under the Yayoi around A.D. 300. Japanese society consisted of clans headed by a small group of warriors who protected the farmers, artisans, and servants. Early Japan
  29. 31. Analyze In what ways did Shotoku look to China to improve Japan? The government was centralized, with a powerful emperor and trained officials. People learned the Buddhist teachings, art, medicine, and philosophy. Early Japan
  30. 32. Expository Writing Imagine you are visiting Japan sometime in the A.D. 300s. Write a letter to a friend describing what you have observed and learned about the Shinto religion. Letter should describe the kami and religious practices. Early Japan
  31. 33. Look at a map on page R23 in your textbook. Describe how China’s relative location and size might have led to its influence on Japan. Early Japan
  32. 35. Shoguns and Samurai Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the rise of the samurai and the shogunate in Japan.
  33. 36. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Japan’s civilian government and the emperor came to be dominated by military rulers known as shoguns . </li></ul><ul><li>During the A.D. 700s, Japan built a strong national government at Nara, and Buddhism became a popular religion . </li></ul><ul><li>As the shogun’s power weakened, Japan broke into warring kingdoms run by rulers known as daimyo . </li></ul>
  34. 37. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Heian (HAY·ahn) </li></ul><ul><li>Minamoto Yoritomo </li></ul><ul><li>(mee·nah·moh·toh yoh·ree·toh·moh) </li></ul><ul><li>Ashikaga Takauji </li></ul><ul><li>(ah·shee·kah·gah tah·kow·jee) </li></ul>Meeting People Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Kamakura (kah·MAH·kuh· RAH ) </li></ul>
  35. 38. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>samurai (SA·muh· RY ) </li></ul><ul><li>shogun (SHOH·guhn) </li></ul><ul><li>daimyo (DY·mee· OH ) </li></ul>Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>vassal (VA·suhl) </li></ul><ul><li>feudalism (FYOO·duhl· IH ·zuhm) </li></ul>
  36. 39. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Showing Relationships Create a diagram like the one on page 491 of your textbook to show the relationship between daimyo and samurai. Shoguns and Samurai
  37. 40. Nara Japan <ul><li>Because of its importance, the history of Japan during this time is called the Nara Period . </li></ul><ul><li>Nara resembled the Chinese city of Changan . </li></ul><ul><li>Nara became the capital city of Japan in the early A.D. 700s . </li></ul>(pages 492 –493) Shoguns and Samurai
  38. 41. Nara Japan (cont.) <ul><li>Jobs could be passed on to the official’s son or another relative . </li></ul><ul><li>The emperor’s power came from the control of land and crops . </li></ul><ul><li>Government jobs were given to nobles of powerful families . </li></ul>(pages 492 –493) <ul><li>A census was conducted for tax-collecting purposes . </li></ul>Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Japanese emperors at Nara organized government into ranks . </li></ul>
  39. 42. Nara Japan (cont.) <ul><li>Nobles who were not Buddhists opposed the religion, and struggles broke out between Buddhists and non-Buddhists for control of the government . </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism came to Japan from Korea and was popular during the Nara Period . </li></ul>(pages 492 –493) <ul><li>After stopping an attempt by a Buddhist monk to seize the throne, the emperor left Nara to the Buddhists . </li></ul>Shoguns and Samurai
  40. 43. In what ways did Nara resemble Changan? They both had broad streets, public squares, government offices, and Buddhist temples, though Nara was smaller than Changan. Shoguns and Samurai
  41. 44. The Rise of the Shogun <ul><li>In A.D. 794, Heian became the new capital of Japan. </li></ul>(pages 493 –495 ) <ul><li>Today the city is known as Kyoto. </li></ul><ul><li>The government of Japan declined during the A.D. 800s because of a series of weak emperors. </li></ul>Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Since many of Japan’s emperors were children, regents ruled for them. </li></ul>
  42. 45. The Rise of the Shogun (cont.) <ul><li>Most regents were from the Fujiwara clan, and the clan grew wealthy and powerful in Heian. </li></ul>(pages 493 –495 ) <ul><li>Powerful nobles of other clans gained control in the provinces of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>To protect their lands, nobles built armies of warriors called samurai . </li></ul>Shoguns and Samurai
  43. 46. The Rise of the Shogun (cont.) <ul><li>Samurai followed a code of conduct called Bushido, which demanded that a samurai be loyal to his master, courageous, and honorable. </li></ul>(pages 493 –495 ) Shoguns and Samurai
  44. 47. The Rise of the Shogun (cont.) <ul><li>The Gempei War was a civil war between the two most powerful clans in Japan: the Taira family and the Minamoto family. </li></ul>(pages 493 –495 ) Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Minamoto Yoritomo was the leader of the Minamoto clan and commander of their army. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Minamoto won the Gempei War, the emperor decided to reward Yoritomo to keep him happy and loyal to the emperor. </li></ul>
  45. 48. The Rise of the Shogun (cont.) <ul><li>The emperor gave him the title of shogun, or commander of all of the emperor’s military. </li></ul>(pages 493 –495 ) Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Yoritomo was a ruthless leader. </li></ul><ul><li>He and the shoguns after him appointed samurai to run provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Kahn and the Mongols invaded Japan twice but were defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoons called kamikaze by the Japanese helped defeat the Mongols. </li></ul>
  46. 49. What were the kamikaze pilots of World War II? Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed their planes into enemy targets. Shoguns and Samurai
  47. 50. The Daimyo Divide Japan <ul><li>As samurai divided their lands among their sons, the pieces of land got smaller, and the samurai grew resentful toward the shogun . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1331, the emperor rebelled against the shoguns and many samurai joined him . </li></ul><ul><li>Although he won, the emperor refused to give the samurai more land. </li></ul>(pages 496 –497) Shoguns and Samurai
  48. 51. The Daimyo Divide Japan (cont.) <ul><li>Ashikaga Takauji was a general who turned against the emperor and made himself shogun . </li></ul><ul><li>The daimyo were powerful military lords who controlled territories created after the Ashikaga shoguns took over . </li></ul><ul><li>The daimyo protected their territories by creating their own armies of samurai warriors. </li></ul>(pages 496 –497) Shoguns and Samurai
  49. 52. <ul><li>This meant the samurai gave an oath of loyalty to his daimyo in exchange for land . </li></ul><ul><li>This system of granting land for loyalty is known as feudalism . </li></ul><ul><li>With no strong central government, Japanese warriors fought each other. </li></ul>(pages 496 –497) Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Many samurai became vassals of a daimyo. </li></ul>The Daimyo Divide Japan (cont.)
  50. 53. <ul><li>Much of Kyoto was destroyed then . </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, fighting spread throughout the country as daimyo resisted shoguns. </li></ul>(pages 496 –497) Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>The Ashikaga shogunate fell in 1567. </li></ul><ul><li>The Onin War raged from 1467 to 1477. </li></ul>The Daimyo Divide Japan (cont.)
  51. 54. Why did the samurai resent the shoguns? As the samurai divided their land, the pieces got smaller and smaller. They felt the shoguns had not given them enough land. Shoguns and Samurai
  52. 55. What was a shogun? Who was the first shogun, and how did he gain his position of power? A shogun was a military ruler of Japan. The emperor appointed Minamoto Yoritomo as first shogun to keep him loyal. Shoguns and Samurai
  53. 56. What prevented the Mongol conquest of Japan? Violent storms, called typhoons, smashed most of the Mongol ships. Shoguns and Samurai
  54. 57. Describe Describe events related to the growth of Buddhism in Japan. Answers should match information in the text. Shoguns and Samurai
  55. 58. Explain Why did the power of the Japanese emperors decline during the A.D. 800s? Regents refused to give up their power, while nobles gained power and formed personal armies. Shoguns and Samurai
  56. 59. Analyze How did the beliefs of the samurai affect Japanese soldiers in World War II? They refused to surrender and fought to the death. Shoguns and Samurai
  57. 60. Expository Writing Create a constitution, or plan for government, that describes the relationship between the emperor and shogun, the daimyo, and the samurai. Constitutions should explain relative relationships. Shoguns and Samurai
  58. 61. Discuss how the power of Japan’s emperor changed over time. Shoguns and Samurai
  59. 63. Life in Medieval Japan Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the influence of religion on Japan’s cultural development and the roles of various social groups.
  60. 64. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>Buddhism and Shinto shaped much of Japan’s culture. These religions affected Japanese art, architecture, novels, and plays . </li></ul><ul><li>Some Japanese nobles, merchants, and artisans grew wealthy during the shogun period, but the lives of women remained restricted in many areas of life. </li></ul>
  61. 65. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Kyoto (kee·OH·toh) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Murasaki Shikibu ( MUR ·uh·SAH·kee shee·kee·boo) </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan
  62. 66. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>sect (SEHKT) </li></ul><ul><li>martial arts (mahr·shuhl) </li></ul><ul><li>meditation ( MEH ·duh·TAY·shuhn) </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>calligraphy (kuh·LIH·gruh·fee) </li></ul><ul><li>tanka (TAHNG·kuh) </li></ul><ul><li>guild (GIHLD) </li></ul>
  63. 67. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Complete a diagram like the one on page 498 of your textbook describing the role of women in the families of medieval Japan. Life in Medieval Japan
  64. 68. Japanese Religion and Culture <ul><li>During the Middle Ages, Japanese people practiced both Shinto and Buddhism . </li></ul><ul><li>When it reached Japan, Buddhism had divided into different sects, or smaller religious groups. </li></ul>(pages 499 –5 01) <ul><li>Pure Land Buddhism was a sect of Mahayana Buddhism. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>Its message is about a happy life after death. </li></ul>
  65. 69. Japanese Religion and Culture (cont.) <ul><li>Zen Buddhism is another important sect of Buddhism brought to Japan from China . </li></ul><ul><li>Zen teaches that people can find inner peace through self-control and a simple way of life. </li></ul>(pages 499 –5 01) <ul><li>Japanese art reveals the Japanese people’s love of beauty and simplicity. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan
  66. 70. Japanese Religion and Culture (cont.) <ul><li>Art in the Middle Ages included wooden items coated in lacquer, landscape paintings, folded paper called origami, and tea ceremonies . </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese buildings were influenced by Chinese or Japanese styles. </li></ul>(pages 499 –5 01) <ul><li>Shinto shrines followed the Japanese style; Buddhist temples followed the Chinese style. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan
  67. 71. Japanese Religion and Culture (cont.) <ul><li>The Japanese borrowed and adapted the Chinese style of writing using characters . </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy, the art of writing beautifully, was important in Japan. </li></ul>(pages 499 –5 01) <ul><li>The tanka is Japan’s oldest form of poetry. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote The Tale of Genji , the story of a Japanese prince. </li></ul>
  68. 72. Japanese Religion and Culture (cont.) <ul><li>Noh plays taught Buddhist ideas and were performed on a bare stage by actors in robes and masks . </li></ul>(pages 499 –5 01) Life in Medieval Japan
  69. 73. How were Japanese gardens built? Why were they built this way? Japanese gardens were designed to imitate nature in miniature form. The gardens contained rocks, a few plants, and raked sand. They were meant to create peace and calmness. Life in Medieval Japan
  70. 74. Economy and Society <ul><li>Most people in Japan remained poor. </li></ul>(pages 503 –504 ) <ul><li>Japanese farmers worked hard to grow rice, wheat, millet, and barley. </li></ul><ul><li>Very few people benefited from Japan’s wealth under the shoguns. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan
  71. 75. Economy and Society (cont.) (pages 503 –504 ) <ul><li>In the 1100s, advances in irrigation and crops allowed them to grow more food and their lives improved. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>As trade increased, artisans began making pottery, paper, textiles, and lacquered items. </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans made weapons, armor, and tools for merchants to sell. </li></ul>
  72. 76. Economy and Society (cont.) (pages 503 –504 ) <ul><li>Kyoto, the capital of Japan, was a major center of production and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Many groups of artisans and merchants were located there. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>Japanese extended families included grandparents, parents, and children, with a man heading the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were expected to obey their father, their husband, and their sons. </li></ul>
  73. 77. Economy and Society (cont.) (pages 503 –504 ) <ul><li>Despite their lack of freedom, some women made important contributions to Japanese culture. </li></ul><ul><li>During the time of Shotoku, wealthy women could be rulers and own property, but women lost these freedoms after the samurai and daimyo took control. </li></ul>Life in Medieval Japan <ul><li>Marriages were arranged by parents, but in farming families women had more control over whom they married. </li></ul>
  74. 78. What was life like for a Japanese farming woman? Wives of farmers worked long, hard hours in the fields. They also had to cook, spin and weave cloth, and care for their children. Life in Medieval Japan
  75. 79. How did the Shinto and Buddhist religions meet different needs in Japan? Shinto: concerned with daily life; Buddhism: prepared people for the life to come. Life in Medieval Japan
  76. 80. What were Noh plays, and how were they performed? Japan’s oldest form of play; performed on a simple, bare stage by actors who wore masks and danced, gestured, and chanted poetry to music. Life in Medieval Japan
  77. 81. Describe How did guilds benefit artisans and daimyos? Guilds offered protection from rival artisans, and sold daimyo goods they could not get themselves. Life in Medieval Japan
  78. 82. Analyze Why do you think women lost some of their freedoms when Japan became a warrior society? Answers will vary. Life in Medieval Japan
  79. 83. Descriptive Writing Write a brief article for a travel magazine describing the architecture of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples in Japan during the Middle Ages Articles should note that Shinto shrines were Japanese in style, while Buddhist temples were built in a Chinese style. Life in Medieval Japan
  80. 84. Discuss what you have learned about the samurai in medieval Japan. Life in Medieval Japan
  81. 86. Section 1: Early Japan Focusing on the Main Ideas Medieval Japan <ul><li>Japan’s mountains and islands isolated Japan and shaped its society. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was settled by people who came from northeast Asia. They were organized into clans and ruled by warriors. </li></ul>
  82. 87. Section 1: Early Japan Focusing on the Main Ideas Medieval Japan <ul><li>Prince Shotoku created Japan’s first constitution and borrowed many ideas from China. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese religion, called Shinto, was based on nature spirits. </li></ul>
  83. 88. Section 2: Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>During the A.D. 700s, Japan built a strong national government at Nara, and Buddhism became a popular religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s civilian government and the emperor came to be dominated by military rulers knows as shoguns. </li></ul>Medieval Japan <ul><li>As the shogun’s power weakened, Japan broke into warring kingdoms run by rulers known as daimyo. </li></ul>Focusing on the Main Ideas
  84. 89. <ul><li>Buddhism and Shinto shaped much of Japan’s culture. These religions affected Japanese art, architecture, novels, and plays. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Japanese nobles, merchants, and artisans grew wealthy during the shogun period, but the lives of women remained restricted in many areas of life. </li></ul>Section 3: Life in Medieval Japan Medieval Japan Focusing on the Main Ideas
  85. 91. __ 1. The __ was the military leader of Japan. __ 2. Many artisans and merchants formed __ for protection and profit. __ 3. The Yayoi formed __ that were headed by a small group of warriors. __ 4. In __, a person clears the mind of all thoughts and desires. Review Vocabulary F C Define Match the vocabulary word that completes the sentence. E H <ul><li>A. tanka </li></ul><ul><li>B. daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>C. clans </li></ul><ul><li>D. sects </li></ul><ul><li>shogun </li></ul><ul><li>guilds </li></ul><ul><li>samurai </li></ul><ul><li>meditation </li></ul>Medieval Japan
  86. 92. __ 5. The __ is an unrhymed poem of five lines. __ 6. Each vassal gave an oath of loyalty to his __. __ 7. The private armies of Japanese nobles were made up of __. __ 8. Buddhism was divided into many different __. Review Vocabulary B G Define Match the vocabulary word that completes the sentence. A D <ul><li>A. tanka </li></ul><ul><li>B. daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>C. clans </li></ul><ul><li>D. sects </li></ul><ul><li>shogun </li></ul><ul><li>guilds </li></ul><ul><li>samurai </li></ul><ul><li>meditation </li></ul>Medieval Japan
  87. 93. Section 1 Early Japan How did geography shape Japanese society? The many mountains limited the amount of farmland. Armies often fought over farmland, and people turned to fishing and trading among the islands. Medieval Japan Review Main Ideas
  88. 94. How did Shotoku use Chinese government and culture as a model? He created a constitution that gave all power to the emperor. He also set up a bureaucracy. He sent officials and students to China to study religion, art, medicine, and philosophy. He also built Buddhist temples and monasteries. Medieval Japan Section 1 Early Japan Review Main Ideas
  89. 95. Section 2 Shoguns and Samurai Describe the roles of shoguns. Shoguns were military leaders appointed by the emperor to govern. They controlled military forces and ruled provinces through samurai. Medieval Japan Review Main Ideas
  90. 96. What happened when the shogun’s power weakened? Japan broke into warring kingdoms ruled by daimyo. Medieval Japan Section 2 Shoguns and Samurai Review Main Ideas
  91. 97. Section 3 Life in Medieval Japan Which religions shaped much of Japan’s culture? Shinto and Buddhism Medieval Japan Review Main Ideas
  92. 98. How did the shogun period affect different groups of Japanese people? Some nobles, merchants, and artisans grew wealthy, but women’s lives remained restricted. Medieval Japan Section 3 Life in Medieval Japan Review Main Ideas
  93. 99. Analyze Why do you think the early Japanese people were so independent? Islands and mountains limited contact with the rest of Asia. Medieval Japan
  94. 100. Contrast How were the Yayoi more advanced than the Jomon? The Jomon were nomadic, fished, and made pottery. In contrast, the Yayoi farmed and made pottery on a wheel, metal tools, weapons, and bells. Medieval Japan
  95. 102. Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 14-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
  96. 103. Map Geography of Japan Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  97. 104. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  98. 105. Sushi refers to a Japanese dish that combines rice, vinegar, and other ingredients. Some people believe all sushi has raw fish, but this is not true. Some varieties of sushi are made of vegetables. Early Japan
  99. 106. Today, the Japanese city of Kyoto has a population of about 1.5 million people. Because the city was not bombed in World War II, it is the only major city in Japan to have a significant number of prewar buildings. It is now considered the cultural center of Japan. Shoguns and Samurai
  100. 107. The Japanese martial art known as aikido can trace its origins to ancient self-defense techniques, perhaps as far back as the A.D. 800s. Aikido uses various throws and twists to immobilize an attacker. Originally, aikido had no offensive moves, and competitions were not possible. Life in Medieval Japan
  101. 108. Identifying Cause and Effect Learn It! Reading Social Studies Learning to identify causes (reasons) and effects (results) will help you understand how and why things happen in history. Read the passage on the following slide and think about the result (effect) of Japan having mountains. Then see how the information can be pulled out and placed into a graphic organizer.
  102. 109. — from page 485 Reading Social Studies Because of Japan’s mountains, only about 20 percent of its land can be farmed. Throughout Japan’s history, local armies often fought over the few patches of fertile farmland. Just as in ancient Greece, the rugged terrain forced many Japanese to turn to the sea for a living. Cause Effects
  103. 110. — from page 485 Reading Social Studies Because of Japan’s mountains, only about 20 percent of its land can be farmed. Throughout Japan’s history, local armies often fought over the few patches of fertile farmland. Just as in ancient Greece, the rugged terrain forced many Japanese to turn to the sea for a living. Cause: Japan’s mountains Effect: land could not be farmed Effect: armies fought for farmland Effect: Japanese fished for a living
  104. 111. Using Graphic Organizers Practice It! Read the paragraph on page 483 of your textbook and create your own graphic organizer to show the effects of Yoritomo’s ruthless rule. Reading Social Studies
  105. 112. Medieval Japan Introduction
  106. 113. Early Japan
  107. 114. Shoguns and Samurai
  108. 115. Life in Medieval Japan
  109. 116. Japan’s New Constitution
  110. 117. Bushido Code
  111. 118. Focus on Everyday Life The path to becoming a samurai was difficult and dangerous. Mothers in samurai families began teaching their sons Bushido at a young age. They taught their sons to place bravery, honor, and loyalty above all else. Each young warrior knew and could recite from memory the brave feats of his samurai ancestors. For centuries, young samurai lived apart from their families in the castle of their lord or in the barracks of their lord’s town. Beginning in the 1800s, samurai schools were built, and boys lived there to continue the educations their mothers had started. From the age of 10, they trained in the martial arts and studied other subjects, such as math and astronomy. By the age of 16, some young men were already promising warriors who distinguished themselves in battle. Samurai
  112. 119. Connecting to the Past Bushido, and to place loyalty, honor, and bravery above all else 1. What lessons was the mother of a samurai responsible for teaching her young son? 2. Do you think soldiers today have a code of conduct similar to Bushido? Explain. Answers will vary.
  113. 120. A.D. 573–621 Prince Shotoku Statue believed to be of Prince Shotoku The Horyuji temple built by Prince Shotoku
  114. 121. Murasaki Shikibu c. A.D. 973–1025 Murasaki Shikibu Scene from The Tale of Genji
  115. 122. Chapter 14 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1
  116. 123. Chapter 14 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14 – 2
  117. 124. Chapter 14 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14 – 3
  118. 125. Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
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