Jat Chapter 09

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Jat Chapter 09

  1. 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 Life in Ancient Rome Section 2 The Fall of Rome Section 3 The Byzantine Empire Reading Review Chapter Assessment Roman Civilization Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the cultural achievements of the Romans and describe the daily lives of people in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the Roman Empire fell and summarize its legacy in law, government, language, and the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the rise and cultural accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul>Roman Civilization
  3. 4. Roman Civilization
  4. 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the cultural achievements and daily life of the Roman people during the height of the empire. Life in Ancient Rome
  5. 7. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas <ul><li>In addition to their own developments in science and engineering, Roman artists and writers borrowed many ideas from the Greeks . </li></ul><ul><li>The rich and poor had very different lives in the Roman Empire, as did men and women. </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  6. 8. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Virgil (VUHR·juhl) </li></ul><ul><li>Horace (HAWR·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Galen (GAY·luhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemy (TAH·luh·mee) </li></ul><ul><li>Spartacus (SPAHR·tuh·kuhs) </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  7. 9. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>vault (VAWLT) </li></ul><ul><li>satire (SA· TYR ) </li></ul><ul><li>ode (OHD) </li></ul><ul><li>anatomy (uh·NA·tuh·mee) </li></ul><ul><li>forum (FOHR·uhm) </li></ul><ul><li>gladiator (GLA·dee· AY ·tuhr) </li></ul><ul><li>paterfamilias ( PA ·tuhr·fuh·MIH·lee·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>rhetoric (REH·tuh·rihk) </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  8. 10. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Use a Venn diagram like the one on page 302 of your textbook to show similarities and differences between the rich and the poor in Rome. Life in Ancient Rome
  9. 11. Roman Culture <ul><li>The Romans admired the Greeks and copied some of their ideas, though they often changed what they borrowed . </li></ul><ul><li>Roman statues and art portrayed people with flaws, whereas Greek art and statues portrayed ideal people. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) <ul><li>Romans incorporated Greek ideas in their architecture, such as columns and porches. </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  10. 12. <ul><li>They also used their own ideas, such as arches, domes, and vaults, which are curved ceilings . </li></ul><ul><li>Two famous buildings still stand today: the Colosseum, which is a large arena, and the Pantheon, which is a temple built in honor of Rome’s gods. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  11. 13. <ul><li>The Roman writer Virgil wrote the Aeneid , which tells the story of the Trojan prince Aeneas and his followers . </li></ul><ul><li>The poet Horace wrote satires , which are works that poke fun at human weaknesses, and odes , which express strong emotions about life. </li></ul><ul><li>The writers Ovid and Catullus were inspired by Greek writing and myths. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  12. 14. <ul><li>Livy, one of Rome’s most famous historians, wrote the History of Rome . </li></ul><ul><li>Many modern European languages spoken today are based on Latin, the language of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek doctor Galen brought Greek medical ideas to Rome. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  13. 15. <ul><li>Ptolemy was a famous scientist who studied and mapped the stars. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers created an advanced road system and aqueducts that provided water. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  14. 16. How did the historians Livy and Tacitus differ? Livy celebrated Rome’s greatness. Tacitus did not regard Roman culture positively. He felt the Romans were losing the values that made them strong and that the emperors had taken people’s freedom. Life in Ancient Rome
  15. 17. Daily Life in Rome <ul><li>Rome was one of the largest cities in the ancient world . </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) <ul><li>The Forum was in the center of Rome and served as a marketplace and public square. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy Romans lived in large, fine homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer people lived in apartment buildings of stone and wood. </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  16. 18. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Because of high rent, most people could not afford large homes . </li></ul><ul><li>The government provided free grain and sporting shows, such as chariot races and gladiator contests. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators were men who fought animals and each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman families were large, including young and married children, other relatives, and enslaved servants. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  17. 19. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>The paterfamilias was the man who headed the family . </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy children—boys and girls—received an education through hired tutors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some boys went to school. </li></ul><ul><li>A boy became a man between ages 14 and 16 years. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  18. 20. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Girls became adults when they married . </li></ul><ul><li>Women had few rights but were influential in the family. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  19. 21. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Wealthy women had more freedom than poor women . </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were not uncommon in the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves suffered many hardships and were treated poorly. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes slaves revolted against the Romans. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  20. 22. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Spartacus was a gladiator who led a slave revolt . </li></ul><ul><li>Romans worshipped many gods and goddesses. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Roman Empire grew, the Romans conquered people of other religions. </li></ul><ul><li>They were allowed to worship freely as long as they did not threaten the Roman government. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  21. 23. How did the population of slaves grow during the time of the Roman Empire? As Rome took over more lands, they captured and enslaved more people. Life in Ancient Rome
  22. 24. What were some of Ptolemy’s scientific achievements? He mapped more than 1,000 stars and studied the motions of the planets. Life in Ancient Rome
  23. 25. Life in Ancient Rome How were the Roman and Greek religions similar? The Romans adopted Greek gods and gave them Roman names.
  24. 26. Analyze Explain the importance of the language of the Romans. Answers should be based on the text. Life in Ancient Rome
  25. 27. Describe Describe the education of Roman children. Boys in rich families learned reading, writing, and rhetoric. Girls stayed at home to learn reading, writing, and how to manage households. Life in Ancient Rome
  26. 28. Conclude The Romans borrowed ideas from other people. Do you think our culture today borrows ideas from other peoples? Explain your answer. Answers will vary. Life in Ancient Rome
  27. 29. Make a list using the following headings. List several facts under each one to summarize the chapter. The Arts Science and Engineering Family Life Slavery Religion Life in Ancient Rome
  28. 31. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section chronicles the decline and fall of the Roman Empire and discusses the empire’s important legacy. The Fall of Rome
  29. 32. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas <ul><li>Rome finally fell when invaders swept through the empire during the A.D. 400’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor leadership, a declining economy, and attacks by Germanic tribes weakened the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome passed on many achievements in government, law, language, and the arts. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  30. 33. Get Ready to Read (cont.) <ul><li>Diocletian ( DY ·uh·KLEE·shuhn) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Constantine (KAHN·stuhn· TEEN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Theodosius ( THEE ·uh·DOH·shuhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople ( KAHN·STAN ·tuhn·OH·puhl) </li></ul>Locating Places <ul><li>Alaric (A·luh·rihk) </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer (OH·duh· WAY ·suhr) </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  31. 34. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>plague (PLAYG) </li></ul><ul><li>inflation (ihn ·FLAY ·shuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>barter (BAHR·tuhr) </li></ul><ul><li>reform (rih·FAWRM) </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  32. 35. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 317 of your textbook. Show the events that led up to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Fall of Rome
  33. 36. The Decline of Rome <ul><li>After the Severans ended, Rome’s leadership grew weak, and the government grew corrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>With a weak government, the economy worsened. </li></ul><ul><li>After Aurelius’s death, Commodus and the Severans ruled Rome. </li></ul>(pages 318 – 320) <ul><li>A plague, or a disease that spreads widely, broke out and killed many people. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  34. 37. The Decline of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Invaders began pushing into the empire’s territory, and the Roman government could not pay Roman soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Diocletian tried to establish reforms that would improve the political situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation, or rapidly increasing prices, occurred because money became less valuable. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 318 – 320)
  35. 38. The Decline of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>He moved the capital city to Byzantium, and the city later became known as Constantinople. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Constantine tried to stop the empire’s decline. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 318 – 320)
  36. 39. How did inflation occur? The government put less gold in its coins to create more money to pay soldiers. People learned that the coins did not have as much gold in them, so they did not value the coins as highly. The Fall of Rome
  37. 40. Rome Falls <ul><li>Theodosius became emperor after Constantine’s death. </li></ul>(pages 322 – 324) <ul><li>Theodosius split the empire into two separate empires: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Visigoths feared the Huns and asked Rome for protection. </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange, Rome required the Visigoths to be loyal to them. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  38. 41. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>The Visigoths rebelled against the Romans and beat the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople. </li></ul><ul><li>More Germanic groups invaded Roman territory. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  39. 42. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>The Visigoth leader Alaric and his soldiers captured the city of Rome and burned it. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  40. 43. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>The Vandals overpowered Rome’s territories in Spain and northern Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Then they entered Rome and destroyed buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer was a Germanic leader who took control of Rome’s government from the emperor Romulus Augustulus. </li></ul><ul><li>This event marked the end of the Western Roman Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  41. 44. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>A band of Visigoths killed Odoacer and set up a kingdom in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire continued to prosper after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>It became known as the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  42. 45. Why did the Visigoths rebel against the Romans? Although the Romans agreed to protect the Visigoths, they treated them badly. The Romans charged the Visigoths higher prices for food and kidnapped and enslaved many of them. The Fall of Rome
  43. 46. The Legacy of Rome <ul><li>The law and government of the United States today is influenced by the laws and government of the ancient Romans. </li></ul>(pages 325 – 326) <ul><li>The alphabet of the Latin language is used through the Western world today. </li></ul><ul><li>Many European languages stemmed from Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>Many English words come from Latin. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  44. 47. The Legacy of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Western architecture uses styles of the Romans, such as domes and arches. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity began in the Roman Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 325 – 326)
  45. 48. What ideas in the U.S. legal system came from the Roman system? We believe that all people are created equal, that people are innocent until proven guilty, that judges should be fair, and that the best form of government is a republic made up of equal citizens. The Fall of Rome
  46. 49. What social problems helped cause the empire’s decline? dishonest officials and a decline in respect for Roman values; widespread slavery; the people stopped serving in government and paying taxes; fewer people were educated The Fall of Rome
  47. 50. Why did the Roman government use Germanic warriors in its army? The Romans used Germanic warriors to help defend its borders. The Fall of Rome
  48. 51. Cause and Effect How did inflation affect Rome? Prices rose sharply; weak economy meant fewer taxes paid; government could not pay its soldiers and officials; debased currency; people stopped using it. The Fall of Rome
  49. 52. Describe Who were the Visigoths, and how did they contribute to the fall of Rome? The Visigoths were a Germanic people who moved into Roman territory to escape the Huns; they defeated the Romans at Adrianople and sacked Rome. The Fall of Rome
  50. 53. Identify Give examples of Roman ideas in language and architecture that exist today. English and other modern languages were shaped by Latin. Roman architecture is reflected in many buildings today. The Fall of Rome
  51. 54. Persuasive Writing Imagine you are living in Rome around the time of the fall of the empire. Write an editorial for a newspaper identifying what you think is the main reason for the decline and fall of the empire, and what might have been done to prevent it. Answers will vary. The Fall of Rome
  52. 55. Could the Western Roman Empire have solved its problems and continued to exist? Explain your answer. The Fall of Rome
  53. 57. The Byzantine Empire Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the rise and accomplishments of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire, which carried on the legacies of both Greece and Rome.
  54. 58. Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Byzantine Empire <ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire grew rich and powerful as the Western Roman Empire fell . </li></ul><ul><li>The policies and reforms of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora helped make the Byzantine Empire strong. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine developed a rich culture based on Roman, Greek, and Christian ideas. </li></ul>Focusing on the Main Ideas
  55. 59. <ul><li>Black Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Aegean Sea (ih·JEE·uhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian (juh·STIH·nee·uhn) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Theodora ( THEE ·uh·DOHR·uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Belisarius ( BEH ·luh·SAR·ee·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Tribonian (truh·BOH·nee·uhn) </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
  56. 60. <ul><li>mosaic (moh·ZAY·ihk) </li></ul><ul><li>saint (SAYNT) </li></ul>Reading Strategy Cause and Effect Complete a chart like the one on page 327 of your textbook to show the causes and effects of Justinian’s new law code. <ul><li>regent (REE·juhnt) </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
  57. 61. The Rise of the Byzantines <ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire was known as the Byzantine Empire . </li></ul><ul><li>It included Greeks, Egyptians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Persians, Slavs, and Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul>(pages 328 – 329) The Byzantine Empire
  58. 62. The Rise of the Byzantines (cont.) <ul><li>Constantinople was located between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, at the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and Asia . </li></ul><ul><li>People of early Constantinople initially followed Roman ways. </li></ul><ul><li>They spoke Latin and enforced Roman laws. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 328 – 329)
  59. 63. The Rise of the Byzantines (cont.) <ul><li>Eventually, the Byzantine Empire became more influenced by Greece . </li></ul><ul><li>People spoke Greek and drew upon Greek culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ideas from the Slavs, Egyptians, and Persians also mixed in with the Greek influences. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 328 – 329)
  60. 64. How did Constantinople’s location help protect it from invasion? It was located on a peninsula, with seas on three sides. A wall was built on the fourth side to protect the city from a land invasion. The Byzantine Empire
  61. 65. Emperor Justinian <ul><li>Empress Theodora, Justinian’s wife, helped her husband rule Byzantine. </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from A.D. 527 until A.D. 565 . </li></ul>(pages 329 – 330) <ul><li>She gave him advice and advocated more rights for Byzantine women. </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian tried to restore the Roman Empire by invading Western Europe and northern Africa. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire
  62. 66. Emperor Justinian (cont.) <ul><li>Tribonian was a legal scholar who worked with his colleagues to simplify the law code, so it could be more easily understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Belisarius was a general who helped lead the Byzantine army . </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 329 – 330)
  63. 67. Why did Justinian fail to reunite the Roman Empire? After conquering most of Italy and northern Africa, the Byzantine Empire did not have money to maintain an army large enough to hold the territory. The Byzantine Empire
  64. 68. Byzantine Civilization <ul><li>Constantinople was its largest and wealthiest city. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire lasted for about 1,000 years . </li></ul>(pages 332 – 334) The Byzantine Empire
  65. 69. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>It was the center of trade between Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire depended on trade . </li></ul>(pages 332 – 334) <ul><li>Silk weaving was a major industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine emperors supported artists and architects. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire
  66. 70. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Hagia Sophia was the religious center of the Byzantine Empire and was a great architectural accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics are pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stone. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 332 – 334) <ul><li>Marriage and family were very important in the Byzantine way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most mosaics showed saints, or Christian holy people . </li></ul>
  67. 71. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Byzantine women obtained some rights. </li></ul><ul><li>They became educated, and some served as regents, or people who stand in for rulers who are too young or too ill to govern. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 332 – 334) <ul><li>The Byzantine government supported education . </li></ul>
  68. 72. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Boys studied academic subjects in Byzantine schools . </li></ul><ul><li>Girls did not attend school but were taught at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Most written literature was religious. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 332 – 334)
  69. 73. What rights did Byzantine women have? Byzantine women could obtain an education and serve in government. The Byzantine Empire
  70. 74. The Byzantine Empire What is a mosaic, and where were mosaics found in the Byzantine Empire? A mosaic is a picture made of tiny pieces of colored glass or stone, usually found in churches and monasteries.
  71. 75. The Byzantine Empire How did silk weaving develop in the Byzantine Empire? Byzantine travelers smuggled silkworm eggs from China to the empire.
  72. 76. Describe What were some of the trade items that were exchanged between merchants in Constantinople? From Asia: spices, gems, metals, and cloth From Byzantines: farm goods, furs, honey, and enslaved people The Byzantine Empire
  73. 77. Explain Why were divorces difficult to get in the Byzantine Empire? Religion and the government stressed the importance of marriage. The Byzantine Empire
  74. 78. Analyze What important service did Byzantine writers provide to the rest of the world? Explain its significance. Byzantine writers copied and preserved the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans; otherwise these works would have been lost. The Byzantine Empire
  75. 79. Persuasive Writing Which civilization do you think was the most advanced —that of the Greeks, the Romans, or the Byzantines? Write a speech explaining your answer. Answers will vary. The Byzantine Empire
  76. 80. List the contributions of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire
  77. 82. Section 1: Life in Ancient Rome Focusing on the Main Ideas Roman Civilization <ul><li>In addition to their own developments in science and engineering, Roman artists and writers borrowed many ideas from the Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich and poor had very different lives in the Roman Empire, as did men and women. </li></ul>
  78. 83. Section 2: The Fall of Rome Focusing on the Main Ideas <ul><li>Poor leadership, a declining economy, and attacks by Germanic tribes weakened the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome finally fell when invaders swept through the empire during the A.D. 400’s. </li></ul>Roman Civilization <ul><li>Rome passed on many achievements in government, law, language, and the arts. </li></ul>
  79. 84. Focusing on the Main Ideas <ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire grew rich and powerful as the Western Roman Empire fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The policies and reforms of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora helped make the Byzantine Empire strong. </li></ul>Section 3: The Byzantine Empire <ul><li>The Byzantines developed a rich culture based on Roman, Greek, and Christian ideas. </li></ul>Roman Civilization
  80. 86. __ 1. pictures made of many bits of colored glass or stone __ 2. rapidly increasing prices __ 3. father of a family __ 4. emotional poem about life’s ups and downs Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. ode </li></ul><ul><li>B. inflation </li></ul><ul><li>C. anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>plague </li></ul><ul><li>paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>gladiator </li></ul><ul><li>regent </li></ul>Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. D B A Roman Civilization F
  81. 87. __ 5. a disease that spreads widely __ 6. a person who stands in for a ruler who cannot govern __ 7. a warrior who fought animals and people in public arenas __ 8. study of the body’s structure Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. ode </li></ul><ul><li>B. inflation </li></ul><ul><li>C. anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>plague </li></ul><ul><li>paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>gladiator </li></ul><ul><li>regent </li></ul>Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. E H G C Roman Civilization
  82. 88. Section 1 Life in Ancient Rome What did the Romans borrow from the Greeks? What did they develop on their own? Romans borrowed ideas in sculpture, architecture (porches, colonnades) and literature. They developed architecture (vault, dome, concrete), roads, aqueducts, and law and government. Roman Civilization Review Main Ideas
  83. 89. What were the lives of the rich and poor like in the Roman Empire? The rich lived in large, comfortable houses. They educated their children. The poor lived in crowded conditions in unsafe apartment buildings, and they did not educate their children. Roman Civilization Section 1 Life in Ancient Rome Review Main Ideas
  84. 90. Section 2 The Fall of Rome What weakened the Roman Empire? Poor leadership, a declining economy, and attacks by Germanic tribes weakened the Roman Empire. Roman Civilization Review Main Ideas
  85. 91. What caused the fall of Rome in the A.D. 400s? Germanic invasions Roman Civilization Section 2 The Fall of Rome Review Main Ideas
  86. 92. Section 3 The Byzantine Empire What policies and reforms helped make the Byzantine Empire strong? Justinian’s law code; rights for women; reconquered Italy and North Africa; added cavalry to the army Roman Civilization Review Main Ideas
  87. 93. What different groups of people contributed to the Byzantine culture? Greeks, Egyptians, Slavs, Persians, and others Roman Civilization Section 3 The Byzantine Empire Review Main Ideas
  88. 94. Cause and Effect Why did Alaric’s capture of Rome shock the Roman people? Rome had not been conquered in 800 years. Roman Civilization
  89. 95. Predict What do you think would have happened if Theodosius had not divided the Roman Empire? Answers will vary. Roman Civilization
  90. 97. Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 9-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
  91. 98. Map s Germanic Invasions of Rome c. A.D. 200 – 500 The Byzantine Empire A.D. 527 – 565 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Greek and Roman Gods The Decline of Rome
  92. 99. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  93. 100. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  94. 103. Ptolemy studied astronomy. He was also a geographer who plotted every geographic feature he knew on a grid and taught others how to create maps. Life in Ancient Rome
  95. 104. The Hippodrome was a racing track in Constantinople. It is estimated that the Hippodrome held about 100,000 people. Much of the Hippodrome is gone, but what remains forms a square in Istanbul. The Fall of Rome
  96. 105. Empress Theodora came from a theatrical family. Her father was a bear keeper for the circus, and the empress was a very popular comedic actress. The Byzantine Empire
  97. 106. Your Point of View Learn It! Reading Social Studies An important part of reading involves thinking about and responding to the text from your own point of view. Read the paragraph on the following slide about daily life in Rome and look at how one student reflects as she reads.
  98. 107. — from page 306 The city of Rome was crowded, noisy, and dirty. People tossed garbage into the streets from their apartments, and thieves prowled the streets at night. Most people in Rome were poor. They lived in apartment buildings made of stone and wood. High rent forced families to live in one room. “ Reminds me of a city I visited once” “ What would that look like? What would it smell like?” “ Were they like apartment buildings today?” “ Sounds like it would be very uncomfortable and crowded!” Reading Social Studies
  99. 108. Reflect and Respond Practice It! <ul><li>Do boys do anything today to show that they have become men? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a toga look like? What does a palla look like? </li></ul>Read the paragraph from Chapter 9 on page 301 in your textbook. Take a few minutes to reflect on what you have read and then respond by exchanging thoughts with a partner about the following topic questions. Reading Social Studies
  100. 109. Reflect and Respond Practice It! Read the paragraph from Chapter 9 on page 301 in your textbook. Take a few minutes to reflect on what you have read and then respond by exchanging thoughts with a partner about the following topic questions. <ul><li>Why did a woman have to wait until she married to become an adult? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were boys and girls treated so differently? </li></ul>Reading Social Studies
  101. 110. Roman Civilization Introduction
  102. 111. Life in Ancient Rome
  103. 112. The Fall of Rome
  104. 113. The Byzantine Empire
  105. 114. The Book of Epodes
  106. 115. Primary Source Distrust of Money Rome is Attacked Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  107. 116. Distrust of Money
  108. 117. Rome is Attacked
  109. 118. Theodora Refuses to Flee
  110. 119. Sports & Contests Sports were important to the Romans. Paintings on vases, frescoes (moist plaster), and stone show Romans playing ball, including a version of soccer. Roman girls are shown exercising with handheld weights and throwing an egg-shaped ball. Balls were made of different materials such as wool, hair, linen, sponges, and pig bladders wrapped in string. Some Roman sporting events took place in the Colosseum, amphitheaters, and the Circus Maximus. Wild beast fights, battles between ships, and gladiator contests attracted Roman spectators by the thousands. Chariot racing was held in the Circus Maximus, and the drivers wore team colors of red, white, green, and blue. Ancient Roman Sports
  111. 120. Connecting to the Past Paintings on vases, frescoes, and stone show Romans participating in sports. 1. How do we know sports were important to the Romans? 2. How are today’s sports different from Roman sports? How are they similar? Today sports do not feature fights between animals, battles between ships, or contests to the death between gladiators. Similarities may include comparisons between chariot racing and horse racing.
  112. 121. Focus on Everyday Life Public and private slavery were common in Roman society. Public slaves were owned by the state. They took care of important buildings and served government officials. Educated public slaves were used to help organize the governments of conquered areas. Private slaves were owned by individuals. They were often forced to work long hours and could be sold at any time. Wealthy Romans had hundreds or even thousands of enslaved people. Most enslaved people worked on farms. Most enslaved people were men. This was probably because their work required great strength. Some enslaved men also became gladiators. Enslaved women made clothing and cooked for their owner’s family. Slavery in the Roman Empire
  113. 122. Connecting to the Past Public slaves were owned by the state. Private slaves were owned by an individual. 1. What was the main difference between public and private enslavement? 2. Which jobs were probably considered the most desirable by enslaved people? Answers will vary but may include jobs as groundskeepers or personal assistants at country villas.
  114. 123. c. A.D. 280 – 337 Constantine The Great
  115. 124. Empress Theodora C. A.D. 500 – 548
  116. 125. Ptolemy was limited to what he could see with his own eyes. When observed from the earth, the other planets and stars seem to rotate around. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9–1 Chapter 9
  117. 126. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9–2 Chapter 9
  118. 127. Answers will vary, but should reflect that the Muslim Turks wanted to hide Christian symbols. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9–3 Chapter 9
  119. 128. Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
  120. 129. End of Custom Shows <ul><li>This slide intentionally blank </li></ul>

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