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early, classical and medieval Japan


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early, classical and medieval Japan

  1. 1. REPORTER: MARYJUNE M. JARDELEZA BSED III SOCIAL STUDIES * Japan * Ties with Korea and Tomb Builders * The Link with China * Heian Culture * Murasaki Shikibu
  2. 2. Japan
  3. 3. <ul><li>Composed of four main islands off the southern tip of Korea at the nearest point. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Japan has had the advantage of a clearly separate identity and of cultural and linguistic homogeneity resulting from insularity and from its relatively small size, about that of an average Chinese province </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The Japanese have been able to make their own choices at most periods about what they wanted to adopt from abroad; what came in was what the Japanese wanted to have. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Hokkaido , the northern most island was effectively occupied by the Japanese very late, mainly after the first World War </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Japan’s great agricultural advantage is its mild maritime climate, the gift of the surrounding sea, which keeps its humid, mild in winter and largely free of droughts that plague north China. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Coastal sea routes have also helped to link settled areas and carry trade while the sea provides fish and other seafood that have always formed an important part of the diet, especially convenient since the bulk of the population lives close to the sea </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Soils in Japan are of relatively low natural fertility but they have been improved by centuries of use and fertilization </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>This area of the world is a volcanic archipelago, and most soils are the product of weathered lava and ash. </li></ul>Kirishima volcano eruption
  11. 16. <ul><li>Mountains are steep and come down to or close to the sea </li></ul>
  12. 20. <ul><li>Rivers are short and swift, carrying most of their silt loads into the sea rather than depositing them along their lower courses or deltas </li></ul>Ishikari River, Hokkaido, Japan
  13. 21. <ul><li>For this reason , Japan has become the largest user of chemical fertilizers in the world , and it has been able to support a quadrupling of its population </li></ul>
  14. 22. <ul><li>In the modern period the Japanese have achieved the highest rice yields in the world through a combination of intense fertilization and the development of improved crop strains. </li></ul>
  15. 23. <ul><li>All of this rested on Japan’s remarkable sources in industrialization and technological the development primarily since 1870. </li></ul>
  16. 24. Ties With Korea and the Tomb Builders <ul><li>The connection with Korea was clearly a close one. The later Yayoi built large above ground tombs covered with earthen mounds very much like those built in Korea. </li></ul>
  17. 25. Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus, Tokyo , early fifth century.
  18. 26. <ul><li>By this time, one may certainly call the people Japanese, but it may be equally accurate to think of them as provincial Koreans of Koreans Cousins </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>The Yayoi people made pottery on a potters wheel rather than the coil made pottery of Jomon </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Yayoi culture from the third to the 6 th century A.D. Is labeled the TOMB PERIOD ; some of the tombs or the mounds erected over them were built in an interesting keyhole shape. </li></ul>Daisen Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai fifth century
  21. 29. <ul><li>Pottery figures found arranged around these tombs, perhaps as guardians, include those people warriors, animals, and houses are known as HANIWA . </li></ul><ul><li>-Are certainly attractive but still seem rather primitive. </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>The tombs presumably built for aristocrats , show strong similarities to Korean forms, as do Yayoi Weapons, helmets and armor. </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>Remains of this tomb culture have been found in the Tokyo Area and in the southwestern island of Kyushu, although the original and chief center was the area bet. Kyoto and Osaka, seen to be known as Yamato. </li></ul>
  24. 32. Large to very large tumuli known as kofun in Japanese, were built for prominent deceased elite rulers and kings. There are about 30,000 known  Kofun tomb mounds. Over 5,000 of these can still be visited in Japan today.
  25. 33. <ul><li>The first Chinese written account of Japan, the Account of the 3 kingdoms, complied about A.D. 290 described Japan as a sort of appendage to Korea. </li></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><li>Talked about routes from Korea to Japan, and said that the Japanese were a law- abiding people (likely to attract Chinese Approval) who depended on Agriculture and fishing and observed strict social differences that were marked by tattoing. </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>Japan was said to be divided into a hundred “countries” of a few hundred households each- clans is probably a better word some ruled by kings and some by queens. </li></ul>Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda held the New Year's press conference at the Prime Minister's Office.
  28. 37. <ul><li>In Japan, the original social pattern seems to have been matriarchal, merging at this period into a patriarchy of male dominance. </li></ul>
  29. 38. <ul><li>The account of 3 kingdoms, tells us that the Japanese were much involved with divination and ritual, and it speaks of an unmarried queen who as kind of high priestess, ruled over several kingdoms or clans and was considered important enough to have one of the largest tombs and mounds erected for her on her death. </li></ul>
  30. 39. Mythical histories <ul><li>The first Japanese written records are much later, and are not reliable or even consistent regarding this early period. </li></ul><ul><li>Kojiki (record of Ancient Matters ) A.D 712 </li></ul><ul><li>Nihon Shoki or Nihongi A.D 720 </li></ul>
  31. 41. The Creation <ul><li>A mythical story is told about the beginnings of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Long ago the islands of Japan did not even exist, only ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>A god and goddess looked down from the heavens above and saw a long, colorful rainbow streaking over the ocean. </li></ul>
  32. 42. The Creation <ul><li>The rainbow formed a splendid bridge and the god and goddess decided to walk across it. </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing in the center of this stretch of color, the god lowered his jeweled spear into the ocean. </li></ul>
  33. 43. The Creation <ul><li>He swirled the spear around and around and lifted it from the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny water drops fell from the tip of the spear, and as they hit the ocean, they turned into land. </li></ul>
  34. 44. The First Emperor <ul><li>The god and goddess descended to their newly created land where the goddess gave birth to Amaterasu, the goddess of the sun. Her great, great grandson is thought to be Jimmu, founder of Japan’s royal family. </li></ul>
  35. 45. The First Emperor <ul><li>Every emperor of Japan, from Jimmu’s time to present day, have been directly related to Jimmu and therefore, a descendant of the gods. </li></ul>
  36. 46. Three Treasures <ul><li>Jimmu carried with him the proof he needed to verify his divine ancestry. Three treasures, handed down by the gods, were always to be kept in possession of Japan’s emperors. With this evidence, no one could ever doubt that Japan’s emperors were truly related to the gods. </li></ul>
  37. 47. Three Treasures <ul><li>The first treasure was a mirror that belonged to the sun goddess, representing the emperor’s relation with the gods. </li></ul>
  38. 48. Three Treasures <ul><li>The next treasure was a special sword, representing the emperor’s strength. </li></ul>
  39. 49. Three Treasures <ul><li>The third treasure was a jewel, said to actually have been taken from the steps of heaven, representing the great wisdom the emperor possesses. </li></ul>
  40. 50. <ul><li>Jimmu gained control of Japan about 660 BC. He successfully battled against a different race of people who originally lived in Japan. </li></ul>
  41. 51. Battles with Ainu <ul><li>These people looked different than present day Japanese people. They were tall, white skinned, and bearded. Jimmu defeated these people he called hairy barbarians, and became emperor and sole ruler of Japan . </li></ul>
  42. 52. <ul><li>The Chinese in their superior attitude toward all other people called the JAPANESE “ Hairy Sea Dwarfs” since they were also shorter than the Chinese norm and were more aggressive and effective sea goers as well as pirates. </li></ul>
  43. 53. <ul><li>The earliest Chinese name for the Japanese was “WA” which means “DWARF” </li></ul>
  44. 54. <ul><li>By about A.D200, iron tools and weapons were being made in Japan rather than being imported and, thus became far more widespread. </li></ul>
  45. 55. The Uji <ul><li>The Japan we can begin to see somewhat more clearly by the 5 th century, long after the fall of the HAN, was still a tribal society, divided into a number of clans called UJI each of which was ruled by hereditary chiefs and worshipped the clans’ ancestor. </li></ul>
  46. 56. <ul><li>The lower orders were farmers, fishermen, potters and some who seem to have been diviners. </li></ul>The Uji
  47. 57. <ul><li>Some Uji expanded at the expense of others, but in any case they were the hundred countries refereed to in the Chinese Accounts. </li></ul>The Uji
  48. 58. <ul><li>The Yamato state seems to have emerged as a consolidation of various uji groups in the area, headed by the Yamato Uji, although it may be a bit inaccurate to refer to it as a “state” despite its continued conquest </li></ul>The Uji
  49. 59. <ul><li>It did try to organize the Uji through the creation of ranks </li></ul><ul><li>Omi and Muraji </li></ul><ul><li>Sun line- lesser branches of the ruling family of Yamato, an unrelated but important Uji. </li></ul>The Uji
  50. 60. Shinto <ul><li>The Japanese religion of Shinto existed throughout the country since the early times of Jimmu. The belief that spirits existed in all things, living or not, was part of the religion. </li></ul>
  51. 61. Shinto <ul><li>At the heart of Shinto are the kami, or divine spirits . The kami are believed to oversee human life and the ways of the world, bringing either good fortune or chaos. </li></ul>
  52. 62. Shinto <ul><li>Some kami are the spirits of ancestors. In Shinto’s earliest days, each clan honored its ancestral kami. Other kami are the spiritual forces in nature and the environment. </li></ul>
  53. 63. Shinto <ul><li>Kami are honored at shrines. The first shrines were outdoor spots-perhaps a large rock or tree-where people brought offerings of flowers or grain. </li></ul>
  54. 64. Shinto <ul><li>Later, shrines were enclosed in buildings surrounded by beautiful landscaping. Many families have a small shrine in their houses or in their gardens. </li></ul>
  55. 65. Shinto <ul><li>W hen entering a shrine area, visitors pass through a gate called the torii. Beyond the gate is a stone water basin. Guests rinse their hands to purify themselves before entering the shrine area. </li></ul>
  56. 66. Shinto <ul><li>After making an offering, the person prays for special needs : a child’s health, good harvests, or success on a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving offerings for these spirits could help one in fishing, farming, or warfare. </li></ul>
  57. 67. <ul><li>Practices centered around the worship of nature were called SHINTO, “ the way of the gods” primarily to distinguish them form Buddhism when Buddhism reached Japan. </li></ul>Shinto
  58. 68. <ul><li>Buddhism played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan. Buddhist Ideas and rituals originating in India were filtered through Chinese society and culture and passed on to Japan. From the fifth century on, Japanese ports were awash with Chinese imports. In the fifth and sixth centuries C.E. Japan begin to borrow heavily from Chinese culture. </li></ul>
  59. 69. The Link with China <ul><li>By the middle of 6 th century Buddhism had reached Japan from Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism served as a vehicle for Chinese Influence and Japanese began to adopt many aspects of Chinese Civilization. </li></ul>
  60. 70. <ul><li>With the Soga dominant in the Yamato court this process was accelerated. It is noteworthy that the Soga chief installed his niece on the throne, a late assertion of the old matriarchal system, and appointed her nephew, PRINCE SHOTOKU </li></ul>The Link with China
  61. 71. Prince Shotoku <ul><li>Prince Shotoku sided with the soga clan. Empress Suiko made him, her regent of all matter. </li></ul>
  62. 72. Prince Shotoku <ul><li>He 1 st Japanese ruler to,608 send large scale official embassies to China in 607,608 and in 614. </li></ul>
  63. 73. Prince Shotoku <ul><li>He introduced new system of ranks and for courtiers. He named them Seventeen-Article Constitution. </li></ul>
  64. 74. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>Prince Shotoku created the constitution. It was inspired by politic thought of Confucius. </li></ul>
  65. 75. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>1.”Harmony is to be valued, and an avoidance of wanton opposition to be honored. All men are influenced by class-feelings, and there are few who are intelligent. Hence there are some who disobey their lords and fathers, or who maintain feuds with the neighboring villages. But when those above are harmonious and those below are friendly, and there is concord in the discussion of business, right views of things spontaneously gain acceptance. Then what is there which cannot be accomplished!” </li></ul>
  66. 76. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>2.”Sincerely reverence the three treasures. The three treasures: the Buddha, the Law, and the Priesthood, [The Buddha, the Law of Dharma, and the Sangha, or order of male and female monks, are the three treasures, or key elements, of Buddhism] are the final refuge . . . and are the supreme objects of faith in all countries. What man in what age can fail to reverence this law? Few men are utterly bad. They may be taught to follow it. But if they do not go to the three treasures, how shall their crookedness be made straight?” </li></ul>
  67. 77. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>3. “When you receive the Imperial commands, fail not scrupulously to obey them. The lord is Heaven, the vassal is Earth. Heaven overspreads, and Earth upbears. When this is so, the four seasons follow their due course, and the powers of Nature obtain their efficacy. If the Earth attempted to overspread, Heaven would simply fall in ruin. Therefore is it that when the lord speaks, the vassal listens; when the superior acts, the inferior yields compliance. Consequently when you receive the Imperial commands, fail not to carry them out scrupulously. Let there be a want of care in this matter, and ruin is the natural consequence.” </li></ul>
  68. 78. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>4.”The Ministers and functionaries should make decorous behavior their leading principle, for the leading principle of the government of the people consists in decorous behavior. If the superiors do not behave with decorum, the inferiors are disorderly: if inferiors are wanting in proper behavior, there must necessarily be offenses. Therefore it is that when lord and vassal behave with propriety, the distinctions of rank are not confused: when the people behave with propriety, the Government of the Corn monwealth proceeds of itself”. . . </li></ul>
  69. 79. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>5. Deal impartially with the legal complaints which are submitted to you. If the man who is to decide suits at law makes gain his motive, and hears cases with a view to receiving bribes, then the suits of the rich man will be like a stone flung into water, meeting no resistance, while the complaints of the poor will be like water thrown upon a stone. In these circumstances the poor man will not know where to go, nor will he behave as he should. </li></ul>
  70. 80. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>6.”Chastise that which is evil and encourage that which is good. This was the excellent i rule of antiquity. Conceal not, therefore, the good qualities of others, and fail not to correct that which is wrong when you see it. Flatterers and deceivers are a sharp weapon for the overthrow of the State, and a pointed sword for the destruction of the people. Sycophants are also fond, when they meet, of speaking at length to their superiors on the errors of their inferiors; to their inferiors, they censure the faults of their superiors. Men of this kind are all wanting in fidelity to their lord, and in benevolence toward the people. From such an origin great civil disturbances arise.” </li></ul>
  71. 81. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>7.”Let every man have his own charge, and let not the spheres of duty be confused. When wise men are entrusted with office, the sound of praise arises. If unprincipled men hold office, disasters and tumults are multiplied. In this world, few are born with knowledge: wisdom is the product of earnest meditation. In all things, whether great or small, find the right man, and they will surely be well managed: on all occasions, be they urgent or the reverse, meet but with a wise man, and they will of themselves be amenable. In this way will the State be lasting and the Temples of the Earth and of Grain will be free from danger. Therefore did the wise sovereigns of antiquity seek the man to fill the office, and not the office for the sake of the man. . “ </li></ul>
  72. 82. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>8. Ministers and officials should attend the Court early in the morning and retire late, for the whole day is hardly enough for the accomplishment of state business. If one is late in attending Court, emergencies cannot be met; if officials retire early, the work cannot be completed. </li></ul>
  73. 83. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>9. Good faith is the foundation of right. In everything let there be good faith, for if the lord and the vassal keep faith with one another, what cannot be accomplished? If the lord and the vassal do not keep faith with each other, everything will end in failure. </li></ul>
  74. 84. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>10.Let us cease from wrath, and refrain from angry looks. Nor let us be resentful when others differ from us. For all men have hearts, and each heart has its own leanings. Their right is our wrong, and our right is their wrong. We are not unquestionably sages, nor are they unquestionably fools. Both of us are simply ordinary men. How can any one lay down a rule by which to distinguish right from wrong? For we are all, one with another, wise and foolish, like a ring which has no end. Therefore, although others give way to anger, let us on the contrary dread our own faults, and though we alone may be in the right, let us follow the multitude and act like men... </li></ul>
  75. 85. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>11.Give clear appreciation to merit and demerit, and deal out to each its sure reward or punishment. In these days, reward does not attend upon merit, nor punishment upon crime. You high functionaries who have charge of public affairs, let it be your task to make clear rewards and punishments. . . . </li></ul>
  76. 86. <ul><li>12. Do not let the local nobility levy taxes on the people. There cannot be two lords in a country; the people cannot have two masters. The sovereign is the sole master of the people of the whole realm, and the officials that he appoints are all his subjects. How can they presume to levy taxes on the people? </li></ul>
  77. 87. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>13. All people entrusted with office should attend equally to their duties. Their work may sometimes be interrupted due to illness or their being sent on missions. But whenever they are able to attend to business they should do so as if they knew what it was about and not obstruct public affairs on the grounds they are not personally familiar with them. </li></ul>
  78. 88. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>14. Do not be envious! For if we envy others, then they in turn will envy us. The evils of envy know no limit. If others surpass us in intelligence, we are not pleased; if they are more able, we are envious. But if we do not find wise men and sages, how shall the realm be governed? </li></ul>
  79. 89. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>15.”To turn away from that which is private, and to set our faces toward chat which is public - this is the path of a Minister. Now if a man is influenced by private motives, he will assuredly feel resentments, and if he is influenced by resentful feelings, he will assuredly fail to act harmoniously with others. If he fails to act harmoniously with others, he will assuredly sacrifice the public interests to his private feelings. When resentment arises, it interferes with order, and is subversive of law”. . . . </li></ul>
  80. 90. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>16.”Let the people be employed [in forced labor] at seasonable times. This is an ancient and excellent rule. Let them be employed, therefore, in the winter months, when they are at leisure. But from Spring to Autumn, when they are engaged in agriculture or with the mulberry trees, the people should not be so employed. For if they do not attend to agriculture, what will they have to eat? If they do not attend the mulberry trees, what will they do for clothing?” </li></ul>
  81. 91. Seventeen Article Constitution <ul><li>17. “Decisions on important matters should not be made by one person alone. may miscarry, that one should arrange They should be discussed with many. But small matters are of less consequence. It is unnecessary to consult a number of people. It is only in the case of the discussion of weighty affairs, when there is a suspicion that they may miscarry, that one should arrange matters in concert with others, so as to arrive at the right conclusion.” </li></ul>