Modern Times Each civilization that you will study in this unit made important contributions to history. • Western countries built new societies based on industry. • Western rivalries over land and resources sparked World War I, the first global conflict. • World War II made the United States and the Soviet Union world leaders. • By 2000, advances in technology brought peoples of the world closer together. Conflicts, however, developed among different groups. A.D. 1800 A.D. 1825 A.D. 1850 A.D. 1875Industry and A.D. 1804 A.D. 1848 A.D. 1861 A.D. 1877 Nationalism Napoleon Revolutions U.S. Civil EdisonC ha p t e r 19 becomes sweep War invents the French Europe begins phonograph emperor NapoleonImperialism c. A.D. 1885 and World War I European African powersChapt er 20 carving of divide European missionary AfricaWorld War IIand the Cold WarChap te r 21 Building Today’s WorldChap te r 22 706 (t)Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY, (b)The Royal Pavilion Libraries and Museums, Brighton and Howe
60°N 60°N NORTH EUROPE ASIA NORTH EUROPE ASIA AMERICA AMERICA AFRICA AFRICA EQUATOR EQUATOR 0° 0° N SOUTH SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA AMERICA W E Chapter Chapter 60°S S 120°W 60°W 0° 19 60°E 120°E 180° 60°S 120°W 60°W 0° 20 60°E 120°E 180° 60°N 60°N NORTH EUROPE ASIA NORTH EUROPE ASIA AMERICA AMERICA AFRICA AFRICA EQUATOR EQUATOR 0° 0° 0 2,000 mi. SOUTH SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA AMERICA AUSTRALIA 0 2,000 km Mercator projection Chapter Chapter 60°S 120°W 60°W 0° 21 60°E 120°E 180° 60°S 120°W 60°W 0° 22 60°E 120°E 180° A.D. 1900 A.D. 1925 A.D. 1950 A.D. 1975 A.D. 2000 Woman Houses of factory Parliament, worker LondonA.D. 1898 c. A.D. 1900 A.D. 1917United Japan World War IStates becomes endsdeclares war a poweron Spain in Asia World War I poster A.D. 1933 A.D. 1941 A.D. 1949 C. A.D. 1957 Nigerians Hitler U.S. Comm- African celebrate leads enters unists independence independ- ence Germany World rule in begins War II China A.D. 1948 A.D. 1979 A.D. 1989 A.D. 2001 Israel Islamic Communism Terrorist becomes revolution ends in attacks a nation in Iran Eastern on U.S. EuropeIsrael’s Flag Ayatollah Khomeini (tl)Mary Evans Picture Library, (tr)London Aerial Photo Library/CORBIS, (cl)Bridgeman Art Library, (cr)Archive Photo/Express News/D.E.1, (bl, b)CORBIS
1 Arc de Triomphe NORTH AMERICA Atlantic See Industry and Nationalism Ocean Chapter 192 British Parliament Pacific Ocean SOUTH See Imperialism and World War I AMERICA Chapter 20 1783–1830 1867–1934 1769–1821 South American military Polish-born 1869–1948 French leader and political leader French scientist Indian leader Chapter 19, page 721 Chapter 19, page 750 Chapter 19, page 740 Chapter 21, page 844 708 (bkgd)Worldsat International Inc. 2004, All Rights Reserved, (t)Robert Holmes/CORBIS, (c)CORBIS, (bl)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (blc)Christie’s Images/CORBIS, (brc)Hulton/Archive by Getty Images, (br)Bettmann/CORBIS
3 Berlin Wall2 3 See World War II and 1 EUROPE the Cold War Chapter 21 4 4 Sarajevo, Bosnia Mediterranean Sea ASIA Persian Red Gulf Sea See Building Today’s World Chapter 22 AFRICA Indian 5 Cape Town, South Africa Ocean See Building Today’s World Chapter 22 5 1870–1924 1882–1945 1898–1978 1918–presentCommunist leader U.S. president Israeli prime minister South African presidentChapter 20, page 795 Chapter 21, page 817 Chapter 22, page 877 Chapter 22, page 873 709 (t)Black Star, (c)Chris Rainier/CORBIS, (b)CORBIS, (bl, bcl, bcr)Bettmann/CORBIS, (br)Reuters/Mike Hutchings/Archive Photos
710–711 PICIMPACT/CORBIS Industry and NationalismSteel plant on the Tees River inMiddlebough, England 1750 1800 1850 1900 1769 1799 1848 1871 Watt Napoleon Karl Marx writes Germany improves comes to Communist is united steam engine power Manifesto
Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit jat.glencoe.com for a preview In the late 1700s, the French Revolution and the Industrial of Chapter 19.Revolution brought great changes to Europe and the UnitedStates. Read this chapter to find out how the rise of factories andthe spread of nationalism changed how people lived their lives. View the Chapter 19 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The French Revolution and Napoleon In 1789 the French overthrew their king and tried to build a republic. A few years later, however, Napoleon seized power and built a new French empire. The Industrial Revolution During the 1800s, Europe and North America began using machines to produce large quantities of goods. During this time, new inventions improved life for many people. Society and Industry The growth of industry led to the growth of cities and new social groups, as well as many new problems and new ideas. Nationalism and Nation-States Nationalism and liberalism led to new nations and the emergence of democracy in Europe and the Americas. Organizing Information Make this foldable to help you organize and analyze information by asking yourself questions about industry and nationalism. Step 1 Fold four sheets of paper Step 3 Place the folded papers one Reading and Writing in half from top to bottom. on top of the other. Staple the four As you read the chapter, sections together and label the top write the main ideas for four tabs: The French Revolution each section under the and Napoleon, The Industrial appropriate tabs of your Revolution, Society and Industry, foldable. Then write Nationalism and Nation-States. one statement for each tab that summarizes all Step 2 On each folded paper, make a The French of the main ideas in cut 1 inch from the side on the top flap. Staple here. Revolution and that tab. Cut 1 inch from the edge through the top flap only. 711
UnderstandingConcepts Reading for Meaning Sometimes, you can define a word but still not clearly understand what it means. It often takes a while to learn the full meaning of a word, especially if the word describes a concept or idea. Thinking about a word or asking yourself questions about it may help you to understand a concept more clearly. For example, in the following paragraph from page 720, it is easy to see that the word nationalism means “the desire of a people for self-rule,” but what does that definition really mean? Nationalism Two forces helped to bring is a complex Napoleon’s empire to an end. concept made up of many One was nationalism, or the Definitions help you ideas. desire of a people for self-rule. understand The nations of Europe rejected a word, but Napoleon’s rule and the French they do not always fully customs he forced on them. explain ––from page 720 concepts. Ask yourself questions to increase your under- ver a standing of the word nationalism. Here are some ou discoW hen y ur read- questions you might ask: rd in yonew wo multiple • How is nationalism different from patriotism? atch for n ing, w e word i • How do we show nationalism in the United meanin gs of th evision, States? ovies, tel books, m rsations. • Is there such as thing as regional nationalism and co nve in a country, such as “southern-ism”? • What color or music comes to mind when you think of nationalism? Why?712
Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY Read to Write Ask Questions Choose any word Choose one word that you do not understand from Chapter 19 that fully from each section of Chapter 19. For each represents a concept, word, try to understand the meaning by asking the such as bourgeoisie, industrialism, socialism, following questions: or guerilla warfare. Write about the word for several minutes, noting anything that comes to 1) Who might use the word? mind when you read the When would he or she word. Then, search the word online to expand use it? your interpretation of the word. 2) What else do you want to know about this word? 3) How would you illustrate the word? 4) What actions go along with this word? Choose a word from the chapter that is familiar to most people. Ask five people how they define the word. How did their answers help you to understand the word? 713
The French Revolution and Napoleon What’s the Connection? Locating Places Many ideas of the American Versailles (VUHR • SY) Revolution also affected Europe. Waterloo (WAW • tuhr • LOO) In France, the people started a revolution and overthrew the king. Meeting People The French Revolution then led to King Louis XVI (LOO • ee) the rise of Napoleon. Maximilien Robespierre (mak • see • meel • ya ROHBZ • PYEHR) Focusing on the Napoleon Bonaparte (nuh • POH • • The French Revolution began because lee • uhn BOH • nuh • PAHRT) the people were treated unfairly and because their country had serious Building Your Vocabulary economic problems. (page 715) estates • French radicals used terror to enforce bourgeoisie (BURZH • WAH • ZEE) their reforms. (page 717) coup d’etat (KOO day • TAH) • Napoleon Bonaparte used his military success to take control of Reading Strategy the French government. (page 719) Cause and Effect Use a diagram like the one below to explain the causes of • Through military conquests, the French Revolution. Napoleon built a huge, but short- lived, empire in Europe. (page 720) Cause: The French Revolution Cause: 1780 1800 1820 1789 1799 1812 1814 Moscow The Bastille Napoleon Napoleon CongressLondon falls comes to power invades of Vienna Paris Vienna Russia meets Madrid Rome 714 CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism
The Three Estates inThe French Revolution Begins Prerevolutionary France The French Revolution began becausethe people were treated unfairly and because their 98%country had serious economic problems.Reading Focus During the French Revolution, people 1.5%tried to create a new society and government. If you 0.5%could change our society today, what changes would you Populationmake? 65% Previously you learned about the 25% 10%American Revolution. The example of theAmerican Revolution influenced many peoplein France. They, too, wanted political change Land ownershipbased on the ideas of freedom and equality.The French Revolution, which began in 1789, 100%changed France and all of Europe.What Caused the French Revolution? Inthe 1700s, France was one of Europe’s most Taxationpowerful countries. French kings ruled it First Estate: Clergy Second Estate: Nobilitywith absolute power. Nobles had many priv- Third Estate: Commonersileges and lived in great wealth. Most peo-ple, however, were poor, had littleeducation, and struggled to make a living. The French people were divided into three The Third Estate made up by far the largestestates, or classes. The First Estate was the part of France’s population.Catholic clergy, or church officials. They did 1. What percentage of the land in France did the Second Estate own? What percentagenot pay taxes, and they received money from of the population did they make up?church lands. The Second Estate was the 2. Infer From looking at these circle graphs,nobles. They filled the highest posts in gov- what inferences can you draw about whyernment and the military. Like the clergy, the a revolution occurred in France?nobles were free from taxes. They lived in lux-ury at the king’s court or in their country Members of the Third Estate had nohouses surrounded by large areas of land. voice in the government, but they paid the Everyone else in France belonged to the country’s taxes. As Enlightenment ideasThird Estate. At the top of this group was the about freedom and equality spread, the mid-bourgeoisie (BURZH • WAH • ZEE), or the middle dle class came to resent more and more theclasses. They included merchants, bankers, privileges of the nobles and clergy.doctors, lawyers, and teachers. Next werethe city workers—artisans, day laborers, and The French King Is Overthrown In 1788servants. At the bottom were the peasants, food shortages and rising prices causedwho made up more than 80 percent of the great discontent throughout the country. AtFrench people. the same time, the French government was CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism 715
714-723 Ch19 S1-868873 12/27/05 9:31 AM Page 716 almost bankrupt because of costly wars and new taxes. The Estates-General was made Giraudon/Art Resource, NY increasing expenses for the king’s court. up of representatives from all three estates. After French banks decided they could no In the Estates-General, the nobles and longer afford to loan the government clergy refused to give up their privileges. money, King Louis XVI (LOO • ee) asked the Frustrated, the delegates of the Third Estate nobles and clergy to pay taxes, but they decided to meet separately. They declared refused. Louis then called a meeting of the themselves to be the National Assembly country’s legislative body, the Estates- and began work on a new constitution for General, at his palace at Versailles (VUHR • France. SY). It was the only way he could impose The people celebrated this victory, but they began to worry. News came that the king was gathering troops at Versailles. The people of Paris got ready to fight. Early on July 14, 1789, a large crowd stormed a hated royal fortress and prison called the Bastille Declaration of the (ba • STEEL). Rights of Man and News of the Bastille’s fall spread to the the Citizen countryside, where the peasants rose On August 26, 1789, the French National against the nobles. To calm the people, the Assembly approved 17 articles that stated National Assembly passed new laws that their basic freedoms. Three of the articles ended the privileges of the clergy and are listed below. nobles. It also issued the Declaration of the 2. The aim of every Rights of Man and the Citizen. The political association Declaration said that the powers of govern- is the preservation ment came from the people, not the king. of the natural . . . In 1791 the National Assembly made rights of man. These rights are liberty, France a constitutional monarchy. France property, security, was to be ruled by an elected assembly, and and resistance to the king’s power was limited. Louis, how- oppression [hardship]. ever, would not accept these changes. In 9. Every man being pre- June 1791, he and his wife Marie Antoinette sumed innocent until tried to flee to Austria. They did not get far. he has been proven Declaration of At a town east of Paris, soldiers arrested the guilty, . . . the Rights of king and queen and returned them to Paris. 11. The free communica- Man and the Citizen Worried that Austria’s ruler would send tion of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the troops to aid Louis, the National Assembly rights of man; every citizen can then freely declared war on Austria in 1792. Soon after, speak, write, and print. . . . Prussia joined Austria in fighting France. —Declaration of the Rights of Man The war did not go well for France. Angry and the Citizen (August 1789) about France’s defeats, radicals—or people wanting far-reaching changes—took over Paris and helped set up a new government Which freedoms do Articles 2, 9, and 11 protect? called the National Convention. Identify Who belonged to the three estates in France?
AKG, Berlin/SuperStock The Reign of Terror The Struggle for Power In the Convention, delegates argued about the revolution’s French radicals used terror to enforce future. One group of the Jacobins was the their reforms. Girondists (juh • RAHN • dihsts), who came Reading Focus Have you ever heard the phrase “The from the Gironde, a region in southwest end justifies the means”? In other words, if your goal is France. The Girondists believed that the right, is it okay to do anything, even break the law or revolution had gone far enough. They hurt people, to reach that goal? What do you think? wanted to protect the interests of the mid- dle class. Many of the radicals who formed the Across the aisle was the group of National Convention—France’s new govern- Jacobins that favored still more changes. Its ment—belonged to the Jacobin club. This members were known as the Mountain, was a large network of political groups in because they sat on high benches at the rear France. They were called Jacobins (JA • kuh • of the hall. Leaders of this group, such as buhnz) because they held meetings at the Georges-Jacques Danton and Jean-Paul Jacobin monastery in Paris. Once in power, Marat, saw themselves as the voice of the the Jacobins divided into two groups. people and defenders of the revolution. When the Bastille was attacked on July 14, 1789, it was defended by a little more than 100 soldiers, and it held only 7 prisoners. Why did the people of Paris storm the Bastille? CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism 717
The Mountain soon controlled the courts sentenced to death by guillotine any- (l)Stock Montage, (c)Giraudon/Art Resource, NY, (r)Photo ResearchersConvention. They used their power to get rid one believed to be disloyal to the revolution.of the former king. In late 1792, Louis was This included Girondists, clergy, nobles, andtried and found guilty of helping France’s even women and children. In all, aboutenemies. A month later, Louis was beheaded 40,000 people died, including Queen Marieon the guillotine—a new machine designed Antoinette. This period became known as theto quickly execute people. Louis’s execution Reign of Terror.scared other European rulers. In early 1793, During this time, Robespierre tried toBritain, Spain, the Netherlands, and create a “Republic of Virtue.” He thoughtSardinia joined Austria and Prussia in their the revolution should inspire people to bewar against France. good citizens. Under Robespierre’s lead, the Committee opened new schools, hadWho Was Robespierre? Soon after the new farming skills taught to the peasants,king’s execution, the National Convention and worked to keep prices under control.set up the Committee of Public Safety to Robespierre even created a new religionrun the country. This new body quickly that worshiped a “Supreme Being.” Thiscame under the control of a lawyer named attempt to replace France’s traditionalMaximilien Robespierre (mak • see • meel • Catholic faith, however, did not last.ya ROHBZ • PYEHR). With France under threat from abroad, The Committee took harsh steps to the Committee decided to raise a new army.end growing unrest in France. Revolutionary All single men between the ages of 18 and 25 The French RevolutionMarie Antoinette is led to her Model of aexecution. Why was the guillotine guillotineadopted for executions? This painting shows a supporter of the revolution known as a sans-cullote, which means “without breeches.” Sans- cullotes were shopkeepers, artisans, and workers who got their name because they wore long pants, rather than the knee- length breeches of the upper class.
were conscripted, or required to join up. Withthis new force of almost a million soldiers, The Rise of NapoleonFrance was able to throw back the foreign Napoleon Bonaparte used his militaryinvaders. Military victories gave revolution- success to take control of the French government.ary generals great confidence. They soon Reading Focus What qualities make a great leader?became important in French politics. As you read about Napoleon, ask yourself which of his As the fear of foreign invasions less- qualities won him the confidence of the French people.ened, people in France grew tired of all thekillings and wanted to end the Reign of While the Directory lost support inTerror. When Robespierre refused, govern- France, the French army was winningment leaders had him executed. After great victories in neighboring lands. OneRobespierre’s fall, moderate middle-class young general, battling Austrian armies inleaders created a new government led by a Italy, especially captured the Frenchfive-man council. This council, called the people’s imagination. His name wasDirectory, spent its time trying to handle food Napoleon Bonaparte (nuh • POH • lee • uhnshortages, rising prices, government bank- BOH • nuh • PAHRT).ruptcy, and attacks by other countries. By Napoleon Bonaparte was born on the1799, the Directory had lost much support. Mediterranean island of Corsica in 1769. HeThe French people began to look for a went to military school and became an offi-strong leader who could restore order. cer. Napoleon supported the revolution. His Contrast How did the military talent helped him rise to the rank ofGirondists differ from the Mountain? general by the time he was 24 years old. Periods of Revolution and Empire in France, 1789–1815 1785 1790 1795 1800 1805 1810 1815 1795 1792 The DirectoryMay 1789 June 1789 1799 1804 1815 Estates- National 1791 National Convention Consulate of Empire of Napoleon Defeat of General Assembly Legislative Assembly Napoleon Napoleon 1. How many years did the Directory stay in power? 2. Compare Which period lasted the longest? This painting shows Napoleon Bonaparte (center) seizing control of the French government in 1799. At what age did Napoleon become a general in the French army? CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism 719 (r)Photo Researchers
Robert Holmes/CORBIS Napoleon’s Empire Through military conquests, Napoleon built a huge, but short-lived, empire in Europe. Reading Focus Many talented people use their abili- ties to rise high. Some, however, try to do too much and fall. Read to learn how Napoleon finally lost his power and his empire. The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, a monument to French military victories, was begun by Napoleon Being emperor of France was not in 1806 and finally finished in 1836. What enough for Napoleon. He wanted to build a territories were included in Napoleon’s empire? great empire. Beginning in 1803, Napoleon won a number of victories that helped him After his successes in Italy, Napoleon reach his goal. By 1807, Napoleon had anattacked the British in Egypt in 1799. While empire that stretched across Europe fromin Egypt, he heard of the worsening politi- the Atlantic Ocean to Russia.cal troubles back home. He immediately Napoleon’s empire included many dif-returned to France. There, he took part in a ferent territories. Napoleon directly ruledcoup d’etat (KOO day • TAH). This is when the France and parts of Germany and Italy. Histop government leaders are suddenly relatives, however, governed other lands,replaced by force by a new group of lead- such as Spain and the Netherlands. Outsideers. Napoleon became the most powerful the empire, independent countries, such asman in the country, with the title of First Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, were forcedConsul. France had the strong leader many to become France’s allies.believed it needed. Napoleon moved quickly to strengthen Napoleon Fights Britain Two forceshis control. He reorganized the government, helped to bring Napoleon’s empire to ancreated many new schools, and appointed end. One was nationalism, or the desire of alocal officials. He reorganized the country’s people for self-rule. The nations of Europefinances and tax system. He created a new rejected Napoleon’s rule and the Frenchlegal system. Known as the Napoleonic customs he forced on them. The other forceCode, it was based on Enlightenment ideas. was the combined might of Britain andNapoleon also made peace with the Catholic Russia.Church, which had opposed the revolution. Only Britain and Russia remained unde- Napoleon did not remain true to all of feated by Napoleon. The French emperorthe ideas of the French Revolution. People hoped to invade Britain. However, in 1805,were equal under the law, but freedom of the British admiral Lord Horatio Nelsonspeech and the press was limited. A new destroyed the French fleet at the Battle ofgroup of nobles, based on ability rather Trafalgar off Spain’s coast. After that,than wealth or family ties, was created. Napoleon tried to obtain victory in a differ-Then, in 1804, Napoleon crowned himself ent way. He forbade the countries in hisemperor, and France became an empire. empire to trade with Britain. His plan, Explain After becoming called the Continental System, was hard toconsul, how did Napoleon strengthen his control? enforce, and it proved unsuccessful.720 CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism
Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY NAPO1LEON BONAPARTE –182 1769 first battle Even though Napoleon Bonaparte’s e seriously. At was a snowball fight, he took the gam et at the the time, Napoleon was a young cad astern France. A Brienne military academy in northe s a break from surprise snowfall had given the boy g random their schoolwork. Instead of throwin on showed his snowballs at his classmates, Napole le attack. He leadership skills by forming a full-sca places to gave the boys on his team duties and m because of stand. They easily beat the other tea his warlike strategies. abilities, Before the other cadets realized his smates because Napoleon was picked on by his clas Italian- of his short height, unusual name, and care for his sounding accent. Napoleon did not wealthy fellow cadets because they were from s father was a families and were French. Napoleon’ lawyer, but Napoleon was one of eight children fact, Napoleon and the family was not wealthy. In Napoleon Bonaparte resented the often sent money home. Napoleon ded his French in general because they inva of Corsica, homeland, the Mediterranean island “I have sacrificed all of r later—on the in 1768. Historians say that one yea eland was forced my interests to those of day he was born—Napoleon’s hom French takeover. to celebrate the anniversary of the the country.” smart Napoleon’s teachers found him to be tics, but a —Napoleon Bonaparte, “Farewell and capable, especially in mathema to the Old Guard” to a Paris poor speller. He earned a scholarship ugh military academy and tested well eno to become a second lieutenant in the army at age 16. Little did anyone know that someday he would to be a leader and What skills would prepare someone become a military good military leader today? emperor of France. 721
Napoleon Invades Russia Napoleon next France’s enemies then captureddecided to take on Russia. He organized a Napoleon and exiled him to thelarge force of about 600,000 soldiers called Mediterranean island of Elba. He escaped tothe Grand Army. In the summer of 1812, the the French mainland in the spring of 1815.Grand Army invaded Russia. Except for His troops flocked to their old commander.one battle, the Russians refused to fight. Napoleon returned to Paris in triumph. AtInstead, they drew Napoleon’s army Waterloo (WAW • tuhr • LOO) in Belgium, andeeper into Russia. When Russia’s harsh international force led by Britain’s Duke ofwinter arrived, Napoleon’s forces were Wellington finally defeated Napoleon. Thisunprepared and helpless. Their retreat was time, Napoleon was sent to the island of St.a disaster. Fewer than 100,000 men returned Helena in the southern Atlantic Ocean,alive. where he died in 1821. Napoleon’s Empire 60° N 10°W 0° 10°E 20°E 40°E 0 20°W 300 mi. 30°E 0 300 km cow R . Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Borodino M os KINGDOM SWEDEN Moscow 1812 OF DENMARK a Se AND NORWAY Ne m a n R ic t . Kovno al E North B Minsk TH Sea IA UNITED SS RUSSIAN EMPIRE OF U GRAND KINGDOM Berlin PR DUCHY OF ION Kiev D n ie p er R.50°N R hine Leipzig WARSAW CONFEDERAT London 1813 R. Brussels Jena Dn i es RHINE t 1806 er Waterloo Austerlitz R. Sei Da ATLANTIC Paris n e R . 1815 n u b e R. 1805 OCEAN N Versailles Ulm Vienna AUSTRIAN 1805 EMPIRE Black Sea SWITZ. K W E IN ILLYRIAN FRENCH G PROVINCES KEY IT DO S EMPIRE AL M OTTOMAN France, 1799 Y OF EMPIRE French Empire, 1812 Elba Dependent states, 1812 Corsica Rome UGAL States allied with40°N KINGDOM OF Napoleon, 1812 Madrid NAPLES Sardinia States allied against PORT SPAIN Napoleon, 1812 Mediterranean Sea Sicily French victory French defeat Trafalgar 1805 Strait of Napoleons invasion Gibraltar of Russia, June– From 1807 to 1812, Napoleon controlled a December 1812 large part of Europe. 1. Which battles shown were French defeats? 2. Which countries were allied against Napoleon in 1812? What geographic factors might have allowed these states to remain free from French control? Find NGS online map resources @ www.nationalgeographic.com/maps722
Austrian Information Service The Congress of Vienna In September 1814, European leaders met in the Austrian capital of Vienna. Their goal was to return Klemens von Europe to the way it was before the French Metternich Revolution. The leader of the conference, known as the Congress of Vienna, was Austria’s foreign minister Klemens von Metternich (MEH • tuhr • nihk). Like the other power would prevent any single nation, leaders, Metternich was a conservative. such as France, from controlling Europe. Conservatives at that time believed in tradi- The European leaders at Vienna were tional values, orderly ways, and a strong against individual rights and nationalism. role for religion. They rejected calls for indi- Hoping to crush revolutionary ideas, they vidual rights and self-rule. American con- brought back to power the royal families servatives today believe in traditional who had ruled in Europe before Napoleon. values, but they also support individual To keep the peace, the leaders also agreed to political rights and self-rule. meet from time to time at conferences. These At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich meetings were called the Concert of Europe. and the other leaders wanted to create a balance of power, or equal strength among Analyze How did national- countries. They hoped that a balance of ism help defeat Napoleon? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. What was the main idea of the 5. Compare and Contrast Review the Declaration of the Rights of Compare the goals of the • Rising prices, food shortages, and Man and the Citizen? French and American unemployment in France led the 2. What were the goals of the Revolutions. Third Estate to rebel, creating a Congress of Vienna? 6. Sequence Information new elected assembly. What events led to Napoleon’s Critical Thinking • French radicals known as Jacobins defeat and the fall of the 3. Organize Information Draw French Empire? gained control of the government a chart like the one below. Use and executed thousands of peo- it to describe the divisions in 7. Understanding ple who opposed their reforms. French society. Concepts Make a recruiting • As political troubles in France First Estate poster for the French army, worsened, Napoleon Bonaparte Second Estate either in the revolutionary took control of the country. period or under Napoleon. Use Third Estate • After creating a large empire, language and illustrations that Napoleon was finally defeated. 4. Summarize What were some convey the ideals, emotions, European leaders attempted to of the achievements of the and events of the time. restore a balance of power. Committee of Public Safety? CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism 723
The Industrial Revolution What’s the Connection? Michael Faraday (FAR • uh • DAY) While France and other nations Thomas Edison were undergoing political changes, the Industrial Revolution was Building Your Vocabulary changing the way people worked and industrialism (ihn • DUHS • tree • lived. uh• LIH • zuhm) textile (TEHK • STYL) Focusing on the capital • The Industrial Revolution began in partnership Great Britain because of the corporation (KAWR • puh • RAY • enclosure movement, Britain’s shuhn) natural resources, and new British inventions. (page 725) Reading Strategy • The Industrial Revolution spread Organizing Information Use a beyond Great Britain’s shores to diagram like the one below to show Europe and the United States. four of the major inventions and their (page 729) inventors that helped start the Industrial Revolution. Meeting People James Hargreaves (HAHR • GREEVZ) Richard Arkwright (AHRK • RYT) The Industrial Edmund Cartwright (KAHRT • RYT) Revolution James Watt Robert Fulton 1750 1800 1850 1900 1769 1807 1876 1903 Watt improves Robert Fulton Alexander Wright brothers NORTH EUROPE steam engine builds Graham Bell make first AMERICA London Paris steamboat invents telephone airplane flight New York724 CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism
to rely on the use of machinery, rather thanIndustrialism Begins on animal or human power. Over the next The Industrial Revolution began in 200 years, industrialism would spread fromBritain because of the enclosure movement, Britain’s Britain to dramatically change life in othernatural resources, and new British inventions. parts of the world. Industry changed life soReading Focus How would your life be different if much that historians call these changes theyou did not have cars, telephones, or electricity? All of Industrial Revolution.these things came from the Industrial Revolution. Read Before the rise of industrialism, mostto learn how industry began. people lived in small farming villages. They raised their own food and made their own While political revolution swept through goods. In Britain during the early 1700s,Europe, a new economic system known as cloth was made in villages. As you readindustrialism (ihn • DUHS • tree • uh • LIH • previously, this system was known as cot-zuhm) began in Britain. There, people began tage industry. Under this system, most The Industrial Revolution 1870 20°W 10°W 0° 10°E 20°E 30°E FINLAND 0 400 mi. Oslo St. Petersburg 0 400 km NORWAY Stockholm Chamberlain Trimetric projection Glasgow Edinburgh SWEDEN 40°E UNITED KINGDOM North a Se Bradford Sea Copenhagen Moscow ic50 °N Liverpool Leeds l t N Manchester DENMARK Ba e m an R . Sheffield N Birmingham Hamburg Amsterdam PRUSSIA E Bristol London NETH. W Berlin Brussels S POLAND Warsaw u l a R. BELGIUM Cologne Breslau RUSSIA st Dnie GERMANY Vi p ATLANTIC Paris Prague er R . Lo OCEAN Munich ire R. Vienna Budapest FRANCE SWITZ. Bordeaux AUSTRIA- Turin Milan Venice HUNGARY Po R. E Genoa40° Florence Black Sea br N Marseille oR D an u be R. Ad . ia SERBIA r Madrid ITALY tic Me d i t e r r a n e a n Rome Se SPAIN a Constantinople Se a KEY Manufacturing and industrial area Major industrial center The Industrial Revolution spread throughout Major railways by 1870 Europe in the 1800s. Industry: 1. What were the major industries in the United Coal mining Kingdom? Ironworking30°N 2. What patterns do you see in the distribution Textile production of industries, and what geographical factors might account for these patterns?
Traveling by Early Railroad In the 1700s and early 1800s, the best way to travel in England was on horseback or by stagecoach. By the late 1840s, however, stagecoach companies were being forced out of business with a new invention: the steam locomotive. The locomotive was invented in England in the early 1800s. It was first used to move coal and iron ore from mines to factories. Then passengers started riding the trains. Boarding and riding a grand locomotive, nicknamed the “iron horse,” was an exciting trip. The wealthy bought tickets for first-class seats in fancy, enclosed passenger cars. These customers sat on plush cloth and leather benches with wood and brass handrails. The seats were located behind the locomotive Early English train from the 1840swork was done in workers’ cottages, where movement began. Britain’s Parliamentfamilies worked together. passed new laws that allowed landowners Merchants went from cottage to cottage, to fence off their land. For hundreds ofbringing the workers raw wool and cotton. years, local villagers had rented the landUsing hand-powered spinning wheels and from landowners and divided it into smalllooms, the workers would spin the thread strips, each worked by a family. Now theand weave it into wool and cotton cloth. The villagers were told they could not use themerchants then picked up the finished cloth land the way they wanted.to sell. The Industrial Revolution began in the Enclosure allowed landowners to makewoven cloth, or textile (TEHK • STYL), industry. more money. Whole areas could grow theMerchants could make so much money from same crop, which meant larger harveststextiles that they began to look for ways to and greater profits. Often the land wasmake cloth better and faster. By the 1700s, turned into pasture for sheep whose woolchanges in Britain made this possible. was used by the textile industry. Successful farming provided landown-What Caused the Industrial Revolution? ers with extra money. Many chose to invest,The Industrial Revolution began in Britain or put money, into new businesses. Moneyfor many reasons. One important cause of invested in businesses is called capital. ABritain’s Industrial Revolution was a growing middle class joined wealthychange in how Britain’s landowners used landowners and merchants in investingtheir land. In the 1700s the enclosure capital in new industries.726 CHAPTER 19 Industry and NationalismArchive Photos
where the smoke would rise above the train’s frontsection and not bother the riders. People who bought cheaper tickets sat in the second-class section. Second-class railway cars were open to the air,and passengers had to wait their turn for a bench seat tobecome available. Third-class passengers could buy verycheap tickets and stand in train cars with open sides. Somehad benches. The smoke from the coal-powered steamengines often dirtied the riders’ clothes. They ignored thisdiscomfort because riding a train was faster and cheaperthan traveling in uncomfortable stagecoaches.Connecting to the Past1. What accommodations were provided for first-class passengers?2. Why did third-class passengers prefer to travel by train Interior of a than by stagecoach? railway car Still another cause was the large num- New Inventions Britain also had a numberber of people available to work in industry. of talented inventors. Their inventionsThe enclosure movement forced many made the Industrial Revolution possible.peasants off the land. They then moved to Many of these first inventions were devel-the cities and became workers in new oped in the late 1700s for the textile indus-industries. try. James Hargreaves (HAHR • GREEVZ) In the 1700s, Britain’s population grew invented a spinning jenny that could spinrapidly. More and better food meant that cotton into thread very quickly. Richardpeople were healthier, lived longer, and Arkwright (AHRK • RYT) developed a way tohad larger families. This increase in popu- power a spinning machine with water, andlation also provided workers for the new Edmund Cartwright (KAHRT • RYT) created afactories. new powered loom. This machine could Finally, Britain’s natural resources and weave the thread into cloth as fast as thegeography also helped in the rise of indus- new spinning machines produced it.try. The British had large supplies of coal In 1769 James Watt designed a steamand iron. Coal replaced wood as the fuel engine that could power the new machines.for running machines. Iron was used in Steam soon replaced water as the majorbuilding and in making machines. The source of power.country had many fine harbors and rivers As the need for machines grew, iron wasfor transporting goods. Rivers also pro- needed to make machine parts. In 1753vided power for the earliest cotton mills. Henry Cort found a way to use coal to turn CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism 727 Bettmann/CORBIS
iron ore into pure iron. As a result, iron do this was to form a partnership wherebecame cheaper, production grew, and coal two or more people owned the businessmining became a major industry. In 1856 and pooled their own money. Another wayHenry Bessemer invented an inexpensive was to create a corporation (KAWR • puh • RAY •way to make large amounts of iron into steel, shuhn). A corporation raises money by sell-which was harder and stronger than iron. ing shares in the company to investors.Soon mining towns and steel centers grew in Creating a corporation allowed businessareas with supplies of iron ore and coal. leaders to build large factories with hun- dreds of workers.The Rise of Factories and Railroads New forms of transportation also led toFactories were the major centers of the industrial growth. In 1807 Robert Fulton, anIndustrial Revolution. Why did they American inventor, developed a boat pow-develop? Machines became too large and ered by a steam engine. The biggestexpensive for home use. Factories brought improvement in land transportation was theworkers and machines together in one railroad. By the mid-1800s, steam-poweredplace under managers. locomotives carried raw materials, finished As the Industrial Revolution began, goods, and people faster and cheaper thanbusiness owners reorganized their compa- any other kind of transportation.nies to raise the money they needed to buy Explain How did enclosuremachines and build factories. One way to help to bring about the Industrial Revolution?Steam EngineIn a locomotive, coal is burned in the engine’s firebox. The hot gases from thefire travel through tubes and empty into the smokebox, after heating water inthe boiler and creating steam. The throttle releases steam into the steamchest, where a valve controls the movement of the steam into the cylinder. Inthe cylinder, the steam pushes the piston, which is connected to a drive rodthat turns the locomotive’s wheels. How did railroads affect industry? Key Water compartment Throttle Lever Smokebox Cylinder Coal bunker Firebox Blast pipe Piston Coal conveyer Boiler tubes Steam chest
The Library of Congress The Spread of Industry The Industrial Revolution spread beyond Great Britain’s shores to Europe and the United States. Reading Focus Important inventions fueled the spread of the Industrial Revolution. What inventions of your lifetime do you feel have had the greatest impact Edison’s Lightbulb 1879 on your life today? Edison once said, “The electric light has caused me the greatest amount of Britain’s advances in industrial technol- study and has required the most ogy gave it an advantage over other coun- elaborate experiments.” For these tries. To protect that advantage, Britain’s experiments, Edison carefully made the Parliament passed laws keeping ideas, glass bulbs in his own glassblowing inventions, and skilled workers from leav- shed. Inside each bulb was a filament, ing the country. In spite of these laws, how- or thin strip of material. The bulbs were ever, the Industrial Revolution soon spread incandescent, to other areas. which means that Industry in Europe and America From electricity heats Britain the Industrial Revolution spread to the filament, France, Belgium, Germany, and the United which becomes States. European governments encouraged hot enough to the rise of industries. They helped build fac- glow and make tories, railroads, canals, and roads. By the light. For Edison, 1820s, British business owners and the trickiest part investors had made so much money from was finding the industry that they began to invest in facto- best material for ries and railroads in Europe. Their invest- the filaments. ments helped the Industrial Revolution get Eventually, he started in other countries. found that a The Industrial Revolution also took carbonized cotton hold in the United States. British investors thread filament Thomas Edison in provided the best his workshop and American engineers built factories for making textiles and shoes. Workers, includ- quality of light. ing women and children, left rural areas to Edison gave the first public work in cities. demonstration of his incandescent Like Britain, the United States had lightbulb on December 31, 1879, at his many natural resources. Americans laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. quickly built roads and canals to move Edison’s lightbulb made it possible for goods and people across the vast nation. people to use small electric lamps in Fulton’s steamboat improved transporta- their homes and led to other uses for tion on inland waterways, and railroads electricity. soon crisscrossed the country. CHAPTER 19 Industry and Nationalism 729