Representing practice: practice models, patterns, bundles ....


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Seminar given in Caledonian Academy 2 March 2010, based on talk at Wollongong last December

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  • 2 roots:Computer runnableProfessional development
  • Contingency
  • Iterative, participatory design with long-term user groups – 3 workshopsClear advice and guidance on what constituted a pattern:Critical success factorRule of 3Community. Dimensionality of patterns
  • Frequency vs quality
  • Orchestration and sequencing comes from language
  • Representing practice: practice models, patterns, bundles ....

    1. 1. Representing Practice: practice models, patterns, bundles...<br />Isobel Falconer<br />Glasgow Caledonian University<br /><br />
    2. 2. Projects & institutions<br />Mod4L: practice models project, UK JISC Design for learning programme, April-Dec, GCU + consultants,<br />Planet: Pattern language network, UK JISC Users and innovation programme, Jan 2008-April 2009, Leeds Met, Coventry, GCU, Kings, IoE<br />
    3. 3. What is learning design?<br />the outcome of the process of “designing, planning and orchestrating learning activities as part of a learning session or programme”(JISC, 2006)<br />The purpose is to “to develop further the community’s understanding of the principles that inform the design of effective learning activities which involve the use of technology” (JISC, 2006)<br />
    4. 4. What are practice models?<br />Generic approach to the structuring and orchestration of learning activities. They express elements of pedagogic principle and allow practitioners to make informed choices. (JISC, 2006)<br />
    5. 5. An issue for practice models<br />Be generic<br />Detail sequence and orchestration<br />Inspire teachers to implement them and hence change practice<br />Can achieve any two, but not all three<br />
    6. 6. Design for learning outcomes<br />... we have discovered that many of the technologies and standards in development point towards an ‘unprincipled’ future in which the purposes and processes of learning are determined largely by the learner. There are fundamental challenges here ... for curriculum design practice as a whole <br />(Beetham 2008, Review of the UK JISC Design for Learning Programme)<br />
    7. 7. Independent/autonomous/self-directed learners...<br />are SOCIAL. Their decisions about some, or all, of:<br /> goals outputs<br /> interactions assessment<br /> methods pace<br /> resources place<br /> tools<br />are not controlled by an individual (eg. teacher) or formal institution (eg. university)<br />
    8. 8. Design an environment, not a machine?<br />A route plus a train?<br />Snakes and Ladders plus a set of dice?<br />A play plus a troupe of actors?<br />An environment plus a life-form?<br />
    9. 9. Patterns<br />Planet project aim: to develop a community centred approach to eliciting and representing practice using patterns and evaluate this approach in the context of the web 2.0 in learning community<br />A pattern describes an effective solution to a recurrent problem embedded in a specific context and is characterised by being drawn from successful practice rather than from theory<br />
    10. 10. Light on two sides<br />
    11. 11. REAP principles<br />Good feedback practice:<br />1. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards);<br />2. facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning;<br />3. delivers high quality information to students about their learning;<br />4. encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning;<br />5. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem;<br />6. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance;<br />7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching.<br /> (David Nicol & Debra Macfarlane-Dick (2006) Studies in Higher Education (2006), Vol 31(2), 199-218<br />
    12. 12. A pattern from the Planet wiki<br />
    13. 13. Sharing practice through structured storytelling<br />Problem: Effective sharing of practice relies on people being able to share their personal experiences in a reflective manner, in a way that lends itself to examination by others, but to be useful such sharing needs to be focused, relevant, specific and highlight what has worked. However people can find it difficult to identify an appropriate level of detail or granularity and often focus on what has failed.<br />Context: This pattern works best where the group involved has a defined purpose for sharing practice. It can operate in anything from a 10 minute quick fire round to a full day workshop and works well both face to face and online.<br />Solution: Ask participants to represent their story of successful practice using a simple common structure, to present it in their own words to the larger group. Then have the larger group explore the details of the story and examine it to identify the factors that contributed to its success.<br />Related patterns: <br />Three Hats is one way to facilitate this pattern.<br />The output from applying this pattern forms the input for the Abstracting … pattern.<br />Objects to talk with<br />
    14. 14. Start with introductions<br />Problem: When people join a group, they have expectation of finding help and being able to work together. However, for this to happen, there has to be a mutual disclosure between participants of personality, expertise etc., specific to the group.<br />Context:<br />Solution: Make sure to start any collaborative activity with this period of disclosure. This is part of the key phase of establishing engagement of participants, that would include disclosure and negotiation. This could usefully be part of a specific session aimed at introductions. This could be through the facilitator indicating appropriate dimensions of this. If the group has the opportunity as a initial stage, it can achieve this through mutual interaction.<br />
    15. 15. Participatory pattern workshop methodology<br />
    16. 16. Some conclusions<br />Community approach necessary for authenticity<br />Abstraction difficult, need expert facilitation and development of patterns<br />Structured storytelling fundamental and useful for generating source material for more generic representations<br />"Pure" pattern writing is difficult and perhaps not necessary - a good solution can be presented in a non pattern form (e.g. bundle) or pre pattern form (e.g. candidate) and be effective in supporting sharing practice. but might not be supported by rule of 3. These should be differentiated from patterns. <br />Need for validation through use of patterns<br />Process as valuable as product<br />
    17. 17. Bundles (Sally Fincher)<br />1. Problem Statement <br />Each bundle starts with a formulation of a general problem to which the body of the bundle is a specific solution. <br />2. Body <br />The Body of each bundle is presented in a format that shares certain formulaic phrases. These are: <br />This Bundle A phrase which captures the essence of the practice <br />The way it works is A description of what is involved this may be quite short, or many paragraphs long. <br />It works better if Key criteria for success <br />It doesn’t work if Watchpointsfor unsuitable (or undesirable) situations <br />From Computer Science Project Work: Principles and Pragmatics, Sally Fincher, Marian Petre and Martyn Clark (eds), Springer-Verlag 2001 pp171-175. Also available at:<br />
    18. 18. Bundles (cont)<br />Every bundle has these. Additionally, they may be supplemented by:<br />It doesn’t work unless Points which are absolutely required <br />You’ll know it’s worked if Ways to check that the desired result has been achieved <br />Variations Other ways this might work (mostly, but not always, we have observed these “in real life”) <br />3. Solution Statement <br />Following the body of the bundle is a general solution which refers back to the initial problem statement. (The solution statement, of course, captures the aim of the body too, because a bundle is itself a specific instance of the general solution). <br />
    19. 19. Share project<br />Sharing practice: how do educators discover “what works”? (Disciplinary Commons)<br />Representing practice: what is an appropriate representation of teaching practice?<br />Adopting practice: how does educators’ practice change over time?<br />
    20. 20. Credits & References<br />Mod4L project: Allison Littlejohn, Isobel Falconer, Helen Beetham, Lori Lockyer, Ron Oliver<br />Planet project: Janet Finlay, John Gray, Jim Hensman, Isobel Falconer, YishayMor, Steve Warburton<br />Share project: Sally Fincher, Josh Tenenberg, Janet Finlay, Helen Sharp, Isobel Falconer<br />Bundles: Computer Science Project Work: Principles and Pragmatics, Sally Fincher, Marian Petre and Martyn Clark (eds), Springer-Verlag 2001 pp171-175. Also available at:<br />Disciplinary Commons: Sally Fincher & Josh Tenenberg<br />