603 Course Design


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  • the goal of this paper
  • During the history a distant education we can see the use of specific technologies and pedagogies change .. The Sustainable Agriculture Education Association mission statement is to: promotes and supports the development, application, research, and exchange of best teaching and learning practices in sustainable agriculture education and curricula through communication, training, development, and collaborative activities for teachers and learners” end has already created clear learning objectives. ( S.A.E.A). mixed mode or hybrid classes in high school settings are becoming common in the United States often these students have never taken a distant education course and they’re looking for personal relationships with teachers and other students. (Holmberg, 2001 p.86) This group of students often prefers “ dialogical learning” ( peters, 2008 page 65) As pedagogy’s and technologies change in education so do the organizational culture and paradigms of education. The Long Ranger, craft approach, behaviorist based, explicit knowledge, receptive learner is evolving towards constructivism, collaborative learning, development team, tacit knowledge, curriculum models. Self-directed learning is being linked with the learning communities through listserv, ISDN is bringing a new meaning to inter active media. Teachers are being replaced by facilitators, using T-3, Point-to- Multipoint, fully interactive video moving FTP files on ATM codes such as ASCII which allows most modern computers to communicate with one another easily. Homepages are riddled with hypertext carrying students into cyberspace in order to investigate autonomously vast amounts of information. Where does all this leave today’s high school students and what is an effective way to integrate these technologies into in structural design using humanistic psychology. Moore & Kearsley (1996) p. 199Moore (2005) describes five generations which the learner, role of the instructor, learning environment, and delivery of course material are considered as independent subsystems of a larger system view. The goal of this paper is to create an evaluate a mixed mode/hybrid course design framework by using the S.E.C.T.I.O.N model as described by Bates and Poole (2003). Clustering “learning ecologies” of high school students already involved in sustainable agriculture through the use of Web 2.0 interactions, applications and communities in a “network as platform” to foster self-publishing, participation and collaboration using a more flexible learning approach will under consideration, though further research will be needed for reliability and quality assurance.
  • 603 Course Design

    1. 1. Applying sections<br />
    2. 2. applying specific features of technology<br />
    3. 3. us integrate material from all the models<br />Describe the history and terminology related to media and technology in DE<br />.Analyze the range of technologies used in the design, delivery, management and support of DE.<br />Critique distinct technology applications.<br />Apply the conceptual framework of the SECTIONS model.<br />Justify the appropriate selection of generic technology (ies) that support broad organizational goals.<br />Evaluate new developments in online educational technologies.Discuss future issues relating to the uses of technology in DE.<br />
    4. 4. demonstrate that to understand key concepts of this course<br />
    5. 5. uses much possible reading from all of the course<br />
    6. 6. intro one goals that affect choice of technology<br /> key point to the institutional and mission is to understand the global perception of sustainable agriculture within specific ecosystems<br />
    7. 7. intro twotarget audience<br /> the target audience for sustainable agriculture students at the high school level first at state level expanding to national level ultimately global. <br />
    8. 8. intro three content of program<br /> sustainable agricultural, horticulture, ecosystems, gardening the curriculum has been around for centuries the comfortability of students when dealing with peers as well as the hitting curriculum carrying the next generation to be project orientated global citizens.<br />
    9. 9. intro fortechnology application setting<br /> fine quote in the book<br /> on on-site technology for primary students<br />
    10. 10. intro fivebrand neutral<br /> social networking through wiki’s promoted by webpages and annual conferences in virtual worlds<br /> learning management systems, open educational resources of words on and off<br />
    11. 11. sections<br /> start with described in section model <br /> then have eight subheadings<br /> cost details look at Bates page 92<br />
    12. 12. conclusion<br /> refer back to the issues in intro<br /> given what target audience needs and the institutions mission the features of asked technology,<br /> referring to the emerging points from sections<br /> degree of organizational change is<br /> most central factors if<br /> objective is to show that we have read the required reading and consider some of the ideas present their first<br />
    13. 13. SECTIONS- a DE acronym<br />In rereading the text (see notation below) assigned to the class I&apos;m taking, I focus on chapter four. In this chapter the acronym SECTIONS is used to talk about models of media selection.I love acronyms, using them often in undergrad to study concepts and I now use them when teaching the &quot;College Success Skills&quot; class at CSM.SECTIONS breaks down 8 considerations to selecting and applying media. That would be one huge post to make, and remember that is one thing we talked about in an earlier post not to do...So, let&apos;s set a time line. Later today, I will post note on S & E. Tomorrow I will post notes on CTI and Friday we will wrap up with ONS.Information is actually interesting and it helps me set the frame work for the next paper we need to write for the class. Maybe I will actually catch up!The text is: &quot;Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success&quot; by A. W. Bates and G. Poole<br />
    14. 14. &quot;S&quot; for Students!<br />Bates&apos; SECTIONS model starts where I think it should...with the Student.He poses three things to consider for student needsDemographic- Bates talks about considering students where they are in terms of educational needs, not in location terms. He talks about students just out of high school needing &quot;more support&quot; and being &quot;less independent&quot; than the non-tradition student or the student who has been in a higher education setting longer. Technology use with this population would be more successful in tandem with face to face instruction.Access- Here Bates says indicates of &quot;all the criteria in determining choice of technology, access is...the most discriminating.&quot; Students have to have access to the media you are using to present your course materials. If you use video clips or pod casts, students need to have the equipment see/hear it. The institution needs to consider at what operating speed most students have access too as well. How long will it take them to down load information? ...buffering issues, etc.Differences in Learning Styles with Technology- Students usually have one or a combination of three learning styles: auditory, visual, and tactile. The one of first two are usually the dominant style and tactile will accompany. Some would argue you should take the student learning style into consideration when teaching others would say it is impossible to do so. Bates says that &quot;limitations of learning styles as a guide to designing courses does not mean that we should ignore student differences.&quot; He indicates that course design should &quot;offer more than one approach to teaching and learning within the came course&quot;.I haven&apos;t taken online coursework with any institution other than UMUC, so I don&apos;t have much to compare to outside of their courses. I think that they do a good job of thinking about the student. In the first week of class you (the student) are typically asked what their familiarity with distance learning is and are usually directed to the online class tutorial if they have not taken online course work before. I have never had a class that my learning style were not engaged in some way. So far, so good....and some important things for me to consider as I move towards the goal of being a DE instructor.<br />
    15. 15. &quot;E&quot; is or Easy to Use!<br />The next component of the SECTIONS model is &quot;Ease of Use&quot;.The student&apos;s primary focus needs to be the course content, not trying to figure out how to navigate the technology in the mode of instruction.Bates has four points of interest in this component:Computer and Information Literacy- students need to be familiar with the basic use of computers, how to read and write and have a familiarity with the Internet. Bates refers to these &quot;generic skills&quot; as &quot;prerequisites.&quot;Orientation- Here Bates discusses the ease with which the student can acclimate to the system being used. The thought is that student should need no more than 20 minutes to learn system navigation and actually start learning the course content.Interface Design- &quot;An educational program or indeed any Web site should be well structured, intuitive for the user to use, and easy to navigate.&quot; according to Bates. Reliability- In this part he speaks to having technology that work properly. No system quirks or being so new &quot;cutting edge&quot; that all the bugs have not been worked out in the system.Applying these factors to myself, again, as a DE student and only having UMUC coursework as reference; I&apos;d have to say the experience has been good thus far. I would hope that a student signing up for a class that is Hybrid or completely online would know that the general computer skills are required. As a buffer, should institutions put a note in the course description that indicates &quot;basic computer skills are presumed&quot;....hum.In the usual first week of classes, my online professors are querying students as to their familiarity to online services and recommend the link to the tutorial for those who are not so proficient. This allows some time to acclimate prior to getting to the &quot;meat&quot; of the classwork.When I read the Interface information all I honesty read/hear is blah, blah, blah....I&apos;m really not technical! And lastly, reliability is important to me as a student. I don&apos;t understand all the back ground technical jargon. I just want to know it works and that projects/papers I have spent precious hours on will be submitted and graded as planned, not lost to a cyber black-hole!<br />
    16. 16. C is for Costs.... Show me the $$$!<br />Bates breaks it down into two Cost Factors:Items of Expenditure - Your start up costs purchasing or licensing equipment and software. Additionally this could include copyright clearance/permission and potential hiring of employees to be technical support and adjunct faculty to help with course delivery.Drivers of Cost- primary factor- production of materials needed to deliver to a specific number of students. It can determine the cost effectiveness of a program. If quantity/demand of students is greater than available teachers more staff may need to be increased and more materials produced. If quantity/demand of student is lower than typical student to teacher ratio (25:1) then the course is not cost effective. There is not enough income (tuition) to coverinstitutions need to watch closely for quality/easy software/media to meet the needs of students and are economic to use. the cost of the teacher/technology.Educational<br />
    17. 17. T is for Teaching and Learning<br />If technology is not effective it should not be used in the teaching setting. Some would wonder why teaching falls into fourth place in the model, I know I did initially.Epistemology/Selection of Technology- Bates & Poole talks about how important it is to verify information and that it is accurate. It should be &quot;clean&quot; and &quot;sequential&quot;.On pages 98-97 of the text it states, &quot;it is important to ensure that the choice and use of technology enables or facilitates the particular approach to teaching and learning required by instructors and learners at a particular point in the teaching.&quot;Content and Skills- The technology needs to fit the content of the class. A music appreciation class could benefit from audio and a video demonstration could help a Nursing student.Student Assessment Strategies- &quot;If media and technology are being used to teach skills, it may be necessary to use media and technology to ass those skills...&quot;<br />
    18. 18. &quot;I&quot; is for Interaction and Interactivity<br />I would agree with the text when it speaks about students needing to be active learners. Can students simply learn material by seeing it /reading it/hearing it? They may be able to understand it and to some degree learn it...but what about retaining it? I think that students need to take the learned material and turn it into &quot;something&quot;....to help the student retain the material.How does a Chem student truly understand the change in a chemical compound with out actually applying the written formula into hands on application? It goes back to learning styles visual and tactile.What about the English major student who has studied poetry but not tried to express it themselves?Or in our class instance, reading the text about media and not actually trying our hand at it. I&apos;ve previously read blogs, but had not experienced the &quot;behind the scenes&quot; functions. There is more to it than &quot;just writing&quot; what you think.The text discusses in this section Learning through Social Activity. Students engaging each other in discussion as they analyze information presented. Learning from each other in addition to the text. The interaction can be face to face, but as in our online class, it can be at a distance but happens in the online shell. I learn quite a bit from classmates as they interperate the text. They have caught things I didn&apos;t or see things in a different way.<br />
    19. 19. &quot;O&quot; lets get Organized<br />This piece is short, but the key thing that caught my eye was the last sentence on page 103 of the assigned text.&quot;So if the institution is not supporting the technology you want to use, you need to make a careful decision as to whether you are prepared to make the substantial effort needed to be a innovator in teaching.&quot;While staff at my college, I am also adjunct faculty and I have learned that it is key to keep administration up to date on technology you want to use in the classroom (I&apos;m not teaching online yet) While they -administration- are usually former instructors; in my experience they are far removed from the class and still at times it seems forgetful that you need more than chalk and a blackboard to engage these students of the technology age.<br />
    20. 20. &quot;N&quot; for Novelty<br />It is lovely outside this morning in beautiful St. Mary&apos;s county MD. I grabbed the laptop and I&apos;m sitting on the deck watching squirrels and &quot;twitter-pated&quot; birds (a Bambi movie reference)....just taking in the novelty of it all! Spring is definitely in the air.Novelty more in thought of innovation! The authors talk about it being easier to &quot;obtain grants&quot; for trying out &quot;new technology&quot; instead of working with the current technology the institution is using....when presented as cutting edge or being in front of other.It is hoped those presenting have really researched the product and have assurance that it will fit into the needs of the institution. Nothing could be worse, than implementing technology that is difficult for faculty and students to use or that still has &quot;bugs&quot; in the system causing failures.<br />
    21. 21. The final &quot;S&quot; is for Speed<br />This final piece in the SECTIONS model went by with SPEED in its own right....as the content is barely four sentences long.It asks you to think not in DSL/Dial up terms but in speed in terms of subject area. Are there fast moving content changes which would affect course development and pace of planning for implementation or is the content fairly firm, not changing.How can the use of media affect positively or negatively?Printed text, depending on the subject could be out of date by the time it has hit the book store shelves! I could see this happening in IT coursework, our own DE class, and Nursing coursework. Foundational classes like Introduction to Psychology and Algebra don&apos;t see any changes in content, more perhaps in deliver of the information.I concur with the text that a Web site is easier to change and update. As new and fabulous things are happening in the world of IT, DE, and medicine an instructor much more easily update the information electronically instead of waiting for someone to generate a new text.So there you have the complete breakdown of the SECTIONS model, at least my take on it anyway. I&apos;m hoping these simple e-notes help me later when I have to form a paper on the subject! <br />