Sharing at Institute of Adult Learning, Singapore Adult Education Network Special Interest Group (Instructional Design)Whole Task Approach to Holistic Learningof Vocational Competences Tang B T Buay Ch Choo firstname.lastname@example.org
While waiting for the session to startAt your table,• Di Discuss th diff the difference b t between • Holistic Education • Holistic Learning of Competence• Get one of the members to post your table’s view at the Facebook ID SIG 13 Jan Group. p If none of you are member of the Facebook Group, post your table’s view of a flip chart• You may want to refer to the following articles (printed copies at your table): Holistic education: An interpretation for teachers in the IB programmes http://blogs.ibo.org/positionpapers/files/2010/09/Holistic-education_John-Hare.pdf Structural characteristics and target categories of holistic vocational training www.cedefop.europa.eu/etv/Upload/.../122/17_en_ott.pdf
Outline• Recap: Concept of competence• Holistic Education vs Holistic Learning of Competence• Why Holistic Learning of competence?• Whole Task Approach to Holistic Learning of Competence• Components of a Whole Task• Holistic Design for complex competence-based learning – an introduction
Recap:Instructional Design for Competence-based learning Key purpose To facilitate learner acquisition of competence Activity: What is a competence? • Think… On your own think about – What is the definition of competence? – What are the elements of competence? • Write… Write your views on a piece of paper • Show… Upon signal from the facilitate, show your views to your group members • Discuss and negotiate Within your group discuss and come to a negotiate… group, consensus on the definition and elements of a competence • Share… Present your group’s view on a flipchart. You can use any format, text pictures, diagrams…. format text, pictures diagrams Strategy: Show Down
Nature of competence Professional Action P f i l A ti Competence vs Competence Methodological g Knowledge competence Technical Social competence competence Attitude Skills Personal competenceAbility to perform workplace task vs Ability to perform task at the workplace
Nature of competence – Important considerations for competence-based instructional design competence based1. Workplace context frames task -> Learning should be authentic Professional Action Competence2. Workplace standardsdetermines “Ability” -> Assessment should be authentic > Methodological competence3. T M S P are applied holisticallyin an integrated manner toperform the task at workplace -> Learning and Assessment should Technical Social be holistic/integrated. g competence p competence4. Integrated application of severalCompetence Elements is required -> A Appropriate sequence of learning & i fl iscaffolds needed to promote systematic Personalacquisition and integration competence - > Learning materials should supportdevelopment of mental model for integratedapplication Ability to perform task at the workplace
Holistic Learning and Holistic Education• In your view, is there a difference between Holistic Learning & Holistic Education? If yes, what are the differences? Holistic Learning of Holistic Education competence Holistic development of Holistic development and competencies for work and growth of the child lifelong learning g g Focus on equipping each Focus on developing each p g individual such that they y child into a responsible and can make continuous useful citizen. productive contributions at the workplace
Why Holistic Learning of Competence?• Read the story “Every Curriculum Tells A Story” by Roger Schank http://www.socraticarts.com/docs/SCCwhitepaper.pdf Activity: Wh t i A ti it What is wrong with the curriculum? ith th i l ?• There are 3 problems with this curriculum: – Fragmentation – learners unable to integrate the different pieces of content into coherent and meaningful wholes; – Compartmentalization – learners unable to integrate the different elements of the target competences, namely Knowledge, Skills, and attitudes (or T M S P); and – Low transfer of learning - Learners unable to apply their learning to perform at the workplace or to new problems/situations (van M i b ( Merriënboer, 2006)• In your groups, discuss and cite examples from the story to illustrate each of the problem. – How should the curriculum be designed to avoid these problems?
Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Theoretical Basis Brain-based perspective • Proposes that learning is about grasping of a• Gestalt theory structural whole• Situated Learning • A "Gestalt" is an integrated whole system of integrated parts, and the whole is greater than• Adult Learning the th sum of its parts. f it t • Proposes 5 gestalt factors. Each factor is a condition that helps one perceive situations as a whole or totality. Gestalt • Factor of Similarity proposes that like parts tend to be grouped together in cognition. Hence, learning is facilitated if similar or related ideas are linked together as a whole and contrasted with opposing or complementary sets of ideas.
Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Theoretical Basis How learning takes place perspective • A group of learning theories that posits that• Gestalt theory learning should be situated within authentic i i d l activity, context, and culture.• Situated Learning • First proposed by Lave and Wenger as a model• Adult Learning of learning i a community of practice fl i in it f ti • Example of subsequent theories include • Cognitive Apprenticeship (Brown, Collins & (Brown Duguid) – emphasises importance of situating learning in authentic real world tasks • Anchored Instruction (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt)- proposes that learning should be situated or anchored in real life problem situations or tasks.
Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Theoretical Basis How adults learn perspective • Transformative Learning• Gestalt theory • Process of using a prior interpretation to construe a new or revised i i d interpretation of i f• Situated Learning the meaning of one’s experience in order to guide future action" (Mezirow, 1996:• Adult Learning 162). 162) • Suggest that learning for adults begins with a real life “disorienting dilemma” • Context-based Learning (recent theories in adult learning) • learning is a social constructed social, phenomenon • Same concept as Situated Learning
Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Practical Considerations • Task Complexity – Performing a sub-skill in isolation is different from performing it in the context of the real world task – Automaticity of a sub-skill achieved through isolated practice is often not transferable to the context of performing within the real world task. • Complexity and variability of the real world context – Need to learn and apply the knowledge and skills to varied set of, and/or complex, real-world contexts and settings Demands of Learning Transfer Increasing need for holistic learningHighly Simple Highly ComplexProcedural-basedP d lb d Principled-based Pi i l db d- Very near transfer - Very far transfer
Whole Task Approach• Focus on the overall goal to be attained throughout the entire process process.• A work place task ( or whole task) that is assignable and has meaningful work outcomes are used to frame learning• The workplace task is learned as a whole instead of discretely as a set of individual sub-skills, where each part of the learning is taught in relations to the whole task.
Whole Task Approach Some models and frameworks• Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins Brown & Newman 1989) (Collins, Newman, 1989),• Constructive Learning Environments (Jonassen, 1999),• Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, Berman, & MacPerson, 1999) ( )• 4C/ID-model (van Merriënboer, J. J. G, 1997)• Pebble-in-the-Pond (Merrill, 2000)• Read the reading materials at http://www.delicious.com/buay/SIG• In your group, discuss and create a graphic representation to depict your understanding of your group’s assigned model model. • What is used to situate the whole task? • What constitute the “content” to be learn? • What are the instructional design process/elements/components?• You may want to use an online graphic representation tools, e.g. • Mindmesiter - http://www.mindmeister.com/ • Prezi - http://www prezi com/ http://www.prezi.com/
Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What is used to situate the whole task?• Real world task problem and/or scenario task, Characteristics of a well designed task, problem or scenario to situate learning • Mirrors the real work situation • Replicates the typical elements of the real world context • Requires/Allows learners to carry out all the sub-tasks that will demonstrate their competence • Content and information required to help students plan their learning of the competence are provided • Criteria and methods for assessing students’ competence are included students • Requirements and instructions are clearly described • Presented in a manner that is meaningful and motivating to learners In your group, evaluate the 2 scenarios provided. • Are they well designed? • Do you see all the above characteristics in the scenarios?
Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What constitute the “content” to be learn? Professional Action Competence Methodological competence t Technical Socialcompetence competence Personal P l competence
Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What are the instructional design process/elements/components?Identify “what” to teach Design “how” to teach • Identify “Whole Task” • Design task/scenario/ • Identify sub-tasks f problem to situate the bl t it t th • Sequence sub-tasks learning based on actual work • Group content into process manageable chunks for g • Identify knowledge, M, S learning & P for each sub-task • Determine learning sequence of each chunk of content • Design learning & assessment activities • Identify learning resources/materials / needed to support the Task Analysis learning activities
Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What are the instructional design process/elements/components?Ways to do Task Analysis – further readings• Cognitive Task Analysis http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/clark_etal_cognitive_task_analysis_chapter.pdf p g p g y p p• Perform a Task Analysis http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/taskanalysis2.htm• Task Analysis www.cs.uga.edu/~eileen/4800/Notes/task.pptSimilarShare• Cognitive Task Analysis http://siteresources.worldbank.org/WBI/Resources/213798-1194538727144/3Final- Cog Task_Analysis.pdf g_ y p
Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What are the instructional design process/elements/components?Framework/Models for structuring learning activities• Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins, Brown & Newman, 1989),• Constructive Learning Environments (Jonassen, 1999),• Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, Berman, & MacPerson, 1999)• 4C/ID-model (van Merriënboer, J. J. G, 1997)• Pebble-in-the-Pond (Merrill, 2000) ( , )Further readings - http://www.delicious.com/buay/SIG