Whole Task Approach to Holistic Learning of Vocational Competences - full sharing in Jan and Mar 13

1,072 views

Published on

Part 1 & 2 of sharing at IAL AEN ID SIG in Jan & Mar 13.

Published in: Education
2 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,072
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
2
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Whole Task Approach to Holistic Learning of Vocational Competences - full sharing in Jan and Mar 13

  1. 1. Sharing at Institute of Adult Learning, Singapore Adult Education Network Special Interest Group (Instructional Design)Whole Task Approach to Holistic Learningof Vocational Competences Tang B T Buay Ch Choo buaytang@gmail.com
  2. 2. While waiting for the session to startAt your table,• Di Discuss th diff the difference b t between • Holistic Education • Holistic Learning of Competence• Get one of the members to post your table’s view at the Facebook ID SIG 13 Jan Group. p If none of you are member of the Facebook Group, post your table’s view of a flip chart• You may want to refer to the following articles (printed copies at your table): Holistic education: An interpretation for teachers in the IB programmes http://blogs.ibo.org/positionpapers/files/2010/09/Holistic-education_John-Hare.pdf Structural characteristics and target categories of holistic vocational training www.cedefop.europa.eu/etv/Upload/.../122/17_en_ott.pdf
  3. 3. Outline• Recap: Concept of competence• Holistic Education vs Holistic Learning of Competence• Why Holistic Learning of competence?• Whole Task Approach to Holistic Learning of Competence• Components of a Whole Task• Holistic Design for complex competence-based learning – an introduction
  4. 4. Recap:Instructional Design for Competence-based learning Key purpose To facilitate learner acquisition of competence Activity: What is a competence? • Think… On your own think about – What is the definition of competence? – What are the elements of competence? • Write… Write your views on a piece of paper • Show… Upon signal from the facilitate, show your views to your group members • Discuss and negotiate Within your group discuss and come to a negotiate… group, consensus on the definition and elements of a competence • Share… Present your group’s view on a flipchart. You can use any format, text pictures, diagrams…. format text, pictures diagrams Strategy: Show Down
  5. 5. Nature of competence Professional Action P f i l A ti Competence vs Competence Methodological g Knowledge competence Technical Social competence competence Attitude Skills Personal competenceAbility to perform workplace task vs Ability to perform task at the workplace
  6. 6. Nature of competence – Important considerations for competence-based instructional design competence based1. Workplace context frames task -> Learning should be authentic Professional Action Competence2. Workplace standardsdetermines “Ability” -> Assessment should be authentic > Methodological competence3. T M S P are applied holisticallyin an integrated manner toperform the task at workplace -> Learning and Assessment should Technical Social be holistic/integrated. g competence p competence4. Integrated application of severalCompetence Elements is required -> A Appropriate sequence of learning & i fl iscaffolds needed to promote systematic Personalacquisition and integration competence - > Learning materials should supportdevelopment of mental model for integratedapplication Ability to perform task at the workplace
  7. 7. Holistic Learning and Holistic Education• In your view, is there a difference between Holistic Learning & Holistic Education? If yes, what are the differences? Holistic Learning of Holistic Education competence Holistic development of Holistic development and competencies for work and growth of the child lifelong learning g g Focus on equipping each Focus on developing each p g individual such that they y child into a responsible and can make continuous useful citizen. productive contributions at the workplace
  8. 8. Why Holistic Learning of Competence?• Read the story “Every Curriculum Tells A Story” by Roger Schank http://www.socraticarts.com/docs/SCCwhitepaper.pdf Activity: Wh t i A ti it What is wrong with the curriculum? ith th i l ?• There are 3 problems with this curriculum: – Fragmentation – learners unable to integrate the different pieces of content into coherent and meaningful wholes; – Compartmentalization – learners unable to integrate the different elements of the target competences, namely Knowledge, Skills, and attitudes (or T M S P); and – Low transfer of learning - Learners unable to apply their learning to perform at the workplace or to new problems/situations (van M i b ( Merriënboer, 2006)• In your groups, discuss and cite examples from the story to illustrate each of the problem. – How should the curriculum be designed to avoid these problems?
  9. 9. Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Theoretical Basis Brain-based perspective • Proposes that learning is about grasping of a• Gestalt theory structural whole• Situated Learning • A "Gestalt" is an integrated whole system of integrated parts, and the whole is greater than• Adult Learning the th sum of its parts. f it t • Proposes 5 gestalt factors. Each factor is a condition that helps one perceive situations as a whole or totality. Gestalt • Factor of Similarity proposes that like parts tend to be grouped together in cognition. Hence, learning is facilitated if similar or related ideas are linked together as a whole and contrasted with opposing or complementary sets of ideas.
  10. 10. Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Theoretical Basis How learning takes place perspective • A group of learning theories that posits that• Gestalt theory learning should be situated within authentic i i d l activity, context, and culture.• Situated Learning • First proposed by Lave and Wenger as a model• Adult Learning of learning i a community of practice fl i in it f ti • Example of subsequent theories include • Cognitive Apprenticeship (Brown, Collins & (Brown Duguid) – emphasises importance of situating learning in authentic real world tasks • Anchored Instruction (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt)- proposes that learning should be situated or anchored in real life problem situations or tasks.
  11. 11. Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Theoretical Basis How adults learn perspective • Transformative Learning• Gestalt theory • Process of using a prior interpretation to construe a new or revised i i d interpretation of i f• Situated Learning the meaning of one’s experience in order to guide future action" (Mezirow, 1996:• Adult Learning 162). 162) • Suggest that learning for adults begins with a real life “disorienting dilemma” • Context-based Learning (recent theories in adult learning) • learning is a social constructed social, phenomenon • Same concept as Situated Learning
  12. 12. Why Holistic Learning of Competence? Practical Considerations • Task Complexity – Performing a sub-skill in isolation is different from performing it in the context of the real world task – Automaticity of a sub-skill achieved through isolated practice is often not transferable to the context of performing within the real world task. • Complexity and variability of the real world context – Need to learn and apply the knowledge and skills to varied set of, and/or complex, real-world contexts and settings Demands of Learning Transfer Increasing need for holistic learningHighly Simple Highly ComplexProcedural-basedP d lb d Principled-based Pi i l db d- Very near transfer - Very far transfer
  13. 13. Whole Task Approach• Focus on the overall goal to be attained throughout the entire process process.• A work place task ( or whole task) that is assignable and has meaningful work outcomes are used to frame learning• The workplace task is learned as a whole instead of discretely as a set of individual sub-skills, where each part of the learning is taught in relations to the whole task.
  14. 14. Whole Task Approach Some models and frameworks• Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins Brown & Newman 1989) (Collins, Newman, 1989),• Constructive Learning Environments (Jonassen, 1999),• Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, Berman, & MacPerson, 1999) ( )• 4C/ID-model (van Merriënboer, J. J. G, 1997)• Pebble-in-the-Pond (Merrill, 2000)• Read the reading materials at http://www.delicious.com/buay/SIG• In your group, discuss and create a graphic representation to depict your understanding of your group’s assigned model model. • What is used to situate the whole task? • What constitute the “content” to be learn? • What are the instructional design process/elements/components?• You may want to use an online graphic representation tools, e.g. • Mindmesiter - http://www.mindmeister.com/ • Prezi - http://www prezi com/ http://www.prezi.com/
  15. 15. Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What is used to situate the whole task?• Real world task problem and/or scenario task, Characteristics of a well designed task, problem or scenario to situate learning • Mirrors the real work situation • Replicates the typical elements of the real world context • Requires/Allows learners to carry out all the sub-tasks that will demonstrate their competence • Content and information required to help students plan their learning of the competence are provided • Criteria and methods for assessing students’ competence are included students • Requirements and instructions are clearly described • Presented in a manner that is meaningful and motivating to learners In your group, evaluate the 2 scenarios provided. • Are they well designed? • Do you see all the above characteristics in the scenarios?
  16. 16. Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What constitute the “content” to be learn? Professional Action Competence Methodological competence t Technical Socialcompetence competence Personal P l competence
  17. 17. Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What are the instructional design process/elements/components?Identify “what” to teach Design “how” to teach • Identify “Whole Task” • Design task/scenario/ • Identify sub-tasks f problem to situate the bl t it t th • Sequence sub-tasks learning based on actual work • Group content into process manageable chunks for g • Identify knowledge, M, S learning & P for each sub-task • Determine learning sequence of each chunk of content • Design learning & assessment activities • Identify learning resources/materials / needed to support the Task Analysis learning activities
  18. 18. Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What are the instructional design process/elements/components?Ways to do Task Analysis – further readings• Cognitive Task Analysis http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/clark_etal_cognitive_task_analysis_chapter.pdf p g p g y p p• Perform a Task Analysis http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/taskanalysis2.htm• Task Analysis www.cs.uga.edu/~eileen/4800/Notes/task.pptSimilarShare• Cognitive Task Analysis http://siteresources.worldbank.org/WBI/Resources/213798-1194538727144/3Final- Cog Task_Analysis.pdf g_ y p
  19. 19. Whole Task Approach to Competence based Competence-based Learning What are the instructional design process/elements/components?Framework/Models for structuring learning activities• Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins, Brown & Newman, 1989),• Constructive Learning Environments (Jonassen, 1999),• Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, Berman, & MacPerson, 1999)• 4C/ID-model (van Merriënboer, J. J. G, 1997)• Pebble-in-the-Pond (Merrill, 2000) ( , )Further readings - http://www.delicious.com/buay/SIG
  20. 20. Thank you

×