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Formative assessment


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PPT for week 26 of professional year for D&T trainee teachers. The focus is on formative assessment and Assessment for Learning (AfL)

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Formative assessment

  1. 1. Pre-starter for early birds: Sound a bit odd. 1
  2. 2. Duzx5A 2
  3. 3. Open v Closed • Open questions.• Closed questions • An open questions• A closed question can be deliberately seeks longer answered with either a answers single word or a short • Using open questions phrase. • They ask the respondent to• Using closed questions think and reflect.• They give you facts. • They will give you opinions• They are easy to answer. and feelings.• They keep control of the • They hand control of the conversation with the conversation to the questioner. respondent.
  4. 4. Lower order v Higher order• lower order, for memory, • higher order, for more rote, and simple recall demanding and exacting thinking
  5. 5. Assessment for Learning• It is not a question of how much assessment you do, or how much feedback you provide, but how intelligently you use assessment to inform your future teaching and your feedback to pupils. • Capel, S. et al., 2005• any assessment for which the first priority is to serve the purpose of promoting students‘ learning • Black et al (2003) in Capel et al (2005) 12 October 2010
  6. 6. Pedagogy & Practice Curriculum & Department 1. Differentiation strategies x4 (SEND and 1. Applying and adapting curriculum √ G&T) 2. SOW x3 2. Aspects of lesson planning: a. Modern curriculum a. Linking learning to objectives b. Make small SoW (e.g. share SAS1 b. Questioning techniques ideas) √ c. Linking starters to plenaries 3. Learning outcomes (?) d. Pace 4. Levelling NC 3. Assessment a. What is expected at each level 1. Behaviour for learning √ b. How to apply it(?) to NC? 5. Putting theory into practice in a 5. Marking/ assessment; personal way (?)√ a. How to mark (?) 6. Using data in lessons (?)√ EPS - raise on line b. Official grades c. Effort grades d. Target grades a. Report writing Professional 6. Experience other areas of D&T (not specialism) x 2 Development Targets (PDT)Professionalism & Sschool Epistemology & Community 1. How to evidence QTS 1. Go on a course field trip x3 linking session 2. Extra curricular activities 2. Involving the community: How can we get 3. 1. STEM x 2 Professional standards 1. involved in the community? X 3 Demographic limitations: pupils attitude to to students a. Maintaining them against the learning current political issues(?) 2. Parents evenings identified needs 5. Contribution and communicating with 5. Discussion about the types of school and colleagues where you want to work 1. Going beyond the call of duty 2. Developing more personal relationships (with whom?) 3. Policies and practices 4. Job application support/ requirements √ 5. Working with TAs 6
  7. 7. In this session we will be taking a closer look at formativeassessment and using discussion to further our understanding.This session is designed to build on the phase 1 input (session10).We are learning:1 What the research says about Assessment for Learning (AfL) How we can develop effective AfL strategies within our2 classroom To consider our own position on the use of assessment3 7
  8. 8. • Differentiated Learning Outcomes – All Translate research into teacher friendly language and reflect on own practice within the classroom – Most Collaboratively translate and share research into teacher friendly language and reflect on own practice within the classroom to support application of research to the design and delivery of lessons – Some Collaboratively translate and share research into appropriate teacher friendly language and critically reflect on own practice within the classroom to support application of research to the design and delivery of effective lessons 8
  9. 9. • Jigsaw activity – What the research says about Assessment for Learning (AfL) 9
  10. 10. Formative Assessment Feedback, Regulation and Learning Paul Black Department of Education King‘s College London 10
  11. 11. Formative Assessment• Sources of Evidence• The Meaning of Formative• Feedback in Discussion• Feedback in Written Work• Regulation of Learning• Peer and self-assessment• Theories of learning – Cognition – Motivation – Putting into practice 11
  12. 12. Sources of evidence A• Research review of Black & Wiliam –Reviewed about 600 publications –Published article in 1998 : 70 pages, 250 references –Selected rigorous studies: an experimental group compared with an equivalent control group, then quantitative evidence to answer the question “Did the experiment lead to better attainment by the students?” –Found about 50 such studies –These showed that standards are raised by formative assessment. 12
  13. 13. Sources of evidence B Effect sizes: evidence of different kinds of feedback Nyquist (2003) N Effect• Weaker feedback only 31 0.16• Feedback only 48 0.23• Weaker formative assessment 49 0.30• Moderate formative assessment 41 0.33• Strong formative assessment 16 0.51 13
  14. 14. Sources of evidence CKing‘s project January 1999 to December 2000Compared school and national test scores of their classes with other comparable classes in same schools - attainment was better – effect sizes 0.3 to 0.4Teachers were happy about the way they had changedBut changes did not happen quickly, and happened differently for different teachers : it took two yearsSupport from the school, from other teachers and from the project meetings was essential 14
  15. 15. Formative Assessment• An assessment activity can help learning if it provides information to be used as feedback, by teachers, and by their students, in assessing themselves and each other, to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.• Feedback is two-way –Student to teacher –Teacher to student• Feedback can be –oral or written –short term or medium term 15
  16. 16. Feedback in Discussion Questioning in Class• Questioning My whole teaching style has become more interactive. Instead of showing how to find solutions, a question is asked and pupils given time to explore answers together. My Year 8 target class is now well-used to this way of working. I find myself using this method more and more with other groups• No hands Unless specifically asked pupils know not to put their hands up if they know the answer to a question. All pupils are expected to be able to answer at any time even if it is an „I don‟t know‟.• Supportive climate Pupils are comfortable with giving a wrong answer. They know that these can be as useful as correct ones. They are happy for other pupils to help explore their wrong answers further. (Nancy, Riverside School) 16
  17. 17. What makes a good question ? 1e.g. Designing a lantern for a religious festival, the teachercould challenge the pupils with such questions as:‘Where will your lantern be used?’‘What safety aspects do you need to consider?’‘If we are to use a tea-light candle, how will you hold itsafely in place inside the lantern?’ 17
  18. 18. What makes a good question ? 2Talking about making a kite Why is manufacturing kites ‘technology’ ? ‘Which technologies are manufactured?’Creating new bread products for teenagers Have you thought about which other foods you might combine with your bread? Is it specific for a particular meal – say breakfast – or more versatile than that? 18
  19. 19. Question stems• Why is ______ an example of ________ ?• Why might folk believe that ______________ ?• What might happen if you _______________ ? 19
  20. 20. Children Think Differently fromAdults Teacher to a six-year-old drawing a picture of a daffodil: ―What is this flower called?‖ Child: ― I think it‘s called Betty.‖ R.Fisher(1995)„Teaching Children to Learn. 20
  21. 21. Responding Making a scarf suitable for an environmental groupT: I see that you‘ve made a start on your design. Can you just talkme through it?P1: It needs to have animals and things on it so that they like it.T: Mmm. I wonder if there‘s anything else that an environmentalgroup might …P2: Recycled stuff. Things that are good for the environment.P1: But they won’t want second-hand stuff.T: Okay but they might prefer some materials to others. What doyou think?P1: Suppose. Yes, well they won’t like stuff like this (rubs pencilcase). Probably prefer more natural stuff. So cotton or wool or…something else natural-like. 21
  22. 22. Dialogic TeachingChildren, we now know, need to talk, and to experiencea rich diet of spoken language, in order to think and tolearn. Reading, writing and number may beacknowledged curriculum ‗basics‘, but talk is arguablythe true foundation of learning. (Robin Alexander, 2004) 22
  23. 23. Realities of dialogueI – R – E recitations dominant Teachers talk a lot, pupils ―spot the right answer‖USA review 94 classes in 19 schools Teacher-pupil discussions average 1.7 in every 60 minutes2004 Evaluation of UK literacy & numeracy strategies Open questions 10%; 15% of teachers not use any Up-take questions in only 4% of exchanges 70% of pupil exchanges limited to 3 words or fewerTeachers‟ not aware of their own practice.Lectures OK – but pseudo-dialogue may be the worst of both worlds 23
  24. 24. Perrenoud: regulation 1998 - Assessment in Education 5(1) 85-102. Page 86This [feedback] no longer seems to me, however, to be central to the issue. It would seem more important to concentrate on the theoretical models of learning and its regulation and their implementation. These constitute the real systems of thought and action, in which feedback is only one element. 24
  25. 25. Perrenoud: interactive regulation 1998 - Assessment in Education 5(1) 85-102. Page 92I would like to suggest several ways forward, based on distinguishing two levels of the management of situations which favour the interactive regulation of learning processes: the first relates to the setting up of such situationsthrough much larger mechanisms and classroommanagement. the second relates to interactive regulation whichtakes place through didactic situations. (p.92) 25
  26. 26. “Regulation” : StrategyThere is compelling evidence that it is important for teachers toidentify and plan for specific and overall technology learningoutcomes rather than just activities (from D&T Inside the Black Box).Pupils‟ designing can be described in terms of making five types ofinterrelated design decisions: (a) conceptual (b) marketing (c)technical (d) aesthetic and (e) constructional (from Electronics inSchool).Considering the demands and affordances of tasks is essential forassisting teachers to plan for the incorporation of assessment forlearning strategies, including the provision of feedback. By knowingthe ideas and skills inherent in the tasks, teachers can be clearer abouttheir focus for assessment (from D&T Inside the Black Box). . 26
  27. 27. Learning Principles - 1 Cognitive• Start from where the learner is.• Involve the learner actively in the process.• Learners need to ‗talk‘ about their technological ideas• Learners must understand the learning intention. 27
  28. 28. Peer marking• We regularly do peer marking—I find this very helpful indeed.A lot of misconceptions come to the fore and we then discussthese as we are going over the homework. I then go over thepeer marking and talk to pupils individually as I go round theroom. Rose, Brownfields School• The kids are not skilled in what I am trying to get them to do. Ithink the process is more effective long term. If you invest timein it, it will pay off big dividends, this process of getting thestudents to be more independent in the way that they learn andtaking the responsibility themselves. Tom, Riverside School 28
  29. 29. Peer AssessmentP1: This one’s got the thickness about right. It gives youthe crispiness and texture that the pizza base needs. Theothers are all a bit thick and have a doughy texture.P2: Is that the thickness or the cooking time?P1: The cooking time is going to affect the crispinessperhaps but not the texture. We need to roll them this thinnext time.P3: And we need to think about the thickness of the vegtoo. That one is too roughly chopped. It doesn’t look good.Getting the slices thin and more the same … moreuniform… will help the appearance and the feel of it in yourmouth. 29P1: So that’s two thickness things we need to write down.
  30. 30. Self- and Peer-Assessment• Criteria must be understood by students so they can apply them : modelling exercises are needed where these are abstract• Students must be taught to collaborate in peer-assessment, for this helps develop objectivity for self-assessment and is of intrinsic value• Students should be taught to assess their progress as they proceed keeping the aims and criteria in mind - so as to become independent learners 30
  31. 31. Rules for Effective Group Work• All students must contribute: no one member say too much or too little• Every contribution treated with respect: listen thoughtfully• Group must achieve consensus: work at resolving differences• Every suggestion/assertion has to be justified: arguments must include reasons 31
  32. 32. Mercer at al. Indicator words used by pupils• Word Pre-intervention Post-intervention• because 13 50• I think 35 120• would 18 39• could 1 6• ____________________________________________________• TOTALS 67 215 32
  33. 33. SPRING project Engagement SPRinG groups more fully engaged. Control groups some actively disengaged. Socio-affective aspectsControl groups were more likely to block group effort Discourse topic SPRinG groups sustain the topic Control groups change the topic Type of talk SPRinG groups: high level collaborative discussion,Control groups: procedural, disputational. off task talk. 33
  34. 34. Aspects of formative assessment Wiliam 2006Teacher Clarify learning Elicit evidence Provide feedback intentions promote discussion to help learningPeer Understand Activate students as learning resources learning for one another intentions and success criteriaLearner Understand Activate students as owners of learning their own learning intentions and success criteria 34
  35. 35. Self-regulated learning Three components•Mastery Concerned with learning: motivated and steered by personal interest,values, and expected satisfaction and rewards•Well-being Concerned with maintaining or restoring positive feelings when threatsarise.•Volitional strategies Keeping on mastery track or getting on to it from the well-being track•Boekaerts, M. & Corno, L. (2005) Applied Psychology, 54(2), 199-231 35
  36. 36. Learning Principles-2 Motivation and Self-esteem• Feedback given as rewards or grades enhances ego rather than task involvement (Butler, 1987).• With ego-involvement, both high and low attainers are reluctant to take risks and react badly to new challenges, and failures simply damage self-esteem• With task-involvement, learners believe that they can improve by their own effort, are willing to take on new challenges and to learn from failure.• (see “Self-Theories” by Carol Dweck, 2000) 36
  37. 37. Contact details• e-mail :• Web-site:• Assessment for learning : Putting it into practice. Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall & Wiliam 2003 Open University Press The Black Box Series ; all published by GLAssessment• Inside the Black Box Black and Wiliam• Working Inside the Black Box. Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall & Wiliam• Science Inside the Black Box Black & Harrison• Maths Inside the Black Box Hodgen & Wiliam• English Inside the Black Box Marshall & Wiliam• Geography Inside the Black box Weeden & Lambert• I.C.T. Inside the Black Box Webb and Cox• M.F.L Inside the Black Box J. Jones and Wiliam• D & T Inside the Black Box D.Barlex and A.Jones 37
  38. 38. pedagogy assessment subject 38
  39. 39. Where next?• We are all a product of our training and experience• To change how we operate in the classroom requires a conscious effort• Try out a new idea, then embed it by regular use until it becomes second nature
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