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Instructional Design


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Notes about instructional design in teaching and learning

Published in: Technology, Education

Instructional Design

  1. 1. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN: THE BASICS JAMALLUDIN HARUN Department of Educational Multimedia Faculty of Education, UTM MPT 1113: Foundation of Educational Technology
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Clarifying the terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design (ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Systems Design (ISD) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Systems Design & Development (ISDD) </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Approach to Training (SAT) </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Instructional Design Instructional Design Clarifying the terms 1 a set of events that facilitate learning 2 a creative pattern or a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is Instructional Design? </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design is the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and activities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is Instructional Design? </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Role of Instructional Design? </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic process of instructional design enables you to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a performance problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the goals and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define your learners and their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop strategies to meet needs and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate if goals, objectives, and needs are met </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Why Instructional Design? </li></ul><ul><li>This systematic approach ensures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a need for training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The learning events are well-designed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality training materials are developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning events are implemented using appropriate strategies or approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning events are evaluated to ensure that learning has taken place. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION: REFLECT <ul><li>How would you use ID for generating long term strategy for meeting training needs? </li></ul><ul><li>You want to implement an innovative training & development project that has not been done before. How can you use the ID model to help you? How might it hinder you? </li></ul><ul><li>Your manager wants you to &quot;develop&quot; a training program. Does this mean you should not do any analysis or design? </li></ul>
  10. 10. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL <ul><li>What is Instructional Design Model ? </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural and conceptual models. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on theory (learning theory, systems theory) or practice (company, military, software development). </li></ul><ul><li>Give us structure and meaning to a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Instructional Design Model? </li></ul>
  11. 11. EXAMPLES OF ID MODEL <ul><li>There are numerous instructional design models: </li></ul><ul><li>ADDIE Model </li></ul><ul><li>ASSURE Model </li></ul><ul><li>Dick & Carey Model </li></ul><ul><li>Hannafin & Peck Model </li></ul><ul><li>Waterfall Model </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Prototyping Model </li></ul><ul><li>Hipermedia Design Model </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Design Model </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A Analyze Learners </li></ul><ul><li>S State Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>S Select Methods, Media & Materials </li></ul><ul><li>U Utilize Media & Materials </li></ul><ul><li>R Require Learner Participation </li></ul><ul><li>E Evaluate & Revise </li></ul>EXAMPLES OF ID MODEL Assure Model
  15. 15. EXAMPLES OF ID MODEL Waterfall Model (Modified) Waterfall Model (Traditional)
  17. 17. EXAMPLES OF ID MODEL Hypermedia Design Model
  18. 18. ID MODEL: ESSENTIAL PHASES <ul><li>Can you list all the essestial phases in ID Model ??? </li></ul>
  19. 19. ID MODEL: FIVE ESSENTIAL PHASES <ul><li>Five essestial phases in ID Model: </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  20. 20. ID MODEL: ANALYSIS PHASE <ul><li>Basis for all other phases in the instructional design process. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify barriers or constraints: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the audeinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the cause of the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine possible solutions. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. ID MODEL: DESIGN PHASE <ul><li>How will the content be organized? </li></ul><ul><li>How will it be presented to learners? </li></ul><ul><li>What delivery format will be used? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of activities and exercises will be included? </li></ul><ul><li>How will learners' accomplishments be measured? </li></ul>
  22. 22. ID MODEL: DEVELOPMENT PHASE <ul><li>Focus on generating the course documents and materials used by faculty, trainers and participants during the delivery of the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs of this phase include competency-based learning guides and checklists, pre- and midcourse questionnaires,computer based learning/traning, web page, trainer’s notes, presentation plans, assignment sheets, case studies, etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ID MODEL: IMPLEMENTATION PHASE <ul><li>The implementation phase of the instructional design process refers to the actual delivery of the instruction as designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Competency-based as part of mastery learning </li></ul><ul><li>Inservice and preservice delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Group-based, computer-based </li></ul>
  24. 24. ID MODEL: EVALUATION PHASE <ul><li>The systematic collection, processing, analysis and interpretation of data to determine whether education or training has met its objectives and to identify aspects of the process that should be strengthened. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of evaluation include participant reaction, participant learning, on-the-job performance and effect of training. </li></ul>
  25. 25. ID MODEL: REFLECT <ul><li>Question: Until now - did you use instructional Design? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your opinion concerning the use of Instructional Design Models in eLearning? </li></ul>
  26. 26. ID MODEL : ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Saves time and trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes effective learning </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Very linear </li></ul><ul><li>Constraining, limits creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming to implement </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>What is Active Learning ? </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning criteria? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Active Learning ? </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning techniques ? </li></ul><ul><li>How technology can help ? </li></ul>NEXT WEEK ???
  28. 28. THANK YOU