INSITUTIONS AND AUDIENCES THE FILM INDUSTRY LET’S RECAP…
CASE STUDIES 2009 2006 2009
THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and Audiences
Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production , distribution , marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions . In addition, candidates should be familiar with:
the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;
the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;
the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;
the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;
the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.
This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
Ownership of institution
How the way the company is owned effects the type of films it produces.
Cross Media Convergence
The use of multiple media forms by a media company to increase the awareness of or possible audience for a media product. For example, the BBC show Eastenders on their TV channels, then make them available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further seven days. A single company will often own all of the media forms.
When two or more institutions promote their products on one media text. Business deals are created between institutions who stand to benefit from reaching the same audience at the same time. Product placement in films (where for example, James Bond might be denoted wearing an Omega watch) and the promotion of stars and their songs through TV advertisements for other products are good examples. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R22qigXhFjk
New Media Technology
The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies in the later part of the 20th century. Most technologies described as "new media" are digital. This is simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storage when compared with older analogue methods.
Proliferation of content
An increase in the number of films being made over the last 30 years
The combination of a variety of different digital technologies into one piece of hardware e.g. a PC
which can show DVDs, digitally edit, using a camera take video footage and using the internet,
How films are made in terms of appeal to audience, effect of ownership and technologies used
In the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies in theatres,
and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc). This will usually be
through a cinema first and then onto DVD and download, although some films are released straight to
The process of creating and raising audience awareness of a new film. It is part of the responsibility of
the distributor, along with circulation, after they have acquired a film. The objective of film marketing is
to stand out in an environment that is competing very fiercely for the audience’s money. This does not
simply mean against other film campaigns, but the marketing of any other product too. Split into three
sections – advertising, publicity and promotion.
Exhibition is the retail branch of the film industry. It could relate to public cinema exhibition or private
home exhibition through DVD or downloads.
SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
POSSIBLE QUESTION TOPICS Relationship between institution and audience in a media industry Effect of New Media Technology on institutions and audiences in a media industry OR These are the areas that the exam question is most likely to ask you to discuss. HOWEVER it is possible that the question may ask you to apply your knowledge in a slightly different way, so you must be prepared to adapt your answer to the question. The question will be broad, allowing you to discuss a variety of issues relating to your case study.
THE FILM PROCESS PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITION There are three distinct areas of the film industry. Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution. What happens at each stage?
Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the PRODUCTION COMPANY
This includes all pre-production, production & post-production processes.
Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film – which may come from one or many production companies (a co-production)
Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000. This budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj Huda and producer friend George Issac Why would this film have found it difficult to get finance from a production company? Some of this budget was funded by the UK Film Council How much was given to the film for production and distribution? What criteria did the film have to meet to be awarded the funds?
Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing :
PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film
MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a new release
A distributor may:
-Be a part of the same parent company as the production company
Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions
Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production company
Acquire a film after it has completed production
A film will likely have different distributors for:
-Releases in different countries
Revolver Entertainment distributed Kidulthood Although heavily promoted there was limited distribution of the film, why?
Exhibition is divided into two sections:
Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film
Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is selling the film for a copy
A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the Box Office Takings
Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable and varied source for distributors to increase profits.
WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF?
Kidulthood made just £454,000 at the cinema It was far more successful on DVD Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?