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INSTITUTIONS AND AUDIENCES
      FILM INDUSTRY
THE EXAM
                        Section B: Institutions and Audiences


Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of
production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary
media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the
relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be
familiar with:
•  the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
•  the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production,
   distribution and marketing;
•  the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of
   production, distribution, marketing and exchange;
•  the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and
   audiences;
•  the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
•  the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically,
   British) by international or global institutions;
•  the ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption
   illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.
This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case
                 studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
PAST EXAM QUESTIONS: G322 SECTION B

Discuss the ways in which media products are produced and distributed to audiences, within a
media area that you have studied.

How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area,
which you have studied.

Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services to
national audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for
media institutions and audiences?

Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts in
your chosen media area.

“Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specific
audience as they do upon good production practices”. To what extent do you agree with this
statement, in the media area you have studied?

To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media
products in the media area you have studied?

“Cross-media convergence and synergy are vital processes in the successful marketing of
media products to audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement in relation to
your chosen media area?
LEARNING INTENTIONS/OUTCOMES
To understand the focus for the            KEY TERMS
Audience and Institutions section          Audience
of your exam                                Institution
                                           Production
To study and complete a range of
case studies in preparation for the        Subsidiary
exam                                       Distribution
                                           Marketing
                                            Exhibition
                                      Horizontal Integration
                                       Vertical Integration
MEDIA TRIANGLE
                   What they have
                     produced


                    Media
                     Text

                                     Target
Institution
                                    Audience
Who has produced                    Who the media text
 the media text                      is produced for
THE FILM PROCESS
         Three distinct areas of the film industry
         Each one of these could be viewed as
               a type of media institution.




What would you expect to happen at each stage?
Figment Films is the
                                                        production
                                                      company who
                                                    made Trainspotting.

•  Production involves the creation of the media
   product and is the responsibility of the
   production company

•  This includes all pre-production, production &
   post-production processes.

•  Before that the writer/director/producer must
   find finance for a film – which may come from
   one or many production companies (a co-
   production)
                                                      Channel 4 (Film4)
                                                      financed the film
Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:

PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/
home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the
film
MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation
of a new release
                                                                Miramax distributed
A distributor may:
                                                                Trainspotting and
•  Be a part of the same parent company as the production       bought the rights for
   company                                                      $750,000
•  Have a long term arrangement with a production
   company and provide financial assistance for many of
   their productions
•  Provide financial assistance for a single film by a          In your case study
   production company                                           look carefully at
•  Acquire a film after it has completed production             how it was
                                                                marketed and
A film is likely have different distributors for:               distributed.
-Releases in different countries
-Cinema Releases
-Home-Video Releases
FilmFour made its
                                                       reputation with films
                                                       like Trainspotting in
                                                       1996.




Exhibition is divided into two sections:
- Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for
a copy of the film                                     It made £23m at the
- Home – the distributor is paid by the company        box office but cost
who is selling the film for a copy                     only £2.4m and was
                                                       the highest grossing
                                                       British film in 1996.
A film s success is often decided on the amount of
money it makes during it s cinema release. This is
known as the Box Office Takings                        However, it was far
                                                       more successful on
Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing              DVD, spawning
valuable and varied source for distributors to         numerous versions
increase profits.                                      and special
                                                       editions.
       WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION
             CAN YOU THINK OF?
                                                       Why would this film
                                                       be more successful
                                                       on DVD than in the
                                                       cinema?
MEDIA OWNERSHIP:                   HORIZONTAL
                                       The parent company
    HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION             owns multiple companies
     VERTICAL INTEGRATION              at the same stage of the
                                       film industry. A smaller
                                       company, owned by the
                                       parent is a subsidiary.
•  Often a single parent
   company will own multiple
   companies in the film industry.     VERTICAL

•  This is divided into two types of   The parent company
                                       owns multiple companies
   ownership                           across different stages of
                                       the film industry.


       HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION
        VERTICAL INTEGRATION
                                       QUESTION:
                                       What are the
LOOK AT THE VIVENDI CASE STUDY ON      advantages for a parent
                                       company for each type
      THE FOLLOWING SLIDES
                                       of ownership?
Synergy                                                                         HORIZONTAL

Synergy (from the Greek syn-ergos, meaning working together) basically          The parent
means working together to achieve an objective that couldn't be                 company owns
achieved independently.                                                         multiple companies
                                                                                at the same stage
Synergy is the ‘strategy of synchronising and actively forging connections      of the film industry.
between directly related areas of entertainment’.                               A smaller company,
New Technologies support this process (internet, DVD, downloading).             owned by the
                                                                                parent is a
Media institutions exploit various platforms to sell various products related   subsidiary.
to one film (e.g. film and soundtrack and video game).
Convergent technology – smart phones, tablets, computers and games
consoles further support the process of synergy.                                VERTICAL

Cross Media Convergence (the development of products across                     The parent
different medium)can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to          company owns
take advantage of the links they have forged. Disney is an obvious              multiple companies
example of a synergistic company.                                               across different
                                                                                stages of the film
Cross Media Convergence is really a Business Studies term and refers to         industry.
companies coming together vertically or horizontally (or both).
(BOTH PARENT & SUBSIDIARIES)
This is different to symbiosis in that synergy focuses on the relationship      QUESTION:
between parent companies and subsidiaries to produce, market and
exhibit the film.                                                               What are the
                                                                                advantages for a
Where as symbiosis focuses on the parent & subsidiary companies’                parent company for
relationship with external companies that want to promote the product           each type of
through the sales of merchandise etc.
                                                                                ownership?
How does synergy work?
Synergy works when different elements within a
media conglomerate promote (e.g. film studio,
record label, video game division) create linked
products (e.g. film, soundtrack, video game).
Each distinct element promotes the others.

Disney is an obvious example of a synergistic
company from the top down from Film Studio to
Kids' TV Channel (where it further plays and
promotes its films) to the Disney Store (in the street
and online) where your kids can pester you to buy
all the merchandise and DVDs/CDs they've seen
on the TV/Web or in the cinema.
Symbiosis – How does it work?
This is when different companies work together to
promote a range of related products. E.g. High
School Musical the film will enable spin-offs like
Happy Meals, Easter Eggs, bed linen, toy
characters etc. and the distributor will agree
licensing deals for companies to make and sell
this merchandising. A % of the profits will go back
to the distributor

Walt Disney pioneered symbiosis marketing
techniques in the 1930s by granting dozens of
firms the right to use his Mickey Mouse character
in products and ads, and continued to market
Disney media through licensing arrangements.

These products can help advertise the film itself
and thus help to increase the film's sales. For
example, the Spider-Man films had toys of web-
shooters and figures of the characters made,
CD soundtracks, video games, DVD s and other
merchandising.
SYNERGY: Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone
                      (2001)
                     In 2000 AOL and Time Warner merged.
                     The promotion of Harry Potter and the
                     Philosopher s Stone by AOL Time Warner
                     is a good example of synergy.
                    Adverts for the film     The soundtrack
                    were shown on HBO        was released on
                    and the WB, both         Atlantic Records,
                    American TV channels     part of Warner
                    which are subsidiaries   Music.
                    of Time Warner.

                     Articles about the      AOL s internet
                     film appeared in        service was offering
                     newspapers and          merchandise, and
                                             ticket promotions
                     magazines owned
                                             tied to subscriptions
                     by Time Warner.         for AOL s services.
An example of synergy from Working Title Films….
                                          SYNERGY
                  The example often cited in exams
                  is of Working Title making use of
                        its parent company(s) to gain
                 access to bigger stars and a better
                  distribution network for their films.
Vivendi Universal
                                                    HORIZONTAL
                                                    The parent
                                                    company owns
As a company they have..                            multiple companies
                                                    at the same stage
                                                    of the film industry.
…Integrated film, music, web and distribution       A smaller company,
technology into the company, including              owned by the
owning big stakes in cables and wires that          parent is a
deliver these services.                             subsidiary.

Therefore they are vertically integrated
                                                    VERTICAL
because they own all the different companies
involved in film, from production to distribution   The parent
to exhibition.                                      company owns
                                                    multiple companies
                                                    across different
They are also horizontally integrated because       stages of the film
they have all the expertise for producing           industry.
media content under one roof – films, TV,
magazines, books, music, games thus being
able to produce all the related media               What are the
content for one film under the same roof (see       advantages for a
synergy)                                            parent company of
                                                    each type of
                                                    ownership?
Vivendi Universal - OWNERSHIP
    •  Working Title films is owned by Universal films
    •  Universal films is part of Vivendi Universal
    •  Vivendi Universal is a giant name in the world of
       the privatised water industry all over the world,
       from Brazil to the UK
    •  It also owns major phone companies in many
       countries. It also owns 60 publishing houses
       selling 80 million books a year / 40 million CD-
       ROMs a year
    •  Vivendi Universal own Cineplex and Odeon
       cinema chains- another distribution an
       marketing outlet
    •  Also owns MP3.com
    •  Also owns Canal+ (French TV subscription
       channel) which has 14 million subscribers in 11
       countries in Europe. Canal+ part finance
       Working Title Films productions.
    •  Owns Universal records. (22% share of global
       market across 63 countries)
REMEMBER: Cross-media convergence can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to take advantage of the links they have forged.
Vivendi Universal                                                       Vivendi can produce their own
                                                                        TV shows and films at Universal
Production, Distribution, Exhibition                                                           Studios

Vivendi Universal own MP3.com                                                                      Vivendi can market and
They can use this as a platform                                                                     exhibit content through
to distribute Universal owned                                                                         their TV channels and
content                                                                                                 entertainment parks


Vivendi can also use the
MP3.com as a platform for                                                                            Vivendi can distribute,
advertising content and can                                                                        market and exhibit films
                                                                                                    they own through their
sell advertising space to other                                                                    own 13 cable channels,
related companies e.g. CBS                                                                          e.g. Chiller channel for
have links to their film sites                                                                                   horror films,
                                                                                                           Movies 24 in UK
                                                                                                        & Canal+ in Europe

Have exclusive                           Therefore the company benefit from                          Vivendi can distribute
distribution rights of                   audiences owning converged                                  their content through
Working Title films                      technology such as a video-iPod as                                their partnership
and soundtracks                          this is where they will download and                         with Apple via iTunes
                                         exhibit their content




 REMEMBER:
 Cross-media convergence can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to take advantage of the links they have forged.
HOMEWORK:
Why is horizontal and vertical integration important to Working Title
Films?



Points to think about…
•  Production
•  Distribution
•  Marketing
•  Exhibition
•  Merchandising – increase profits
C/W FINISH FOR HW
Create a case study on 2 films. One must be a film from Warp Films and the other must be from Working
Title.

                        WT: Contraband, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Definitely, Maybe,
                                   Warp: Four Lions, Tyrannosaur, Hush

                              - THE LIFE OF A FILM ~ RESEARCH TASK
               -SUBMIT AS A POST ON YOUR BLOG – MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE
                    -DUE SUNDAY 7PM – email link simonemcd38@gmail.com
                      -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM
                                – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION
1. RECAP:
What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry?
    • Production
    • Subsidiary
    • Distribution
    • Marketing
    • Exhibition
    • Horizontal Integration
    • Vertical Integration
2. YOUR FILM: Choose from the following
    WT: Contraband, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Definitely, Maybe,
     Warp: Four Lions, Tyrannosaur, Hush

Provide a brief synopsis of your film’s story
Include some of your film’s marketing materials (trailers, posters, cast interviews etc.)
2. PRODUCTION
What was your film’s production budget?
Which Production Company (s) provided the finance? What other films have the company (s) produced?
3. DISTRIBUTION, HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL INTEGRATION
When was the film’s UK release date?
Who was the distributor of this film?

Is your film’s production company a subsidiary of a larger company (e.g. when a parent company owns
multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry, horizontally integrated)?

Are there any signs of horizontal integration between your film’s production company (s) and distributor(s)?
E.g. Is there a link between your film’s production company and the distributor?

Are there any signs of vertical integration – where a conglomerate or parent company owns multiple
companies across different stages of the film industry, (e.g. Warner Bros own: Warner Bros Production Studio,
Warner Bros Distribution Company and Warner Bros Cinemas (Exhibition)?
5. EXHIBITION
What were box office takings for your film?
Would you expect it to be shown in Bromley Cinema? Why/why not?
What formats is your film available on, for home exhibition?
!
-  THE LIFE OF A FILM ~ RESEARCH TASK
              -SUBMIT AS A POST ON YOUR BLOG
           & MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE
-DUE SUNDAY 7PM . Email link to simonemcd38@gmail.com

         -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM	
  
                  – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION
RECAP
What do the following terms mean in relation to the film
industry?
Production
Subsidiary
Distribution
Marketing
Exhibition
Horizontal Integration
Vertical Integration
CONVERGENCE
               CROSS MEDIA & TECHNOLOGICAL

Learning Intention:
To show your understanding of technological convergence in
relation to the James Bond Franchise of films

Learning Outcome:
To provide a contemporary case study (in the last 4 years) of a
film that has used convergence
THE EXAM
    Section B: Institutions and Audiences
Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of
production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary
media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the
relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be
familiar with:
•  the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
•  the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production,
   distribution and marketing;
•  the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of
   production, distribution, marketing and exchange;
•  the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and
   audiences;
•  the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
•  the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically,
   British) by international or global institutions;
•  the ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption
   illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.
This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case
                 studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
INTRODUCTION TO CONVERGENCE

In the film industry the number of platforms where you can view films
is proliferating all the time; audiences can also watch films in a variety of
ways when they want to.




DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY:
You can use digital technology to:
download a film or TV programme
onto your mobile phone, laptop, I-
Pad or PC; you can watch it on your
flat-screen TV; you can also connect
your  HD TV to the Internet and watch
the film on You Tube; of course, you
can see the film on Blue Ray or
ordinary DVDs;  some might prefer to
watch the film on PlayStation or X
Box; you could, perhaps, download it
on Pirate Bay or other sites and
consume it at a time that suits you.
DEFINING CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE & TECHNOLOGICAL
                                            CONVERGENCE
CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE
refers to the development of products across different mediums
It is also an example of SYNERGY (Parent and subsidiaries coming together to
produce, market, distribute and exhibit the film) e.g.

The BBC air EastEnders on BBC TV channels, then make EastEnders available
on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further 7 days. Major storylines will
be covered in the TV Times. The BBC website will also give you access to plot
history, cast members etc. So, the BBC owns a variety of media forms.

Technological convergence
refers to the process where new technology is moving towards single
platforms (e.g. iPhone) delivering multiple media outputs that can be used
to reach audiences.
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE & SYNERGY
Technological Convergence refers to
previously separate technologies such as
voice (and telephony features), data (music,           An example of
apps, games), and video that now share
                                                             synergy
resources and interact with each
other, synergistically to create new features                 Disney
and offer more choice from a single device.

(Synergy = two or more things working
together harmoniously)
 
Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level
convergent media world where all modes of       Game          DVD
communication and information are
continually reforming to adapt to the
enduring demands of technologies. This
convergence is changing the way we
create, consume, learn and interact with         CD         Outlets
each other.
Technological convergence refers to the process where new technology
is moving towards single platforms (e.g. iPhone) delivering multiple media outputs that
can be used to reach audiences.

Convergent technology is technology that allows an audience to consume
more than one type of media from a single platform.
iPhone – An example of ‘convergence’ of a wide range of
                                technologies.

                                                          Phone
          Games
         Console

                                                             Camera
Web Browser

                                                              Video Camera

  mp3 player



        Palmtop
                                                             FM radio
       Computer



               Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms
                      are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
Convergence
                                      Primary function is video
                                      gaming




                                      Download and watch movies
                                      from Lovefilm.com




                                      Watch catch up TV and music
                                      videos.


PS3   Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are
                    integrated within a single piece of media technology.
Convergence

                          Games Console




                                    DVD Player




                                    Internet Modem




X Box 360
  Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are
                integrated within a single piece of media technology.
GAME OF THRONES FILM CAMPAIGN ON FACEBOOK
                                          Jim Marsh - Social Marketing Manager


          Use of convergent technology to market a film

MARKETING STRATEGY:
GAME OF THRONES
January 2011 Multi-phased
social media strategy

         PURPOSE: to win over existing fans and
         gain new ones by breaking the
         stereotypes of typical fantasy fare and
         reinforcing HBO’s unique take on the
         genre
                      FACEBOOK: The Facebook page launched with
                      special features and an engagement strategy
                      designed to grow the fan base before the show
                      premiered on the network and sustain accelerated
                      growth in that season and beyond.
FILM CAMPAIGN ON FACEBOOK: CASE STUDY

A customized “Welcome” tab introduced new users to the series and encouraged them to
“like” the Facebook page. The tab also embedded videos from the Game of Thrones
YouTube Channel and drove to key features such as the HBO GO interactive viewing
experience, Viewer’s Guide and behind the scenes episodic features on HBO.com.

With the launch of Facebook’s new profile layout, a Takeover Application was launched that
allowed users to automatically “skin” their Facebook profile in the Game of Thrones
theme and design. The Facebook page was then used as one of the main pipelines of
information for fans to participate in The Maester’s Path, a game that required fans
to take clues and information from the virtual world to complete a series of
challenges related to the first season in the physical world. The Game of Thrones
Facebook page extended this offline marketing initiative by releasing weekly clues about
challenges and information about the time and locations of the food truck stunts.
Fans paid close attention the Facebook page and congregated at these events to get a
taste of the cuisine of Westeros, crafted by renowned chef Tom Colicchio.

Jumping on this virtual-to-physical world connection at WonderCon 2011, HBO gave fans
the opportunity to sit on an exact replica of the Iron Throne itself to have their
pictures taken. These pictures were then featured on the official Game of Thrones
Facebook page in real time, resulting in several galleries of thousands of fans and
even celebrities such as Rainn Wilson. Swag giveaways of commemorative T-Shirts and
books were conducted to entice more fans to come visit the Game of Thrones booth.
As the season progressed, fans checked in on Facebook to get updates, recaps, and previews,
and were presented with graphic postcards they could share with friends. And as a final
reward, HBO launched the Facebook game, The Battle for the Iron Throne, which allowed
fans to compete against one another, testing their strategy and knowledge, to
victoriously claim the Iron Throne.
RECAP




          The iPad is a great example of
        technological convergence. Why?
                           
RECAP




   This is another example....why?
RECAP/ TASK                                                          PRODUCTS/SERVICES




                         TECHNOLOGICALLY
                           CONVERGENT
                             DEVICES

                       Quick Research Task.

        Create a mood board of Technologically Convergent devices.

               What media products/services do your devices
                          offer the audience?
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE – CONTEMPORARY EXAMPLES
Media industries have had to respond to changes in media technology.
•  Media convergence means that today a lot of TV programmes,
   films and music exist across a range of media and are the products
   of several industries.
•  Music is available across a huge range of formats; 
•  The music industry has converged with other media industries.

Examples:

Convergence of game and music industry:
Guitar Hero, DJ Hero, soundtrack for X-Box and PS3 games - e.g.
bands making money from licensing their image and music to games
companies.
 
Convergence of TV, internet and music industry:
X-Factor, Britain's Got Talent; the way the show encourages people to
use phones to vote and iTunes to download tracks featured on the
show.
RECAP/TASK
Technological Convergence
•  Technological Convergence has altered the way we access and
  engage with media products.
•  It has radically altered our expectations as consumers of the media.
•  Convergence has radically altered every media industry.

Research activity:
1.  Review your research into technologically convergent devices.
Choose one device to research further.
1.  What media can you access on your device?
2.  What media can you produce on your device?
3.  Why is your device a positive thing for the media industry (in other
    words how can they make money from you?)
4.  Why is the device a negative thing for the media industry?
5.  List some benefits of your device for the user (audience)
6.  List some draw-backs of your device for the user (audience)
7.  Has your device benefitted society and made the world a better
    place? Give reasons for your answer.
QUICK WRITING CHALLENGE:
USE THE FOLLOWING KEY WORDS IN A SHORT PARAGRAPH:

1.    Technological convergence
2.    Synergistically
3.    Multi-level convergent media
4.    Adapt
5.    Create
6.    Consume
7.    Learn
8.    Interact



•  HOW MANY DID YOU USE?
•  HOW MANY DID YOU USE ACCURATELY?
•  IS YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO LINK THESE WORDS TOGETHER SECURE?
QUICK WRITING CHALLENGE:
POSSIBLE ANSWER:

KEY WORDS
1.  Technological convergence
2.  Synergistically
3.  Multi-level convergent media
4.  Adapt
5.  Create
6.  Consume         Technological Convergence refers to previously
7.  Learn           separate technologies such as voice (and telephony
8.  Interact        features), data (music, apps, games), and video that
                    now share resources and interact with each
                    other, synergistically to create new features and offer
                    more choice from a single device.
                     
                    Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level
                    convergent media world where all modes of
                    communication and information are continually
                    reforming to adapt to the enduring demands of
                    technologies. This convergence is changing the way
                    we create, consume, learn and interact with each
                    other.
SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
Ownership of institution
How the way the company is owned effects the type of films it produces.

Cross Media Convergence
The use of multiple media forms by a media company to increase the awareness of or possible
audience for a media product. For example, the BBC show Eastenders on their TV channels,
then make them available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further seven days. A single
company will often own all of the media forms.

Synergy
When two or more institutions promote their products on one media text. Business deals are
created between institutions who stand to benefit from reaching the same audience at the
same time. Product placement in films (where for example, James Bond might be denoted
wearing an Omega watch) and the promotion of stars and their songs through TV
advertisements for other products are good examples.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R22qigXhFjk

New Media Technology
The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication
technologies in the later part of the 20th century. Most technologies described as "new media"
are digital. This is simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storage
when compared with older analogue methods.

Proliferation of content
An increase in the number of films being made over the last 30 years
SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
Technological convergence
The combination of a variety of different digital technologies into one piece of hardware e.g. a
PC which can show DVDs, digitally edit, using a camera take video footage and using the
internet, download films

Production
How films are made in terms of appeal to audience, effect of ownership and technologies used

Distribution
In the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies in
theatres, and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc). This will
usually be through a cinema first and then onto DVD and download, although some films are
released straight to DVD.

Marketing
The process of creating and raising audience awareness of a new film. It is part of the
responsibility of the distributor, along with circulation, after they have acquired a film. The
objective of film marketing is to stand out in an environment that is competing very fiercely for
the audience’s money. This does not simply mean against other film campaigns, but the
marketing of any other product too. Split into three sections – advertising, publicity and
promotion.

Exhibition
Exhibition is the retail branch of the film industry. It could relate to public cinema exhibition or
private home exhibition through DVD or downloads.
POSSIBLE QUESTIONS/ TOPICS
          The question will be broad, allowing you to discuss a
              variety of issues relating to your case study.



                                                            Effect of New
       Relationship
         between
      institution and
                                  OR                             Media
                                                           Technology on
                                                           institutions and
      audience in a
                                                           audiences in a
      media industry
                                                           media industry



  These are the areas that the exam question is most likely to ask you to discuss.


  HOWEVER it is possible that the question may ask you to apply your
knowledge in a slightly different way, so you must be prepared to adapt
                      your answer to the question.
THE FILM PROCESS
         Three distinct areas of the film industry
         Each one of these could be viewed as
               a type of media institution.




What would you expect to happen at each stage?
Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000.
This budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj         Production involves
Huda and producer friend George Issac                      the creation of the
                                                           media product and
                                                           is the responsibility of
                                                           the production
QUESTION: Why would this film have found it difficult to   company
get finance from a production company?
                                                           This includes all pre-
Some of this budget was funded by the UK Film              production,
Council                                                    production & post-
                                                           production
                                                           processes.
QUESTION: How much was given to the film for
production and distribution?                               Before that the
                                                           writer/director/
                                                           producer must find
                                                           finance for a film –
QUESTION: What criteria did the film have to meet to       which may come
be awarded the funds?                                      from one or many
                                                           production
                                                           companies (a co-
                                                           production)
Marketing Strategy
Viral marketing is probably one of the best marketing strategies
for Kidulthood. According to the UK Film Council s survey, 33%
of the people who went to see the film heard about it through
word-of-mouth. People are mainly able to hear about the film
through family, friends and social networking websites. (eg
Facebook, Twitter)
                      The film uses synergy so that it gets known. It uses
                      soundtracks from grime artists such as Shystie, Lethal Bizzle
                      and Dizzee Rascal. The music these artists produce relate to
                      people who live an urban lifestyle. If people hear that their
                      music is going to be in the film Kidulthood, they would watch
                      it because it might appeal to them. Therefore the record
                      label and production company work together to gain mutual
                      benefit of targeting their audience.

Kidulthood s distribution company, Revolver Entertainment
has produced copies of the film on DVD which is an example
of New Media Technology. Kidulthood is likely to become more
successful on DVD than in the cinema because it is cheaper
when its released on DVD and people can watch it in their own
time.
Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000. This
Kidulthood-problems with                      budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj Huda
finance!                                       and producer friend George Issac.
"                                             Why would this film have found it difficult to get finance
Unknown screen writer."                       from a production company?
The screenwriter Noel clarke, Kidulthood
was his first film therefore people might not   Menhaj Huda directed the film 'Kidulthood' aiming for
have had faith in him to produce a up and     the finance target of budgeting the film at £800,000.
coming film. "                                 Working with his friend George Issac Menhaj was able to
Ensamble cast."                               get the total finance up to only 650,000, but he still
All cast members have equal billing           thought this would be enough to make and produce
therfore no well known actors to promote      the film. A problem that they would probably have
the film."                                     come across was even though they were working with
Subject Matter. "                             the production company 'Stealth', this was going to be
The gand culture element of the film is too    their first movie, and exhibition companies wouldn't
"sensitive" for an older audience.            know how the film was goin to turn out.
                                              Another problem that Menhaj would have come across
                                              that because his budget was lower than he thought
                                              after paying the writer's fee, the producer's fee, and
                                              some legal fees, he had to make cuts elsewhere. "We
                                              decided to shoot on 35mm and finish on High Definition,
                                              so if the film was a complete pile of rubbish we wouldn't
                                              be wasting money on getting a print". By doing this the
                                              quality of the film wouldn't be as good if they had the
                                              higher budget, but it would have been cheaper this
                                              way definately for them if the film was a flop and didn't
                                              make any money.
The most effective way that this film was
marketed was virally, as this type of advertising would
appeal the most to the age group it is aimed at. 15 - 24
year olds spend a lot of time on the internet so this
strategy would be very effective.
a survey was conducted by the UK film council, that
revealed that 33% of the people who went to watch the film
in the cinema had heard about it through word of mouth.
This percentage was the highest compared to the other
ways that people found out about it. The film's marketers
may have had a clever strategy to start people talking          This is the homepage of the webpage for
                                                                Kidulthood, an important film in the teen-
about it.
                                                                drama genre. It is mainly comprised of a
another way that the film was marketed is by including
soundtracks from famous grime artists such as lethal            large e-poster promoting the DVD release of
Bizzle and Dizee Rascal. Using these tracks attracted           the film, but at the bottom are tabs such as
audiences that listen to these artists music and made them      'About Kidulthood,' 'Press,' 'Soundtrack' and
                                                                'Forum', giving fans of the film a chance to
want to watch the film more. Including songs from these
                                                                interact with one another and critics of the
artists allows the record labels that they are signed to work
with the marketing team of the film for mutual benefit, as      film a place to post their opinions as well as
they will both advertise each other.                            giving the fans the chance to download
The film also used reviews by the press to market their film    songs they heard on the soundtrack. The
                                                                element of the interactive would make the
to speed up the process of people talking about it, using
this technique will add to the number of people that hear       website attractive to teens, who are the
about the film due to word of mouth.                            main target audience of the film.
Marketing Strategy
                                Kidulthood was also funded by the UK Film
                                Council. Being produced by an independent
                                production company with a low budget, it was
                                difficult for Kidulthood to get distributed. Instead,
                                posters were produced for the film and did in
                                some way become successful. From the UK
                                Film Council s exit poll data, 25% of the people
                                who went to see the film heard about it through
                                posters.


Another way which gets people talking about Kidulthood are the reviews by the
press. If the film gets good reviews, it would make people want to see it and the
word-of-mouth spreads.
The Sun rated the film 4 stars and said the following:

 Impressive directing and great performances by all of the film's raw young cast
combine to make this low-budget bruiser a must-see.
• Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:
PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home
release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film
MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a
new release

• A distributor may:
-Be a part of the same parent company as the production
company
- Have a long term arrangement with a production company and
provide financial assistance for many of their productions         Revolver
- Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production   Entertainment
company                                                            distributed
                                                                   Kidulthood
- Acquire a film after it has completed production

• A film will likely have different distributors for:              Although heavily
                                                                   promoted there was
-Releases in different countries                                   limited distribution
-Cinema Release                                                    of the film, why?
-Home-Video Release
•  Exhibition is divided into two sections:
-  Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy
   of the film
-  Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is
   selling the film for a copy

•  A film’s success is often decided on the amount of
   money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is
   known as the Box Office Takings
                                                               Kidulthood made just
•  Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable          £454,000 at the cinema
   and varied source for distributors to increase profits.     It was far more
                                                               successful on DVD
   WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF?            Why would this film be
                                                               more successful on DVD
                                                               than in the cinema?
Today s Lesson

LI/LO: Section B – Audiences and Institutions
•  Explore the issues raised by media ownership in
   contemporary media practice
              Learn the Nuts ‘n Bolts of Film 4
              Understand the link with Channel 4 and
              its Ethos
•  Explore the importance of cross media convergence and
   synergy in production, distribution and marketing
Nuts ‘n Bolts of Channel 4
 What is Channel 4?

•  A British terrestrial TV channel
•  A commercial broadcaster – funded entirely by
   advertising, programme sponsorship,
   merchandising and overseas sales.
•  The owner of a number of digital UK channels
   including: More 4, Film4, E4 and Channel 4 HD
•  The owner of independent film production
   company – Film4 Productions
•  Channel 4 IS NOT a television production
   company as it s broadcasting license prevents
   it from making any programmes of it s own.
•  It commissions independent production
   companies (such as Endemol) to make it s
   programmes or buys in programmes from
   abroad
The conditions of the Channel
                             4 Remit stipulate that they
Channel 4 REMIT              must:
                             • demonstrate innovation, experiment
Channel 4 is unique as a     and creativity in the form and content
commercial broadcaster       of programmes;
as it has a public service   • appeal to the tastes and interests of a
remit.                       culturally diverse society;
This means that rather       • makes a significant contribution to
than it s primary concern    meeting the need for the licensed
being to make money for      public service channels to include
                             programmes of an educational nature
shareholders it exists to    and other programmes of educative
fulfil a public need.        value

                             • exhibit a distinctive character

                             • broadcast programmes from many
                             independent production companies,
                             including a high proportion from
                             Europe
1982-1998              History of Film 4
•  Established as Channel Four
   Films to produce diverse &
   challenging films for Ch4 ~a
   small number got cinema
   exhibition!

AUDIENCES
•  Part of Channel 4’s remit was
   to experiment, innovate &
   cater for audiences not
   addressed by other channels
FILM4 & CROSS-MEDIA CONVERGENCE
  LILO: Explore the importance of cross media convergence and
    synergy in production, distribution and marketing through a
                            case study


Are there any obvious advantages Film 4 has when
   compared to other independent production
                   companies?
1992-97
      Period of financial success
The Crying Game (1992) – took $62m in US,
Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) - $240m
worldwide,
Trainspotting (1996) - $16m (US) £12m+ (UK)
         We will be looking at the film Trainspotting in a bit more detail later on.




Introduction of Lottery money

UK Film Production rose to level not seen since
1970s
1998-2002

•  Creation of FilmFour production and distribution
   company

•  Part of Channel 4 (channels, websites) which
   act as exhibitors and promoters

•  Unique to British Film – Why?
            Twice the production budget of
            Channel Four Films (now £32m)

•  International and domestic audience – this
   model failed: Charlotte Gray (2001)
2002
FilmFour closed in 2002

•  Studio model had failed in UK L
•  Film production returned to Channel 4 with
   reduced budget
•  Return to realist roots
•  Recent successes?
2013

•  Nowadays they fund around 20 films per year

•  A number of films are by first time feature
   screenwriters or directors

•  They look for distinctive films which will make their
   mark in a competitive cinema market

•  Television premieres on FilmFour Channel and
   Channel 4, 2 years after theatrical release
RESEARCHING
   TARGET
 AUDIENCES
My Beautiful Laundrette ~
Audiences

•  David Rose, commissioning editor,
   “a preference for contemporary
   and social political topics”

•  My Beautiful Laundrette (1985)
   portrayed the homosexual
   relationship between a white fascist
   and a Omar, born in Britain to
   Pakistani parents.

•  Main audiences were
   contemporary critical audiences in
   the 20 – 30 age ranges

•  Before Laundrette, a large
   percentage of the British population
   went largely unrepresented
Target Audience
• What audience does Film 4 target?
• What are the problems with this?
• How do they target an audience?
Research Task
Watch the trailers for these films:
- Brassed Off (1996)
- This is England (2006)
- Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994)
Research Questions
•  Who are the target audience? (how do you
   know this?)

•  What is the style of the film?

•  How did they do at the box office? (what other
   films were they competing with?)

•  Who was the distributor? (in UK and US)
FilmFour	
  

Sec,on	
  B	
  exam	
  prep	
  
Independent Study!
    Develop a case study on a film studio which
        produces or distributed films to the UK
                           *
 Your study should cover production, distribution &
       marketing and exhibition & consumption
                           *
If FilmFour is your chosen company then you MUST
          make reference to specific films.
What is a British film?
•  A setting in the UK?

•  A focus on British people abroad?

•  A predominantly British cast?

•  A storyline about some aspect of British life?

•  Based on the work of a British author?
The importance of a national film
              industry
•  Significant returns for the UK economy
   through film making, inward investment, film
   exhibition, DVD rentals and sales, film exports

•  The UK Film Council estimates that a
   successful Brit film will make up to 70% of its
   revenue outside the UK
THINK PAIR SHARE: AUDIENCE
•  If a film addresses a
   domestic audience
   about culturally
   specific themes, is it
   likely to find wider
   distribution difficult?

•  Will non-British people
   want to see the film?

•  What significant
   advantage do British
   filmmakers have over
   European filmmakers?
British Cinema and Hollywood
•  British film production companies have co-
   production and distribution links with
   Hollywood studios

•  ‘British’ films can be funded and distributed
   by US companies

•  Decisions on which British films to produce
   and how to market them are often based on
   the tastes of both domestic and American
   audiences
Hollywood – a brief overview
• Hollywood is built around studios

• Studios are companies who aim to
  make money from films

   Many Hollywood blockbuster movies are
                successful.
                  Why?
The success of Hollywood
It’s ability to continually re-invent itself by:

•  Responding to a changing marketplace

•  Taking advantage of new opportunities
   offered by new technologies
Recent British Cinema & Audiences

•  British film has become more confident in
   expanding its range to include a wider cross-
   section of ethnic groupings, gender groupings
   and cultural groupings

•  Promoting diversity and offering a more
   representative and inclusive national identity

•  Slumdog is a recent example!
Is British Cinema Distinctive?
•  180 million tickets sold yearly
•  Inward investment to improve
   the cinema-going experience

•  80% of admissions come out
   of mainstream American
   distributors

•  Exploration of British themes
   and values

                                     THIS IS ENGLAND
How does HOLLYWOOD stay one foot ahead of
                   BRITAIN?
•  Hollywood realized that there is serious money to be made
   in international distribution so they invest heavily

•  They retain the rights to their films so secure profits for many
   years

•  British film industry is production led ~ distribution is usually
   through an American company

           Any money made is not going back into the
                     British film industry

          “British Film is a ‘Cottage’ industry”
                       ~Discuss~
More challenges
•  2004	
  –	
  UK	
  output	
  27	
  
•  Bri,sh	
  film	
  industry	
  unable	
  to	
  respond	
  to	
  
   increasing	
  audience	
  demand	
  
•  Hollywood	
  has	
  diversified	
  and	
  strengthened	
  
   to	
  develop	
  links	
  with	
  other	
  media	
  and	
  delivery	
  
   plaForms	
  crea,ng	
  vast	
  media	
  empires	
  
•  Global	
  market	
  at	
  $63	
  billion	
  in	
  2003	
  
•  US	
  takes	
  80%	
  of	
  this	
  global	
  market	
  
CASE STUDY
TRAINSPOTTING
A SUCCESSFUL CO-PRODUCTION



  Summary:
  The movie follows a group of heroin
  addicts in a late 1980s economically       •  Produced by:
  depressed area of Edinburgh and their           •  Channel Four Films
  passage through life. Beyond drug               •  Figment Films
  addiction, other concurrent themes in           •  The Noel Gay Motion
  the film are exploration of the urban              Picture Company
  poverty and squalor in "culturally rich"        Distributed by:
  Edinburgh.                                      •  PolyGram Filmed
                                                     Entertainment (UK)
                                                  •  Miramax Films (USA)
  •  Directed by Danny Boyle~ British
     director                                •  Released:
                                                 February 23, 1996
  •  Starring Ewan McGregor in his 2nd           (United Kingdom)
     film                                    •  Budget:
                                                 ₤1,550,000
                                             •  Box Office Figures
                                                 $16,491,345
TRAINSPOTTING & A CLOCKWORK
                ORANGE
THEME: David Aukin, Head of Drama at Four Films it isn t really about
drugs…it s a buddy movie

US critics compared the movie to Kubricks A Clockwork
Orange ("Trainspotting" is a lot like "A Clockwork Orange," from its socially
satirical message to its choice of amoral protagonists with bad habits. But
the two are different in their approach.

"A Clockwork Orange” & "Trainspotting” are an assault on the senses and
might not be good for people with a weak stomach. It has graphic
language, graphic sex, graphic drug use, and even graphic violence.
Both are anti-social-realist films dealing with subjects – gangs, violence,
drugs – which are stylized and fast-paced.

A graphic film, one might say.

   How is this similar to ‘My Beautiful Laundrette’ or ‘This is England’?
MARKETING TRAINSPOTTING
Trainspotting was more an object
of youth culture or popular
culture than it was cinematic
Britpop was Trainspotting's main
vehicle to integrate youth
subculture into popular culture.
                                                           SYNERGY
                                             The brand Trainspotting
Polygram put large sums of                                 Soundtrack
money into a sophisticated                                      Posters
marketing and branding strategy                                  DVD’s
including posters and a                      Copies of the screenplay
soundtrack                                  Reprinting of Welsh s novel
                                     featuring the poster on the cover
Knew film would appeal to                       Music cross-promotion
clubbers and ravers so targeted
these – Underworld s Born Slippy
became a massive hit from the
soundtrack
Film gained distribution in the US
although it did need subtitles!
FILM 4 Vs. WORKING TITLE
    Four Weddings and a Funeral
FILM 4 Vs. WORKING TITLE
Four Weddings and a Funeral

Four Weddings and a Funeral is a
1994 British romantic comedy film
directed by Mike Newell. It was the
first of several films by screenwriter
Richard Curtis to feature Hugh
Grant.

The film was an unexpected success,
becoming the highest-grossing British
film in cinema history at the time,
with worldwide box office in excess
of $245.7 million, and receiving an
Academy Award nomination for Best
Picture

Co-production with Polygram and
Working Title
MARKETING FOUR WEDDINGS & A FUNERAL
Four Weddings and a Funeral

•  Played upon aspects of national
   identity

•  Played upon the more ‘naïve’
   elements of ‘Britishness’

•  Hugh Grants quintessential
   fumbling middle class gentleman~
   well recognized British stereotype

•  Appealed to an American
   audience

•  A universal storyline of romance
   and a feel good happy ending
Film Four under David Aukin (1990’s)

•     Typical cost of production rose
      from £400,000 to £1.8million


•     Trainspotting (Film 4) and Four
      Weddings (WT) were hugely
      successful although appealed to
      very different audiences


•     Trainspotting was a low budget film
      which had carved itself a niche
      audience
Representation and Cultural Identity

•  FilmFour films explored and developed ideas of
   cultural hybridity

•  East is East

•  The first British film representing hybrid and ever
   changing cultural and social mix in Britain
   making it into mainstream multiplex cinemas.

•  Brick Lane (2007) won a BAFTA
Problems
•  One of Film 4's biggest problems has been
   competing for cinema space with multinational
   film companies, whose films account for more
   than two thirds of UK box office takings.

•  Film 4 blames the poor box office results on its lack
   of clout in the distribution market rather than the
   quality of its films. (BBC on Film Four Partner
   Search)
Film 4 channel
•  Originally only subscribers could access the channel
•  The company wasn t making enough money
   through subscriptions alone
•  Relaunched the channel in July 2006 as a freeview
   channel
•  Believed they could make more money through
   advertising
•  Has become the Uks largest free film channel
   available to 18 million homes
Supply and Demand

•  Why do you go to the cinema?

•  What other options are available to you if you
   want to see a film?

•  What are the pros and cons of these options?

•  So why do you still go to the cinema?!
Changing patterns of consumption
•  Young people are increasingly watch films on small screens
   using various models of DVD players

•  Cinema admissions in Britain fell by 4% in 2005 and US box-
   office by 9%

•  Trend towards home consumption began in the 1960s when
   studios realized they could use television to show films long
   after they had passed their sell-by date in the cinema
VHS to DVD
•  1970s VHS was introduced

•  1980s satellite was introduced

•  DVDs have pushed VHS out of the home

•  What are the advantages of DVD over VHS?

•  What are some drawbacks for the studios?
Synergy – Let’s Recap…

•  Massive corporations may be able to
•  Publicize and advertise their films via their own print,
   sound and visual media arms

•  Put out associated books and music, again from
   within their own organisation

•  Show their films via their own various TV and cinema
   outlets
Film Four and Synergy

•  A major issue for FilmFour is that it does NOT
   own its own exhibition theatrical chain

•  What issues might this raise for FilmFour?

•  Synergy was not always apparent Film 4 – Ali
   G show
•  In 2003 Ali G went to Working Title!
New technologies and the consumer




 Changing patterns of consumption
New technologies and the consumer
•  An improved overall experience as a result of better sound
   and images reproduction
•  A heightened emotional experience as a result of a stronger
   sense of empathy with characters who in some way seem
   more real
•  Enhanced spectacle
•  Improved ease of access
•  New, easier and intensified ways of using film to pleasure
   themselves e.g. IMAX
•  Enhanced intellectual experience
•  The chance for new, ever cheaper and more compact
   devices to make films for themselves
New technologies and the film industry

•  The chance to repackage and resell old products, esp
   cult films, thereby establishing a new audience base for
   an old product

•  An opportunity to place products for sale in a new
    window thereby lengthening the commercial life of
   each film

•  The chance to encourage multiple purchases of
   essentially the same product

•  A means of still managing to make profit on films that
   initially perform poorly at the box office
New technologies and the cinema experience

 •  New technologies have always added to the
    cinema experience

 •  The size/quality of the spectacle have been
    enhanced

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Section b g322 sow

  • 2. THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and Audiences Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with: •  the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; •  the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; •  the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; •  the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; •  the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; •  the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; •  the ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
  • 3. PAST EXAM QUESTIONS: G322 SECTION B Discuss the ways in which media products are produced and distributed to audiences, within a media area that you have studied. How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area, which you have studied. Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services to national audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences? Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts in your chosen media area. “Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices”. To what extent do you agree with this statement, in the media area you have studied? To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media products in the media area you have studied? “Cross-media convergence and synergy are vital processes in the successful marketing of media products to audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement in relation to your chosen media area?
  • 4. LEARNING INTENTIONS/OUTCOMES To understand the focus for the KEY TERMS Audience and Institutions section Audience of your exam Institution Production To study and complete a range of case studies in preparation for the Subsidiary exam Distribution Marketing Exhibition Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration
  • 5. MEDIA TRIANGLE What they have produced Media Text Target Institution Audience Who has produced Who the media text the media text is produced for
  • 6. THE FILM PROCESS Three distinct areas of the film industry Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution. What would you expect to happen at each stage?
  • 7. Figment Films is the production company who made Trainspotting. •  Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the production company •  This includes all pre-production, production & post-production processes. •  Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film – which may come from one or many production companies (a co- production) Channel 4 (Film4) financed the film
  • 8. Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing: PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/ home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a new release Miramax distributed A distributor may: Trainspotting and •  Be a part of the same parent company as the production bought the rights for company $750,000 •  Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions •  Provide financial assistance for a single film by a In your case study production company look carefully at •  Acquire a film after it has completed production how it was marketed and A film is likely have different distributors for: distributed. -Releases in different countries -Cinema Releases -Home-Video Releases
  • 9. FilmFour made its reputation with films like Trainspotting in 1996. Exhibition is divided into two sections: - Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film It made £23m at the - Home – the distributor is paid by the company box office but cost who is selling the film for a copy only £2.4m and was the highest grossing British film in 1996. A film s success is often decided on the amount of money it makes during it s cinema release. This is known as the Box Office Takings However, it was far more successful on Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing DVD, spawning valuable and varied source for distributors to numerous versions increase profits. and special editions. WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN YOU THINK OF? Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
  • 10. MEDIA OWNERSHIP: HORIZONTAL The parent company HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION owns multiple companies VERTICAL INTEGRATION at the same stage of the film industry. A smaller company, owned by the parent is a subsidiary. •  Often a single parent company will own multiple companies in the film industry. VERTICAL •  This is divided into two types of The parent company owns multiple companies ownership across different stages of the film industry. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION VERTICAL INTEGRATION QUESTION: What are the LOOK AT THE VIVENDI CASE STUDY ON advantages for a parent company for each type THE FOLLOWING SLIDES of ownership?
  • 11. Synergy HORIZONTAL Synergy (from the Greek syn-ergos, meaning working together) basically The parent means working together to achieve an objective that couldn't be company owns achieved independently. multiple companies at the same stage Synergy is the ‘strategy of synchronising and actively forging connections of the film industry. between directly related areas of entertainment’. A smaller company, New Technologies support this process (internet, DVD, downloading). owned by the parent is a Media institutions exploit various platforms to sell various products related subsidiary. to one film (e.g. film and soundtrack and video game). Convergent technology – smart phones, tablets, computers and games consoles further support the process of synergy. VERTICAL Cross Media Convergence (the development of products across The parent different medium)can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to company owns take advantage of the links they have forged. Disney is an obvious multiple companies example of a synergistic company. across different stages of the film Cross Media Convergence is really a Business Studies term and refers to industry. companies coming together vertically or horizontally (or both). (BOTH PARENT & SUBSIDIARIES) This is different to symbiosis in that synergy focuses on the relationship QUESTION: between parent companies and subsidiaries to produce, market and exhibit the film. What are the advantages for a Where as symbiosis focuses on the parent & subsidiary companies’ parent company for relationship with external companies that want to promote the product each type of through the sales of merchandise etc. ownership?
  • 12. How does synergy work? Synergy works when different elements within a media conglomerate promote (e.g. film studio, record label, video game division) create linked products (e.g. film, soundtrack, video game). Each distinct element promotes the others. Disney is an obvious example of a synergistic company from the top down from Film Studio to Kids' TV Channel (where it further plays and promotes its films) to the Disney Store (in the street and online) where your kids can pester you to buy all the merchandise and DVDs/CDs they've seen on the TV/Web or in the cinema.
  • 13. Symbiosis – How does it work? This is when different companies work together to promote a range of related products. E.g. High School Musical the film will enable spin-offs like Happy Meals, Easter Eggs, bed linen, toy characters etc. and the distributor will agree licensing deals for companies to make and sell this merchandising. A % of the profits will go back to the distributor Walt Disney pioneered symbiosis marketing techniques in the 1930s by granting dozens of firms the right to use his Mickey Mouse character in products and ads, and continued to market Disney media through licensing arrangements. These products can help advertise the film itself and thus help to increase the film's sales. For example, the Spider-Man films had toys of web- shooters and figures of the characters made, CD soundtracks, video games, DVD s and other merchandising.
  • 14. SYNERGY: Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone (2001) In 2000 AOL and Time Warner merged. The promotion of Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone by AOL Time Warner is a good example of synergy. Adverts for the film The soundtrack were shown on HBO was released on and the WB, both Atlantic Records, American TV channels part of Warner which are subsidiaries Music. of Time Warner. Articles about the AOL s internet film appeared in service was offering newspapers and merchandise, and ticket promotions magazines owned tied to subscriptions by Time Warner. for AOL s services.
  • 15. An example of synergy from Working Title Films…. SYNERGY The example often cited in exams is of Working Title making use of its parent company(s) to gain access to bigger stars and a better distribution network for their films.
  • 16. Vivendi Universal HORIZONTAL The parent company owns As a company they have.. multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry. …Integrated film, music, web and distribution A smaller company, technology into the company, including owned by the owning big stakes in cables and wires that parent is a deliver these services. subsidiary. Therefore they are vertically integrated VERTICAL because they own all the different companies involved in film, from production to distribution The parent to exhibition. company owns multiple companies across different They are also horizontally integrated because stages of the film they have all the expertise for producing industry. media content under one roof – films, TV, magazines, books, music, games thus being able to produce all the related media What are the content for one film under the same roof (see advantages for a synergy) parent company of each type of ownership?
  • 17. Vivendi Universal - OWNERSHIP •  Working Title films is owned by Universal films •  Universal films is part of Vivendi Universal •  Vivendi Universal is a giant name in the world of the privatised water industry all over the world, from Brazil to the UK •  It also owns major phone companies in many countries. It also owns 60 publishing houses selling 80 million books a year / 40 million CD- ROMs a year •  Vivendi Universal own Cineplex and Odeon cinema chains- another distribution an marketing outlet •  Also owns MP3.com •  Also owns Canal+ (French TV subscription channel) which has 14 million subscribers in 11 countries in Europe. Canal+ part finance Working Title Films productions. •  Owns Universal records. (22% share of global market across 63 countries) REMEMBER: Cross-media convergence can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to take advantage of the links they have forged.
  • 18. Vivendi Universal Vivendi can produce their own TV shows and films at Universal Production, Distribution, Exhibition Studios Vivendi Universal own MP3.com Vivendi can market and They can use this as a platform exhibit content through to distribute Universal owned their TV channels and content entertainment parks Vivendi can also use the MP3.com as a platform for Vivendi can distribute, advertising content and can market and exhibit films they own through their sell advertising space to other own 13 cable channels, related companies e.g. CBS e.g. Chiller channel for have links to their film sites horror films, Movies 24 in UK & Canal+ in Europe Have exclusive Therefore the company benefit from Vivendi can distribute distribution rights of audiences owning converged their content through Working Title films technology such as a video-iPod as their partnership and soundtracks this is where they will download and with Apple via iTunes exhibit their content REMEMBER: Cross-media convergence can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to take advantage of the links they have forged.
  • 19. HOMEWORK: Why is horizontal and vertical integration important to Working Title Films? Points to think about… •  Production •  Distribution •  Marketing •  Exhibition •  Merchandising – increase profits
  • 20. C/W FINISH FOR HW Create a case study on 2 films. One must be a film from Warp Films and the other must be from Working Title. WT: Contraband, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Definitely, Maybe, Warp: Four Lions, Tyrannosaur, Hush - THE LIFE OF A FILM ~ RESEARCH TASK -SUBMIT AS A POST ON YOUR BLOG – MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE -DUE SUNDAY 7PM – email link simonemcd38@gmail.com -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION 1. RECAP: What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry? • Production • Subsidiary • Distribution • Marketing • Exhibition • Horizontal Integration • Vertical Integration 2. YOUR FILM: Choose from the following WT: Contraband, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Definitely, Maybe, Warp: Four Lions, Tyrannosaur, Hush Provide a brief synopsis of your film’s story Include some of your film’s marketing materials (trailers, posters, cast interviews etc.) 2. PRODUCTION What was your film’s production budget? Which Production Company (s) provided the finance? What other films have the company (s) produced? 3. DISTRIBUTION, HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL INTEGRATION When was the film’s UK release date? Who was the distributor of this film? Is your film’s production company a subsidiary of a larger company (e.g. when a parent company owns multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry, horizontally integrated)? Are there any signs of horizontal integration between your film’s production company (s) and distributor(s)? E.g. Is there a link between your film’s production company and the distributor? Are there any signs of vertical integration – where a conglomerate or parent company owns multiple companies across different stages of the film industry, (e.g. Warner Bros own: Warner Bros Production Studio, Warner Bros Distribution Company and Warner Bros Cinemas (Exhibition)? 5. EXHIBITION What were box office takings for your film? Would you expect it to be shown in Bromley Cinema? Why/why not? What formats is your film available on, for home exhibition? !
  • 21. -  THE LIFE OF A FILM ~ RESEARCH TASK -SUBMIT AS A POST ON YOUR BLOG & MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE -DUE SUNDAY 7PM . Email link to simonemcd38@gmail.com -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM   – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION
  • 22. RECAP What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry? Production Subsidiary Distribution Marketing Exhibition Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration
  • 23. CONVERGENCE CROSS MEDIA & TECHNOLOGICAL Learning Intention: To show your understanding of technological convergence in relation to the James Bond Franchise of films Learning Outcome: To provide a contemporary case study (in the last 4 years) of a film that has used convergence
  • 24. THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and Audiences Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with: •  the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; •  the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; •  the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; •  the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; •  the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; •  the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; •  the ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
  • 25. INTRODUCTION TO CONVERGENCE In the film industry the number of platforms where you can view films is proliferating all the time; audiences can also watch films in a variety of ways when they want to. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: You can use digital technology to: download a film or TV programme onto your mobile phone, laptop, I- Pad or PC; you can watch it on your flat-screen TV; you can also connect your  HD TV to the Internet and watch the film on You Tube; of course, you can see the film on Blue Ray or ordinary DVDs;  some might prefer to watch the film on PlayStation or X Box; you could, perhaps, download it on Pirate Bay or other sites and consume it at a time that suits you.
  • 26. DEFINING CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE & TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE refers to the development of products across different mediums It is also an example of SYNERGY (Parent and subsidiaries coming together to produce, market, distribute and exhibit the film) e.g. The BBC air EastEnders on BBC TV channels, then make EastEnders available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further 7 days. Major storylines will be covered in the TV Times. The BBC website will also give you access to plot history, cast members etc. So, the BBC owns a variety of media forms. Technological convergence refers to the process where new technology is moving towards single platforms (e.g. iPhone) delivering multiple media outputs that can be used to reach audiences.
  • 27. TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE & SYNERGY Technological Convergence refers to previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (music, An example of apps, games), and video that now share synergy resources and interact with each other, synergistically to create new features Disney and offer more choice from a single device. (Synergy = two or more things working together harmoniously)   Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level convergent media world where all modes of Game DVD communication and information are continually reforming to adapt to the enduring demands of technologies. This convergence is changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with CD Outlets each other.
  • 28. Technological convergence refers to the process where new technology is moving towards single platforms (e.g. iPhone) delivering multiple media outputs that can be used to reach audiences. Convergent technology is technology that allows an audience to consume more than one type of media from a single platform.
  • 29. iPhone – An example of ‘convergence’ of a wide range of technologies. Phone Games Console Camera Web Browser Video Camera mp3 player Palmtop FM radio Computer Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
  • 30. Convergence Primary function is video gaming Download and watch movies from Lovefilm.com Watch catch up TV and music videos. PS3 Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
  • 31. Convergence Games Console DVD Player Internet Modem X Box 360 Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
  • 32. GAME OF THRONES FILM CAMPAIGN ON FACEBOOK Jim Marsh - Social Marketing Manager Use of convergent technology to market a film MARKETING STRATEGY: GAME OF THRONES January 2011 Multi-phased social media strategy PURPOSE: to win over existing fans and gain new ones by breaking the stereotypes of typical fantasy fare and reinforcing HBO’s unique take on the genre FACEBOOK: The Facebook page launched with special features and an engagement strategy designed to grow the fan base before the show premiered on the network and sustain accelerated growth in that season and beyond.
  • 33. FILM CAMPAIGN ON FACEBOOK: CASE STUDY A customized “Welcome” tab introduced new users to the series and encouraged them to “like” the Facebook page. The tab also embedded videos from the Game of Thrones YouTube Channel and drove to key features such as the HBO GO interactive viewing experience, Viewer’s Guide and behind the scenes episodic features on HBO.com. With the launch of Facebook’s new profile layout, a Takeover Application was launched that allowed users to automatically “skin” their Facebook profile in the Game of Thrones theme and design. The Facebook page was then used as one of the main pipelines of information for fans to participate in The Maester’s Path, a game that required fans to take clues and information from the virtual world to complete a series of challenges related to the first season in the physical world. The Game of Thrones Facebook page extended this offline marketing initiative by releasing weekly clues about challenges and information about the time and locations of the food truck stunts. Fans paid close attention the Facebook page and congregated at these events to get a taste of the cuisine of Westeros, crafted by renowned chef Tom Colicchio. Jumping on this virtual-to-physical world connection at WonderCon 2011, HBO gave fans the opportunity to sit on an exact replica of the Iron Throne itself to have their pictures taken. These pictures were then featured on the official Game of Thrones Facebook page in real time, resulting in several galleries of thousands of fans and even celebrities such as Rainn Wilson. Swag giveaways of commemorative T-Shirts and books were conducted to entice more fans to come visit the Game of Thrones booth. As the season progressed, fans checked in on Facebook to get updates, recaps, and previews, and were presented with graphic postcards they could share with friends. And as a final reward, HBO launched the Facebook game, The Battle for the Iron Throne, which allowed fans to compete against one another, testing their strategy and knowledge, to victoriously claim the Iron Throne.
  • 34. RECAP The iPad is a great example of technological convergence. Why?  
  • 35. RECAP This is another example....why?
  • 36. RECAP/ TASK PRODUCTS/SERVICES TECHNOLOGICALLY CONVERGENT DEVICES Quick Research Task. Create a mood board of Technologically Convergent devices. What media products/services do your devices offer the audience?
  • 37. TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE – CONTEMPORARY EXAMPLES Media industries have had to respond to changes in media technology. •  Media convergence means that today a lot of TV programmes, films and music exist across a range of media and are the products of several industries. •  Music is available across a huge range of formats;  •  The music industry has converged with other media industries. Examples: Convergence of game and music industry: Guitar Hero, DJ Hero, soundtrack for X-Box and PS3 games - e.g. bands making money from licensing their image and music to games companies.   Convergence of TV, internet and music industry: X-Factor, Britain's Got Talent; the way the show encourages people to use phones to vote and iTunes to download tracks featured on the show.
  • 38. RECAP/TASK Technological Convergence •  Technological Convergence has altered the way we access and engage with media products. •  It has radically altered our expectations as consumers of the media. •  Convergence has radically altered every media industry. Research activity: 1.  Review your research into technologically convergent devices. Choose one device to research further. 1.  What media can you access on your device? 2.  What media can you produce on your device? 3.  Why is your device a positive thing for the media industry (in other words how can they make money from you?) 4.  Why is the device a negative thing for the media industry? 5.  List some benefits of your device for the user (audience) 6.  List some draw-backs of your device for the user (audience) 7.  Has your device benefitted society and made the world a better place? Give reasons for your answer.
  • 39. QUICK WRITING CHALLENGE: USE THE FOLLOWING KEY WORDS IN A SHORT PARAGRAPH: 1.  Technological convergence 2.  Synergistically 3.  Multi-level convergent media 4.  Adapt 5.  Create 6.  Consume 7.  Learn 8.  Interact •  HOW MANY DID YOU USE? •  HOW MANY DID YOU USE ACCURATELY? •  IS YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO LINK THESE WORDS TOGETHER SECURE?
  • 40. QUICK WRITING CHALLENGE: POSSIBLE ANSWER: KEY WORDS 1.  Technological convergence 2.  Synergistically 3.  Multi-level convergent media 4.  Adapt 5.  Create 6.  Consume Technological Convergence refers to previously 7.  Learn separate technologies such as voice (and telephony 8.  Interact features), data (music, apps, games), and video that now share resources and interact with each other, synergistically to create new features and offer more choice from a single device.   Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level convergent media world where all modes of communication and information are continually reforming to adapt to the enduring demands of technologies. This convergence is changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other.
  • 41. SORTING OUT KEY TERMS Ownership of institution How the way the company is owned effects the type of films it produces. Cross Media Convergence The use of multiple media forms by a media company to increase the awareness of or possible audience for a media product. For example, the BBC show Eastenders on their TV channels, then make them available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further seven days. A single company will often own all of the media forms. Synergy When two or more institutions promote their products on one media text. Business deals are created between institutions who stand to benefit from reaching the same audience at the same time. Product placement in films (where for example, James Bond might be denoted wearing an Omega watch) and the promotion of stars and their songs through TV advertisements for other products are good examples. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R22qigXhFjk New Media Technology The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies in the later part of the 20th century. Most technologies described as "new media" are digital. This is simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storage when compared with older analogue methods. Proliferation of content An increase in the number of films being made over the last 30 years
  • 42. SORTING OUT KEY TERMS Technological convergence The combination of a variety of different digital technologies into one piece of hardware e.g. a PC which can show DVDs, digitally edit, using a camera take video footage and using the internet, download films Production How films are made in terms of appeal to audience, effect of ownership and technologies used Distribution In the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies in theatres, and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc). This will usually be through a cinema first and then onto DVD and download, although some films are released straight to DVD. Marketing The process of creating and raising audience awareness of a new film. It is part of the responsibility of the distributor, along with circulation, after they have acquired a film. The objective of film marketing is to stand out in an environment that is competing very fiercely for the audience’s money. This does not simply mean against other film campaigns, but the marketing of any other product too. Split into three sections – advertising, publicity and promotion. Exhibition Exhibition is the retail branch of the film industry. It could relate to public cinema exhibition or private home exhibition through DVD or downloads.
  • 43. POSSIBLE QUESTIONS/ TOPICS The question will be broad, allowing you to discuss a variety of issues relating to your case study. Effect of New Relationship between institution and OR Media Technology on institutions and audience in a audiences in a media industry media industry These are the areas that the exam question is most likely to ask you to discuss. HOWEVER it is possible that the question may ask you to apply your knowledge in a slightly different way, so you must be prepared to adapt your answer to the question.
  • 44. THE FILM PROCESS Three distinct areas of the film industry Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution. What would you expect to happen at each stage?
  • 45. Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000. This budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj Production involves Huda and producer friend George Issac the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the production QUESTION: Why would this film have found it difficult to company get finance from a production company? This includes all pre- Some of this budget was funded by the UK Film production, Council production & post- production processes. QUESTION: How much was given to the film for production and distribution? Before that the writer/director/ producer must find finance for a film – QUESTION: What criteria did the film have to meet to which may come be awarded the funds? from one or many production companies (a co- production)
  • 46. Marketing Strategy Viral marketing is probably one of the best marketing strategies for Kidulthood. According to the UK Film Council s survey, 33% of the people who went to see the film heard about it through word-of-mouth. People are mainly able to hear about the film through family, friends and social networking websites. (eg Facebook, Twitter) The film uses synergy so that it gets known. It uses soundtracks from grime artists such as Shystie, Lethal Bizzle and Dizzee Rascal. The music these artists produce relate to people who live an urban lifestyle. If people hear that their music is going to be in the film Kidulthood, they would watch it because it might appeal to them. Therefore the record label and production company work together to gain mutual benefit of targeting their audience. Kidulthood s distribution company, Revolver Entertainment has produced copies of the film on DVD which is an example of New Media Technology. Kidulthood is likely to become more successful on DVD than in the cinema because it is cheaper when its released on DVD and people can watch it in their own time.
  • 47. Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000. This Kidulthood-problems with budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj Huda finance! and producer friend George Issac. " Why would this film have found it difficult to get finance Unknown screen writer." from a production company? The screenwriter Noel clarke, Kidulthood was his first film therefore people might not Menhaj Huda directed the film 'Kidulthood' aiming for have had faith in him to produce a up and the finance target of budgeting the film at £800,000. coming film. " Working with his friend George Issac Menhaj was able to Ensamble cast." get the total finance up to only 650,000, but he still All cast members have equal billing thought this would be enough to make and produce therfore no well known actors to promote the film. A problem that they would probably have the film." come across was even though they were working with Subject Matter. " the production company 'Stealth', this was going to be The gand culture element of the film is too their first movie, and exhibition companies wouldn't "sensitive" for an older audience. know how the film was goin to turn out. Another problem that Menhaj would have come across that because his budget was lower than he thought after paying the writer's fee, the producer's fee, and some legal fees, he had to make cuts elsewhere. "We decided to shoot on 35mm and finish on High Definition, so if the film was a complete pile of rubbish we wouldn't be wasting money on getting a print". By doing this the quality of the film wouldn't be as good if they had the higher budget, but it would have been cheaper this way definately for them if the film was a flop and didn't make any money.
  • 48. The most effective way that this film was marketed was virally, as this type of advertising would appeal the most to the age group it is aimed at. 15 - 24 year olds spend a lot of time on the internet so this strategy would be very effective. a survey was conducted by the UK film council, that revealed that 33% of the people who went to watch the film in the cinema had heard about it through word of mouth. This percentage was the highest compared to the other ways that people found out about it. The film's marketers may have had a clever strategy to start people talking This is the homepage of the webpage for Kidulthood, an important film in the teen- about it. drama genre. It is mainly comprised of a another way that the film was marketed is by including soundtracks from famous grime artists such as lethal large e-poster promoting the DVD release of Bizzle and Dizee Rascal. Using these tracks attracted the film, but at the bottom are tabs such as audiences that listen to these artists music and made them 'About Kidulthood,' 'Press,' 'Soundtrack' and 'Forum', giving fans of the film a chance to want to watch the film more. Including songs from these interact with one another and critics of the artists allows the record labels that they are signed to work with the marketing team of the film for mutual benefit, as film a place to post their opinions as well as they will both advertise each other. giving the fans the chance to download The film also used reviews by the press to market their film songs they heard on the soundtrack. The element of the interactive would make the to speed up the process of people talking about it, using this technique will add to the number of people that hear website attractive to teens, who are the about the film due to word of mouth. main target audience of the film.
  • 49. Marketing Strategy Kidulthood was also funded by the UK Film Council. Being produced by an independent production company with a low budget, it was difficult for Kidulthood to get distributed. Instead, posters were produced for the film and did in some way become successful. From the UK Film Council s exit poll data, 25% of the people who went to see the film heard about it through posters. Another way which gets people talking about Kidulthood are the reviews by the press. If the film gets good reviews, it would make people want to see it and the word-of-mouth spreads. The Sun rated the film 4 stars and said the following: Impressive directing and great performances by all of the film's raw young cast combine to make this low-budget bruiser a must-see.
  • 50. • Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing: PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a new release • A distributor may: -Be a part of the same parent company as the production company - Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions Revolver - Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production Entertainment company distributed Kidulthood - Acquire a film after it has completed production • A film will likely have different distributors for: Although heavily promoted there was -Releases in different countries limited distribution -Cinema Release of the film, why? -Home-Video Release
  • 51. •  Exhibition is divided into two sections: -  Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film -  Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is selling the film for a copy •  A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the Box Office Takings Kidulthood made just •  Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable £454,000 at the cinema and varied source for distributors to increase profits. It was far more successful on DVD WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF? Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
  • 52. Today s Lesson LI/LO: Section B – Audiences and Institutions •  Explore the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice Learn the Nuts ‘n Bolts of Film 4 Understand the link with Channel 4 and its Ethos •  Explore the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing
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  • 54. Nuts ‘n Bolts of Channel 4 What is Channel 4? •  A British terrestrial TV channel •  A commercial broadcaster – funded entirely by advertising, programme sponsorship, merchandising and overseas sales. •  The owner of a number of digital UK channels including: More 4, Film4, E4 and Channel 4 HD •  The owner of independent film production company – Film4 Productions •  Channel 4 IS NOT a television production company as it s broadcasting license prevents it from making any programmes of it s own. •  It commissions independent production companies (such as Endemol) to make it s programmes or buys in programmes from abroad
  • 55. The conditions of the Channel 4 Remit stipulate that they Channel 4 REMIT must: • demonstrate innovation, experiment Channel 4 is unique as a and creativity in the form and content commercial broadcaster of programmes; as it has a public service • appeal to the tastes and interests of a remit. culturally diverse society; This means that rather • makes a significant contribution to than it s primary concern meeting the need for the licensed being to make money for public service channels to include programmes of an educational nature shareholders it exists to and other programmes of educative fulfil a public need. value • exhibit a distinctive character • broadcast programmes from many independent production companies, including a high proportion from Europe
  • 56. 1982-1998 History of Film 4 •  Established as Channel Four Films to produce diverse & challenging films for Ch4 ~a small number got cinema exhibition! AUDIENCES •  Part of Channel 4’s remit was to experiment, innovate & cater for audiences not addressed by other channels
  • 57. FILM4 & CROSS-MEDIA CONVERGENCE LILO: Explore the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing through a case study Are there any obvious advantages Film 4 has when compared to other independent production companies?
  • 58. 1992-97 Period of financial success The Crying Game (1992) – took $62m in US, Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) - $240m worldwide, Trainspotting (1996) - $16m (US) £12m+ (UK) We will be looking at the film Trainspotting in a bit more detail later on. Introduction of Lottery money UK Film Production rose to level not seen since 1970s
  • 59. 1998-2002 •  Creation of FilmFour production and distribution company •  Part of Channel 4 (channels, websites) which act as exhibitors and promoters •  Unique to British Film – Why? Twice the production budget of Channel Four Films (now £32m) •  International and domestic audience – this model failed: Charlotte Gray (2001)
  • 60. 2002 FilmFour closed in 2002 •  Studio model had failed in UK L •  Film production returned to Channel 4 with reduced budget •  Return to realist roots •  Recent successes?
  • 61. 2013 •  Nowadays they fund around 20 films per year •  A number of films are by first time feature screenwriters or directors •  They look for distinctive films which will make their mark in a competitive cinema market •  Television premieres on FilmFour Channel and Channel 4, 2 years after theatrical release
  • 62. RESEARCHING TARGET AUDIENCES
  • 63. My Beautiful Laundrette ~ Audiences •  David Rose, commissioning editor, “a preference for contemporary and social political topics” •  My Beautiful Laundrette (1985) portrayed the homosexual relationship between a white fascist and a Omar, born in Britain to Pakistani parents. •  Main audiences were contemporary critical audiences in the 20 – 30 age ranges •  Before Laundrette, a large percentage of the British population went largely unrepresented
  • 64. Target Audience • What audience does Film 4 target? • What are the problems with this? • How do they target an audience?
  • 65. Research Task Watch the trailers for these films: - Brassed Off (1996) - This is England (2006) - Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994)
  • 66. Research Questions •  Who are the target audience? (how do you know this?) •  What is the style of the film? •  How did they do at the box office? (what other films were they competing with?) •  Who was the distributor? (in UK and US)
  • 67. FilmFour   Sec,on  B  exam  prep  
  • 68. Independent Study! Develop a case study on a film studio which produces or distributed films to the UK * Your study should cover production, distribution & marketing and exhibition & consumption * If FilmFour is your chosen company then you MUST make reference to specific films.
  • 69. What is a British film? •  A setting in the UK? •  A focus on British people abroad? •  A predominantly British cast? •  A storyline about some aspect of British life? •  Based on the work of a British author?
  • 70. The importance of a national film industry •  Significant returns for the UK economy through film making, inward investment, film exhibition, DVD rentals and sales, film exports •  The UK Film Council estimates that a successful Brit film will make up to 70% of its revenue outside the UK
  • 71. THINK PAIR SHARE: AUDIENCE •  If a film addresses a domestic audience about culturally specific themes, is it likely to find wider distribution difficult? •  Will non-British people want to see the film? •  What significant advantage do British filmmakers have over European filmmakers?
  • 72. British Cinema and Hollywood •  British film production companies have co- production and distribution links with Hollywood studios •  ‘British’ films can be funded and distributed by US companies •  Decisions on which British films to produce and how to market them are often based on the tastes of both domestic and American audiences
  • 73. Hollywood – a brief overview • Hollywood is built around studios • Studios are companies who aim to make money from films Many Hollywood blockbuster movies are successful. Why?
  • 74. The success of Hollywood It’s ability to continually re-invent itself by: •  Responding to a changing marketplace •  Taking advantage of new opportunities offered by new technologies
  • 75. Recent British Cinema & Audiences •  British film has become more confident in expanding its range to include a wider cross- section of ethnic groupings, gender groupings and cultural groupings •  Promoting diversity and offering a more representative and inclusive national identity •  Slumdog is a recent example!
  • 76. Is British Cinema Distinctive? •  180 million tickets sold yearly •  Inward investment to improve the cinema-going experience •  80% of admissions come out of mainstream American distributors •  Exploration of British themes and values THIS IS ENGLAND
  • 77. How does HOLLYWOOD stay one foot ahead of BRITAIN? •  Hollywood realized that there is serious money to be made in international distribution so they invest heavily •  They retain the rights to their films so secure profits for many years •  British film industry is production led ~ distribution is usually through an American company Any money made is not going back into the British film industry “British Film is a ‘Cottage’ industry” ~Discuss~
  • 78. More challenges •  2004  –  UK  output  27   •  Bri,sh  film  industry  unable  to  respond  to   increasing  audience  demand   •  Hollywood  has  diversified  and  strengthened   to  develop  links  with  other  media  and  delivery   plaForms  crea,ng  vast  media  empires   •  Global  market  at  $63  billion  in  2003   •  US  takes  80%  of  this  global  market  
  • 80. TRAINSPOTTING A SUCCESSFUL CO-PRODUCTION Summary: The movie follows a group of heroin addicts in a late 1980s economically •  Produced by: depressed area of Edinburgh and their •  Channel Four Films passage through life. Beyond drug •  Figment Films addiction, other concurrent themes in •  The Noel Gay Motion the film are exploration of the urban Picture Company poverty and squalor in "culturally rich" Distributed by: Edinburgh. •  PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (UK) •  Miramax Films (USA) •  Directed by Danny Boyle~ British director •  Released: February 23, 1996 •  Starring Ewan McGregor in his 2nd (United Kingdom) film •  Budget: ₤1,550,000 •  Box Office Figures $16,491,345
  • 81. TRAINSPOTTING & A CLOCKWORK ORANGE THEME: David Aukin, Head of Drama at Four Films it isn t really about drugs…it s a buddy movie US critics compared the movie to Kubricks A Clockwork Orange ("Trainspotting" is a lot like "A Clockwork Orange," from its socially satirical message to its choice of amoral protagonists with bad habits. But the two are different in their approach. "A Clockwork Orange” & "Trainspotting” are an assault on the senses and might not be good for people with a weak stomach. It has graphic language, graphic sex, graphic drug use, and even graphic violence. Both are anti-social-realist films dealing with subjects – gangs, violence, drugs – which are stylized and fast-paced. A graphic film, one might say. How is this similar to ‘My Beautiful Laundrette’ or ‘This is England’?
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  • 85. MARKETING TRAINSPOTTING Trainspotting was more an object of youth culture or popular culture than it was cinematic Britpop was Trainspotting's main vehicle to integrate youth subculture into popular culture. SYNERGY The brand Trainspotting Polygram put large sums of Soundtrack money into a sophisticated Posters marketing and branding strategy DVD’s including posters and a Copies of the screenplay soundtrack Reprinting of Welsh s novel featuring the poster on the cover Knew film would appeal to Music cross-promotion clubbers and ravers so targeted these – Underworld s Born Slippy became a massive hit from the soundtrack Film gained distribution in the US although it did need subtitles!
  • 86. FILM 4 Vs. WORKING TITLE Four Weddings and a Funeral
  • 87. FILM 4 Vs. WORKING TITLE Four Weddings and a Funeral Four Weddings and a Funeral is a 1994 British romantic comedy film directed by Mike Newell. It was the first of several films by screenwriter Richard Curtis to feature Hugh Grant. The film was an unexpected success, becoming the highest-grossing British film in cinema history at the time, with worldwide box office in excess of $245.7 million, and receiving an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture Co-production with Polygram and Working Title
  • 88. MARKETING FOUR WEDDINGS & A FUNERAL Four Weddings and a Funeral •  Played upon aspects of national identity •  Played upon the more ‘naïve’ elements of ‘Britishness’ •  Hugh Grants quintessential fumbling middle class gentleman~ well recognized British stereotype •  Appealed to an American audience •  A universal storyline of romance and a feel good happy ending
  • 89. Film Four under David Aukin (1990’s) •  Typical cost of production rose from £400,000 to £1.8million •  Trainspotting (Film 4) and Four Weddings (WT) were hugely successful although appealed to very different audiences •  Trainspotting was a low budget film which had carved itself a niche audience
  • 90. Representation and Cultural Identity •  FilmFour films explored and developed ideas of cultural hybridity •  East is East •  The first British film representing hybrid and ever changing cultural and social mix in Britain making it into mainstream multiplex cinemas. •  Brick Lane (2007) won a BAFTA
  • 91. Problems •  One of Film 4's biggest problems has been competing for cinema space with multinational film companies, whose films account for more than two thirds of UK box office takings. •  Film 4 blames the poor box office results on its lack of clout in the distribution market rather than the quality of its films. (BBC on Film Four Partner Search)
  • 92. Film 4 channel •  Originally only subscribers could access the channel •  The company wasn t making enough money through subscriptions alone •  Relaunched the channel in July 2006 as a freeview channel •  Believed they could make more money through advertising •  Has become the Uks largest free film channel available to 18 million homes
  • 93. Supply and Demand •  Why do you go to the cinema? •  What other options are available to you if you want to see a film? •  What are the pros and cons of these options? •  So why do you still go to the cinema?!
  • 94. Changing patterns of consumption •  Young people are increasingly watch films on small screens using various models of DVD players •  Cinema admissions in Britain fell by 4% in 2005 and US box- office by 9% •  Trend towards home consumption began in the 1960s when studios realized they could use television to show films long after they had passed their sell-by date in the cinema
  • 95. VHS to DVD •  1970s VHS was introduced •  1980s satellite was introduced •  DVDs have pushed VHS out of the home •  What are the advantages of DVD over VHS? •  What are some drawbacks for the studios?
  • 96. Synergy – Let’s Recap… •  Massive corporations may be able to •  Publicize and advertise their films via their own print, sound and visual media arms •  Put out associated books and music, again from within their own organisation •  Show their films via their own various TV and cinema outlets
  • 97. Film Four and Synergy •  A major issue for FilmFour is that it does NOT own its own exhibition theatrical chain •  What issues might this raise for FilmFour? •  Synergy was not always apparent Film 4 – Ali G show •  In 2003 Ali G went to Working Title!
  • 98. New technologies and the consumer Changing patterns of consumption
  • 99. New technologies and the consumer •  An improved overall experience as a result of better sound and images reproduction •  A heightened emotional experience as a result of a stronger sense of empathy with characters who in some way seem more real •  Enhanced spectacle •  Improved ease of access •  New, easier and intensified ways of using film to pleasure themselves e.g. IMAX •  Enhanced intellectual experience •  The chance for new, ever cheaper and more compact devices to make films for themselves
  • 100. New technologies and the film industry •  The chance to repackage and resell old products, esp cult films, thereby establishing a new audience base for an old product •  An opportunity to place products for sale in a new window thereby lengthening the commercial life of each film •  The chance to encourage multiple purchases of essentially the same product •  A means of still managing to make profit on films that initially perform poorly at the box office
  • 101. New technologies and the cinema experience •  New technologies have always added to the cinema experience •  The size/quality of the spectacle have been enhanced