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Lesson One - Audience and Institutions


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Lesson One - Audience and Institutions

  2. 2. AIMS • To understand the focus for the Audience and Institutions section of your January Exam • To understand the structure of a Media Triangle • To understand the different sectors of the film industry KEY TERMS Audience Institution Production Subsidiary Distribution Marketing Exhibition Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration
  3. 3. THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and Audiences Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should be familiar with: •the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; •the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; •the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; •the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; •the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; •the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; •the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
  4. 4. Film Four • Trainspotting • Looking for Eric • Slumdog Millionaire
  5. 5. MEDIA TRIANGLES Institution Target Audience Media Text Who has produced the media text What they have produced Who it is produced for.
  6. 6. THE FILM PROCESS PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITION There are three distinct areas of the film industry. Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution. What would you expect to happen at each stage?
  7. 7. • Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the PRODUCTION COMPANY • This includes all pre-production, production & post-production processes. • Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film – which may come from one or many production companies (a co- production) Figment Films is the production company who made Trainspotting. Channel 4 (film 4) financed the film
  8. 8. •Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing: PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a new release •A distributor may: -Be a part of the same parent company as the production company -Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions -Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production company -Acquire a film after it has completed production •A film will likely have different distributors for: -Releases in different countries -Cinema Release -Home-Video Release Miramax distributed Trainspotting and bought the rights for $750,000 – in your case study look carefully at how it was marketed and distributed.
  9. 9. • Exhibition is divided into two sections: - Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film - Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is selling the film for a copy • A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the Box Office Takings • Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable and varied source for distributors to increase profits. WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF? FilmFour made its reputation with films such as Trainspotting in 1996, which made £23m at the box office but cost only £2.4m and was the highest grossing British film in 1996. However, it was far more successful on DVD, spawning numerous versions and special editions Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
  10. 10. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION PRODUCTION Often a single parent company will own multiple companies in the film industry. This is divided into two types of ownership: PRODUCTION PRODUCTION HORIZONTAL The parent company owns multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry. A smaller company, owned by the parent is a subsidiary. VERTICAL The parent company owns multiple companies across different stages of the film industry. What are the advantages for a parent company of each type of ownership? EXHIBITION DISTRIBUTION For example Walt Disney also owns: •Miramax Films •Hollywood Pictures •Pixar Animation For example Warner Bros owns: •Warner Bros Studios (Production) •Warner Bros (Distribution) •Used to own Warner Bros Cinemas in the UK (Exhibition
  11. 11. RESEARCH TASK - THE LIFE OF A FILM -SUBMIT AS A POST ON ABLOG – MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE -DUE SUNDAY 7PM – email link to -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION 1. YOUR FILM (EITHER SLUMDOG MILLIONAIRE OR TRAINSPOTTING) Provide a brief synopsis of your film’s story Include some of your film’s marketing materials (trailers, posters, cast interviews etc.) 2. PRODUCTION What was your film’s production budget? Which Production Company (s) provided the finance? What other films have the company (s) produced? 3. DISTRIBUTION Who are your films theatrical distributors? How many countries has it been distributed in and what are they? Who are your films home distributors? How many countries has it been distributed in and what are they 4. EXHIBITION What was your film’s box office takings? Would you expect it to be shown in BROMLEY CINEMA? Why? What formats is your film available on for home exhibition? 5. HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL INTEGRATION Is your film’s production company a subsidiary of a larger company (Horizontally Integrated)? Are there any signs of horizontal integration between your film’s production company (s) and distributor(s)?
  12. 12. RECAP What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry? • Production • Subsidiary • Distribution • Marketing • Exhibition • Horizontal Integration • Vertical Integration