AL402, E4.5<br />Academic year: 2010-2011<br />WINTER<br />CHAPTER 6:LANGUAGE & THE BRAIN<br />Template<br />Lecturer: Mea...
02<br />Contents<br />Introduction<br />How independent are the language of multilingual speakers?<br />Multiple language ...
Introduction<br />03<br /><ul><li>Paul Pierre Broca (1961, 1965) observed that an area in the left frontal lobe ( Broca’ s...
He noted that an injury to the left side of the brain was much more likely to result in language loss than was an injury t...
 As brain matures and has less plasticity: an area of the brain becomes less able to assume the functions of another in th...
Right hemisphere is responsible for the movement and nonlinguistic. Ex. Visuospatialinformation.
This is due to left hemisphere ‘s being computationally more powerful than the right and therefore better suited for proce...
Introduction (cont’)<br />12<br /><ul><li> Lose or Recover multiple languages of Individual
 Methods of Gathering Data of the Brain:
Correlation of location
Presentation of stimuli from different languages
Mapping the brain
Positron Emission Tomography
 Questions remain unanswered or answers remain controversial</li></li></ul><li>How independent are the language of multili...
How are multiple language structures organized in relation to one another in the brain? Are both languages stores in the s...
Does the organization of the brain for L2 in relation to L1 differ with the age of acquisition,  how it is learned or leve...
 Age of acquisition influences brain organization.</li></ul>   -  Vaid (1993): acquiring L2 later in life involves 	more r...
16<br /><ul><li>Level of proficiency or how it is learned also influences the organization of knowledge in the brain.</li>...
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Language and the brain

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Language and the brain

  1. 1. AL402, E4.5<br />Academic year: 2010-2011<br />WINTER<br />CHAPTER 6:LANGUAGE & THE BRAIN<br />Template<br />Lecturer: MeasSopheak<br />Group 1: Vorleak, Sopheap, LeangHy, Sakada, Rachna and Bandith<br />
  2. 2. 02<br />Contents<br />Introduction<br />How independent are the language of multilingual speakers?<br />Multiple language structure in the brain<br />Relationship between L1 & L2 in brain organization<br />Language when brain damage<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />03<br /><ul><li>Paul Pierre Broca (1961, 1965) observed that an area in the left frontal lobe ( Broca’ s area) appeared to be responsible for the ability to speak.
  4. 4. He noted that an injury to the left side of the brain was much more likely to result in language loss than was an injury to the right side.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />04<br /><ul><li>Wernicke, 1874, identified a nearby area which is adjacent to the part of the cortex that processes audio input ( Wernicke’s area) are also being central to language processing.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />05<br /><ul><li> For the vast majority of individuals, language is represented primarily in the left half (or hemisphere) of the brain within an area (including both Broca ‘s area and Wernicke’s area) around the Sylvian fissure (a cleavage that separates lobes in the brain.) </li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />06<br /><ul><li>Subsequent research has shown that many more areas of the brain are involved in language activity than was thought earlier: language activity is not localized, but core linguistic process are typically housed in the left hemisphere.
  5. 5. As brain matures and has less plasticity: an area of the brain becomes less able to assume the functions of another in the event it is damaged.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />07<br /><ul><li>Lenneberge, 1967, proposed that children had only a limited number of years during which they could acquired their L1 flawlessly if they suffered brain damage to the language areas; brain plasticity in childhood would allow other areas of the brain to take over the language functions of the damage areas, but beyond a certain age, normal language would not be possible. This is the Critical Period Hypothesis.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />08<br /><ul><li>Lenneberge, 1967, proposed that children had only a limited number of years during which they could acquired their L1 flawlessly if they suffered brain damage to the language areas; brain plasticity in childhood would allow other areas of the brain to take over the language functions of the damage areas, but beyond a certain age, normal language would not be possible. This is the Critical Period Hypothesis.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />09<br /><ul><li>Oblerand Gjerlow emphasized that there are not language areas that are entirely “ responsible” for language, or even “dominant” for language, to be contrasted with areas that have nothing to do with it”. </li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />10<br /><ul><li> Left hemisphere is for linguistic.
  6. 6. Right hemisphere is responsible for the movement and nonlinguistic. Ex. Visuospatialinformation.
  7. 7. This is due to left hemisphere ‘s being computationally more powerful than the right and therefore better suited for processing the highly complex elements of language.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction (cont’)<br />11<br />Human brain left & right function<br />
  8. 8. Introduction (cont’)<br />12<br /><ul><li> Lose or Recover multiple languages of Individual
  9. 9. Methods of Gathering Data of the Brain:
  10. 10. Correlation of location
  11. 11. Presentation of stimuli from different languages
  12. 12. Mapping the brain
  13. 13. Positron Emission Tomography
  14. 14. Questions remain unanswered or answers remain controversial</li></li></ul><li>How independent are the language of multilingual speakers?<br />13<br />Ervin and Osgood suggested a three ways possibly for how languages relate in an individual’s mind which are call: <br />Coordinate<br />Compound<br />Subordinate bilingualism<br />
  15. 15. How are multiple language structures organized in relation to one another in the brain? Are both languages stores in the same areas?<br />14<br />For at least some multilinguals, it appears that L1 and L2 are stored in somewhat different areas of the brain, but both are predominantly in (probably overlapping) areas of the left hemisphere. <br />The area common to both L1 and L2 storage is near Sylvian fissure in the left hemisphere, but L1 or L2 (more likely L2) is disrupted by stimulation of points further away from the Sylvian fissure. <br />
  16. 16. Does the organization of the brain for L2 in relation to L1 differ with the age of acquisition, how it is learned or level of proficiency?<br />15<br /><ul><li> The answer is: Yes
  17. 17. Age of acquisition influences brain organization.</li></ul> - Vaid (1993): acquiring L2 later in life involves more right hemisphere.<br /> - Wuillemin and Richards (1994): acquiring L2 (age 9-12) involves more right hemisphere than before age 4.<br />
  18. 18. 16<br /><ul><li>Level of proficiency or how it is learned also influences the organization of knowledge in the brain.</li></ul> - The organization of L2 knowledge is more diffuse for lower levels of proficiency and more compact for higher level.<br /> - Fedio et al. 1992: A multilingual person may use more memorization for L2 and more direct processing of meaning for L1.<br /> - Other research: L2 learners increase reliance on meaning over memory as their proficiency in L2 increases.<br />
  19. 19. 17<br />Language when the brain damage<br /><ul><li>Brain damage result in same or very similar patterns of loss and recovery for both/all of most multilingual persons’ language
  20. 20. When damage, the last-learned language would be the first lost
  21. 21. Recovery language was happened to the most recent use one (Obler and Gjerlow, 1999)
  22. 22. L1 is the first to be recovered
  23. 23. When brain is damaged, it effect not only
  24. 24. Level of EXPOSE is play important role in language recover after damage </li></li></ul><li>THANK YOU!!<br />Q & A<br />*The slide is also available at www.ifle45.co.cc<br />
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