Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Language acquisition


Published on

Psycholinguistics ..
language acquitision..

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Language acquisition

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Psycholinguistics is the study of language acquisition and linguistic behavior as well as the psychological mechanism responsible for them. • Language acquisition is just one strand of psycholinguistics which is all about how people learn to speak and the mental processes involved
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. • Language acquisition was differentiated into language acquisition of first and second
  5. 5. CONT.. • First language acquisition happens if children have never learned any language and acquires language. • Second language acquisition occurs if a person acquiring language after mastering the first language. • Second language acquisition is the process someone develop the skills in a second language or foreign language.
  6. 6. NOTIONS IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Overgeneralization/Overextension (the extension of a rule beyond its proper limits) • Overgeneralization is a frequent phenomenon in language development. It can be found not only in syntactic usage but also in word meanings. • For example: • Moons : all round objects • Cars : all vehicles • Dogs : all four-legged animals
  7. 7. CONT.. • Undergeneralization / Underextension (a child uses a word in a more limited way than adults do) • Children also undergeneralize. When a child uses a word in a more limited way than adults do (e.g. refusing to call a taxi a car), this phenomenon is called undergeneralization or underextension. • For example: • Shoes only refers to his mother’s shoes. • Hat only refers to his own hat.
  8. 8. STAGES OF FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • 3-day old neonates prefer the sound of their mother’s voice (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980) • 4-day old neonates prefer listening to their parents’ language (Mehler & Dupoux, 1994) • 1-month old babies can distinguish between speech sounds (Eimas, Miller, & Jusczyk, 1987)
  9. 9. THE PRELINGUISTIC STAGE (FROM BIRTH TO ABOUT 6 MONTHS) • Heard numbering vowel and consonant
  10. 10. THE BABBLING STAGE OR FIRST MANIFESTATION OF PHONOLOGY (AROUND 6-8 MONTHS) • Children begin to babble regardless of what linguistic environment they are growing up in. • Mixture of consonant and vowel sounds. • Easy to produce sounds ([b], [p], [m], [a]) are most common. • But they produce many different sounds, and many of them are not found in the environment around them. • There is no link between sound and meaning. • There is no biological need for babbling. • Children babble for social reasons. They learn to
  11. 11. THE ONE WORD STAGE (12-18 MONTHS) • The same sequence of sounds (“words”) begins to mean the same thing. • Children can understand multi-word utterances, but they utter only single words. • They use words like cookie, drink, bad, no, but never functional words like in, the, and • The language of the child consists of just a few isolated words of the target language, e.g. ‘mamma’, ‘daddy’, etc. • Very little grammatical development.
  12. 12. THE TWO WORD STAGE OR FIRST MANIFESTATION OF SYNTAX (20-24 MONTHS) • Having syntactic and semantic • First, just putting two words next to another (each has its own intonation) • Later, the two words form a simple sentence. • Word-order expresses semantic roles. • Virtually no syntactic markers, i.e. no inflection for number, tense, etc. • Pronouns are rare. • Examples: hi Mommy, baby sleep, bye-bye.
  13. 13. THE TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH STAGE (36-40 MONTHS) • There is no specific three-word stage. • Usually function words are missing • Almost always the correct SVO word-order (in English) • Function words and morphemes come in gradually. • There tends to be a specific order in which function morphemes are acquired. • Children seem to constantly change/add rules.
  14. 14. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Second language acquisition, or L2 acquisition, generally refers to the acquisition of a second language by someone who has already acquired a first language. • They have learned a second language when they began middle school, or high school, or college. • Moving to a new country often means acquiring a new language. • . Other people live in communities or homes in which more than one language is spoken and may acquire two (or more) languages
  15. 15. I FEEL A FEEL A FUNNY FEEL. A FUNNY FEEL I FEEL. IF U FEEL THE FEEL I FEEL. I'LL FEEL THE FEEL U FEEL. • I LIKE the people LIKE you who LIKE others LIKE me and make the others LIKE me to LIKE others LIKE you…its worth understanding!!! • If you understand, say "understand " . If you don't understand, say " don't understand". But if you understand and say "don't understand". How do I understand that you understand? Understand!