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Language acquisition

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Psycholinguistics ..
language acquitision..

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Language acquisition

  1. 1. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION BY : ASTI AYUNINGSIH (321413025)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Psycholinguistics is the study of language acquisition and linguistic behavior as well as the psychological mechanism responsible for them. • Language acquisition is just one strand of psycholinguistics which is all about how people learn to speak and the mental processes involved
  3. 3. TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED • DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • TWO BASIC NOTIONS IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • STAGES OF FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. • Language acquisition was differentiated into language acquisition of first and second
  5. 5. CONT.. • First language acquisition happens if children have never learned any language and acquires language. • Second language acquisition occurs if a person acquiring language after mastering the first language. • Second language acquisition is the process someone develop the skills in a second language or foreign language.
  6. 6. NOTIONS IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Overgeneralization/Overextension (the extension of a rule beyond its proper limits) • Overgeneralization is a frequent phenomenon in language development. It can be found not only in syntactic usage but also in word meanings. • For example: • Moons : all round objects • Cars : all vehicles • Dogs : all four-legged animals
  7. 7. CONT.. • Undergeneralization / Underextension (a child uses a word in a more limited way than adults do) • Children also undergeneralize. When a child uses a word in a more limited way than adults do (e.g. refusing to call a taxi a car), this phenomenon is called undergeneralization or underextension. • For example: • Shoes only refers to his mother’s shoes. • Hat only refers to his own hat.
  8. 8. STAGES OF FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • 3-day old neonates prefer the sound of their mother’s voice (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980) • 4-day old neonates prefer listening to their parents’ language (Mehler & Dupoux, 1994) • 1-month old babies can distinguish between speech sounds (Eimas, Miller, & Jusczyk, 1987)
  9. 9. THE PRELINGUISTIC STAGE (FROM BIRTH TO ABOUT 6 MONTHS) • Heard numbering vowel and consonant
  10. 10. THE BABBLING STAGE OR FIRST MANIFESTATION OF PHONOLOGY (AROUND 6-8 MONTHS) • Children begin to babble regardless of what linguistic environment they are growing up in. • Mixture of consonant and vowel sounds. • Easy to produce sounds ([b], [p], [m], [a]) are most common. • But they produce many different sounds, and many of them are not found in the environment around them. • There is no link between sound and meaning. • There is no biological need for babbling. • Children babble for social reasons. They learn to
  11. 11. THE ONE WORD STAGE (12-18 MONTHS) • The same sequence of sounds (“words”) begins to mean the same thing. • Children can understand multi-word utterances, but they utter only single words. • They use words like cookie, drink, bad, no, but never functional words like in, the, and • The language of the child consists of just a few isolated words of the target language, e.g. ‘mamma’, ‘daddy’, etc. • Very little grammatical development.
  12. 12. THE TWO WORD STAGE OR FIRST MANIFESTATION OF SYNTAX (20-24 MONTHS) • Having syntactic and semantic • First, just putting two words next to another (each has its own intonation) • Later, the two words form a simple sentence. • Word-order expresses semantic roles. • Virtually no syntactic markers, i.e. no inflection for number, tense, etc. • Pronouns are rare. • Examples: hi Mommy, baby sleep, bye-bye.
  13. 13. THE TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH STAGE (36-40 MONTHS) • There is no specific three-word stage. • Usually function words are missing • Almost always the correct SVO word-order (in English) • Function words and morphemes come in gradually. • There tends to be a specific order in which function morphemes are acquired. • Children seem to constantly change/add rules.
  14. 14. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Second language acquisition, or L2 acquisition, generally refers to the acquisition of a second language by someone who has already acquired a first language. • They have learned a second language when they began middle school, or high school, or college. • Moving to a new country often means acquiring a new language. • . Other people live in communities or homes in which more than one language is spoken and may acquire two (or more) languages
  15. 15. I FEEL A FEEL A FUNNY FEEL. A FUNNY FEEL I FEEL. IF U FEEL THE FEEL I FEEL. I'LL FEEL THE FEEL U FEEL. • I LIKE the people LIKE you who LIKE others LIKE me and make the others LIKE me to LIKE others LIKE you…its worth understanding!!! • If you understand, say "understand " . If you don't understand, say " don't understand". But if you understand and say "don't understand". How do I understand that you understand? Understand!

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