BY : ASTI AYUNINGSIH
• Psycholinguistics is the study of language
acquisition and linguistic behavior as well
as the psychological mechanism
responsible for them.
• Language acquisition is just one strand of
psycholinguistics which is all about how
people learn to speak and the mental
TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED
• DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE
• TWO BASIC NOTIONS IN FIRST
• STAGES OF FIRST LANGUAGE
• SECOND LANGUAGE
DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE
• Language acquisition is the process
by which humans acquire the
capacity to perceive and comprehend
language, as well as to produce and
use words and sentences to
• Language acquisition was
differentiated into language
acquisition of first and second
• First language acquisition happens if
children have never learned any language
and acquires language.
• Second language acquisition occurs if a
person acquiring language after mastering
the first language.
• Second language acquisition is the
process someone develop the skills in a
second language or foreign language.
NOTIONS IN FIRST LANGUAGE
• Overgeneralization/Overextension (the
extension of a rule beyond its proper limits)
• Overgeneralization is a frequent
phenomenon in language development. It
can be found not only in syntactic usage but
also in word meanings.
• For example:
• Moons : all round objects
• Cars : all vehicles
• Dogs : all four-legged animals
• Undergeneralization / Underextension (a
child uses a word in a more limited way than
• Children also undergeneralize. When a child
uses a word in a more limited way than
adults do (e.g. refusing to call a taxi a car),
this phenomenon is called
undergeneralization or underextension.
• For example:
• Shoes only refers to his mother’s shoes.
• Hat only refers to his own hat.
STAGES OF FIRST LANGUAGE
• 3-day old neonates prefer the sound of their
mother’s voice (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980)
• 4-day old neonates prefer listening to their
parents’ language (Mehler & Dupoux, 1994)
• 1-month old babies can distinguish between
speech sounds (Eimas, Miller, & Jusczyk,
THE PRELINGUISTIC STAGE
(FROM BIRTH TO ABOUT 6
• Heard numbering vowel and consonant
THE BABBLING STAGE OR FIRST
MANIFESTATION OF PHONOLOGY (AROUND
• Children begin to babble regardless of what
linguistic environment they are growing up in.
• Mixture of consonant and vowel sounds.
• Easy to produce sounds ([b], [p], [m], [a]) are most
• But they produce many different sounds, and many
of them are not found in the environment around
• There is no link between sound and meaning.
• There is no biological need for babbling.
• Children babble for social reasons. They learn to
THE ONE WORD STAGE (12-18
• The same sequence of sounds (“words”)
begins to mean the same thing.
• Children can understand multi-word
utterances, but they utter only single words.
• They use words like cookie, drink, bad, no,
but never functional words like in, the, and
• The language of the child consists of just a
few isolated words of the target language,
e.g. ‘mamma’, ‘daddy’, etc.
• Very little grammatical development.
THE TWO WORD STAGE OR FIRST
MANIFESTATION OF SYNTAX (20-24
• Having syntactic and semantic
• First, just putting two words next to another
(each has its own intonation)
• Later, the two words form a simple sentence.
• Word-order expresses semantic roles.
• Virtually no syntactic markers, i.e. no
inflection for number, tense, etc.
• Pronouns are rare.
• Examples: hi Mommy, baby sleep, bye-bye.
THE TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH
STAGE (36-40 MONTHS)
• There is no specific three-word stage.
• Usually function words are missing
• Almost always the correct SVO word-order
• Function words and morphemes come in
• There tends to be a specific order in which
function morphemes are acquired.
• Children seem to constantly change/add
• Second language acquisition, or L2 acquisition,
generally refers to the acquisition of a second
language by someone who has already
acquired a first language.
• They have learned a second language when
they began middle school, or high school, or
• Moving to a new country often means acquiring
a new language.
• . Other people live in communities or homes in
which more than one language is spoken and
may acquire two (or more) languages
I FEEL A FEEL A FUNNY FEEL. A FUNNY
FEEL I FEEL. IF U FEEL THE FEEL I FEEL.
I'LL FEEL THE FEEL U FEEL.
• I LIKE the people LIKE you who LIKE others
LIKE me and make the others LIKE me to
LIKE others LIKE you…its worth
• If you understand, say "understand " . If you
don't understand, say " don't understand".
But if you understand and say "don't
understand". How do I understand that you