ELT Methodology Differences bet l1 and l2


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
  • hello geoffrey...i wanted to know if you could upload the list of references you have used esp. the one who you referred to as (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.12)
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Lecture Notes
  • Lecture Notes
  • ELT Methodology Differences bet l1 and l2

    1. 2. COMMON ARGUMENTS BETWEEN L1 DAN L2 <ul><li>A child acquires L1 through practice; L2 must be practised </li></ul><ul><li>A child acquires L1 through imitation, L2 learning involves imitation </li></ul><ul><li>A child practises L1 by separating sounds, words and sentences; L2 must be taught through the natural order </li></ul><ul><li>A child listens then speaks; there is a right order of presenting L2 skills </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>The natural order for L1 and L2 is listening, speaking, reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>A child acquires L1 without translating, L2 should be taught without translation </li></ul><ul><li>A child does not learn grammar formally; not necessary to teach grammar to L2/FL learners </li></ul>COMMON ARGUMENTS BETWEEN L1 DAN L2
    3. 4. FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION <ul><li>Brown (1994, p. 51) indicates, “It is, in one sense, rather illogical to compare the first language acquisition of a child with the second language acquisition of an adult.” The first language acquisition of a child is difficult to compare with the second language acquisition of an adult as a result of the unbelievable cognitive, affective and physical differences that exist between adults and children (Brown 1994, p. 52). </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Four ways of comparing first and second language acquisition (Brown 1994, p.54): </li></ul><ul><li>Child L1 vs Adult L1 (Type a) </li></ul><ul><li>Child L1 vs Adult L2 (Type b) </li></ul><ul><li>Child L2 vs Child L1 (Type c) </li></ul><ul><li>Child L2 vs Adult L2 (Type d) </li></ul>FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
    5. 6. COGNITIVE FACTORS <ul><li>Cognitive developments of the human brain occur quite rapidly over the first 16 years of life (Brown 1994, p. 58) and decrease after adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget found that puberty is the most critical stage for language acquisition, described the cognitive processes of language learners using two terms: equilibrium and disequilibrium (Brown 1994). </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Piaget saw these two concepts occurring as an ongoing cycle during language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Disequilibrium related to the state of confusion or uncertainty whereas equilibrium pertained to the state of cognition characterized by certainty and resolution (Brown 1994, p. 59). </li></ul><ul><li>It has been hypothesized that the lack of tolerance for contradictions in adults acts as barrier to successful second language acquisition. </li></ul>COGNITIVE FACTORS
    7. 8. <ul><li>Rote, mechanistic learning that isn’t related to the second language learner’s existing knowledge-base is often useless. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful learning connects new information to experiences and existing knowledge in both child and adult second language learners. </li></ul>COGNITIVE FACTORS
    8. 9. <ul><li>Adults attempting to learn a second language would benefit from grammatical explanations and deductive thinking (Brown 1994, p 59). </li></ul><ul><li>Complex grammatical explanations and deductive reasoning would be beyond the cognitive abilities of most children. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that children are so successful in learning second languages because they are not “aware that they are even learning a second language” (Brown 1994, p. 59). </li></ul>COGNITIVE FACTORS
    9. 10. <ul><li>Children are not conscious of the fact that they are even acquiring sophisticated rules of language and master their first language and develop their knowledge of syntax subconsciously (O’Neill 1998, L2 Learning. para.2). </li></ul><ul><li>Adult second language learners do not acquire the rules of syntax unconsciously as easily as children do. L2 syntax is not acquired with the same ease as L1 syntax (O’Neill 1998, L2 Learning. para.2). </li></ul>COGNITIVE FACTORS
    10. 11. <ul><li>Moreover, children are also not as sensitive to the political or social ramifications of learning a given language as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Although adults have cognitive abilities that are much greater than that of a child, many adults cannot successful acquire a second language successfully.. </li></ul>COGNITIVE FACTORS
    11. 12. THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>A biological window of opportunity for human beings to acquire a language. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical period hypothesis, “…states that there is a period during which language acquisition is easy and complete” (Ellis 1997, p. 67). </li></ul><ul><li>A belief that there is a biologically determined critical period for language acquisition (Brown 1994, p. 52). </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Researchers have suggested that the critical point for second language acquisition takes place at around puberty, while other researchers believe that this critical period occurs at an age much earlier than puberty (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.12). I </li></ul><ul><li>t is after puberty that people often experience more difficulty in acquiring a second language and a natural or native-like accent (Brown 1994, p. 53). </li></ul><ul><li>However, this does not mean that it is impossible for adult language learners to attempt to learn a second language. </li></ul>THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS
    13. 14. <ul><li>Researchers have also found that neurological factors are responsible in the successful acquisition of both first and second language learning (Brown 1994, p. 54) </li></ul><ul><li>Scovel (1988) found “that there is a strong possibility that there is a critical period for not only first language acquisition but also second language acquisition” (Brown 1994, p. 54). </li></ul>THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS
    14. 15. <ul><li>Walsh and Driller: different aspects of a second language are best learned at specific ages (Brown 1994, p. 55). </li></ul><ul><li>Their research suggested that foreign accents, for example, are difficult to overcome after childhood (Brown 1994, p. 55). </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation is largely dependent on early maturing of the brain. </li></ul>THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS
    15. 16. <ul><li>Findings lend support to the view that there seems to be “a neurologically based critical period for authentic, native-like accents but not so for higher order processes such as communicative fluency” (Brown 1994, p. 55). </li></ul>THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS
    16. 17. LATERALIZATION <ul><li>Illustrates the critical period hypothesis is referred to as brain lateralization (Brown 1994, p. 53). </li></ul><ul><li>Brain lateralization is a term used to describe the neurological functions that take place in each of the brain’s two hemispheres. </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Krashen (1973) believs that full lateralization of the brain occurred sometime around the age of 5 (Brown 1994, p. 54). </li></ul><ul><li>The brain, basically, assigns specific functions to each hemisphere. For instance, the left side is responsible for language ability in humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasticity or the capabilities of the brain are though to be at their greatest during childhood (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.12). </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have attempted to find out when lateralization takes place and the impact it has on language learning (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.12). </li></ul>LATERALIZATION
    18. 19. <ul><li>Many scholars believe that lateralization takes places between the age of 2 and the age of 12. </li></ul><ul><li>Young patients suffering from left hemisphere brain injuries were studied by Eric Lenneberg in 1967. Lenneberg found that the damage to the left hemisphere in pre-pubescent children did not prevent the children from eventually recovering all of their language abilities. Their brains were able to reassign linguistic functions to the right hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Children under the age of 12 were able to re-learn their first language without any noticeable handicaps (Brown 1994, p. 54). </li></ul>LATERALIZATION
    19. 20. <ul><li>Patients older than 12 were less likely to recover their lost language abilities (Ellis 1997, p. 67; Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.2). </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers also found that the right hemisphere learned how to do what the left hemisphere was doing prior to the injury in pre-pubescent patients. </li></ul>LATERALIZATION
    20. 21. <ul><li>As the brain matures, the prospect of acquiring a second language becomes much more difficult (Brown 1994, p. 53). </li></ul><ul><li>Very important questions: at what point does lateralization take place and how does the process of lateralization affect language acquisition? </li></ul>LATERALIZATION
    21. 22. PRONUNCIATION AND ACCENT <ul><li>A child learns to develop and control dozens of muscles and speech organs such as the tongue, lips, throat and mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>This helps them attain native-like or natural pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only are speech muscles developed early in life but so are the child’s neurological pathways which assist in the production of sounds (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.11). </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Adults have, for their L1, already developed muscles in their throat, mouth, lips, etc. and then must go through this process again for their L2. </li></ul><ul><li>The adult L2 learner must develop new habits and resist any temptation to use old, unhelpful habits in learning their L2 (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.11). </li></ul>PRONUNCIATION AND ACCENT
    23. 24. <ul><li>One reason that adult second language learners have more difficulty achieving a native-like accent, whereas, children learning a second language are more successful in acquiring a native-like accent. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible for adult L2 learners to still achieve high fluency in their second language without having native-like pronunciation (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.11). </li></ul>PRONUNCIATION AND ACCENT
    24. 25. MEANING CONTEXTS <ul><li>First language learning often takes place in a meaningful context, whereas second language learning usually occurs in an artificial environment such as a classroom. </li></ul>
    25. 26. INPUT <ul><li>The input or samples of language to which a learner is exposed, is very important. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have tried to establish what kind of input facilitates learning. For example, do learners benefit more from input that has been simplified for them or from authentic language of native speaker communication? (Ellis 1997, p. 5). . </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>A child learns its first language while, at the same time, learning about the world they live in and “the input she receives will become comprehensible to her through her contact with the world itself” (Laohasiri 1998, para.2). </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive mechanisms of L2 learners possess general knowledge about the world which they can draw on to help them understand L2 input. </li></ul><ul><li>L2 learners can also use communication strategies to help them make effective use of their L2 knowledge </li></ul>INPUT
    27. 28. <ul><li>Adult second language learners can use mnemonic devices or existing ideas or notions that they may already have about the world in order to memorize new vocabulary (Ellis 1997, p. 5). </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers might also argue that L2 learners are well-equipped with pre-existing knowledge of how language in general works, which helps them learn their second language. </li></ul>INPUT
    28. 29. <ul><li>Adult second language learner relies on teacher input. </li></ul><ul><li>Since input from parents is very important to the first language learner, it is also a good idea for teachers to be as deliberate but meaningful in their communications with students (Brown 1994, p. 69). </li></ul>INPUT
    29. 30. L2 LEARNING STRATEGIES <ul><li>When an adult learner of a second language uses certain techniques in an attempt to learn a second language, we refer to this as learning strategies (Ellis 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies may include what is known as social affective strategies, where the learner repeats words out loud in order to memorize new vocabulary or phrases or uses situational context in order to better understand the new language. </li></ul>
    30. 31. AFFECTIVE FACTORS <ul><li>The affective considerations of language acquisition include: inhibition, imitation, attitude, self-esteem and anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Young children tend to be very egocentric and they perceive events in the world in relation to themselves </li></ul><ul><li>As children reach the age of puberty they become much more self conscious and insecure with their language ego. </li></ul><ul><li>It is during this period that the child changes physically, emotionally and cognitively. All of these changes in the child ultimately affect communication </li></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>The notion of self-concept begins to develop and the adolescent is aware of how others see him or her. In a sense, the child becomes more self-conscious (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.15). </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept, comparisons between themselves and the others around them affect the learning of a second language among young people. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults tend to believe that mistakes should not be made and feel humiliated or foolish when they make a mistake (Mangubhai 2003, p. 1.15). </li></ul>AFFECTIVE FACTORS
    32. 33. <ul><li>The young language learner attempts to defend the language ego. As a result, the child will attempt to use the native language for defense (Brown 1994, p. 62). </li></ul><ul><li>Many second language learners feel threatened and are unwilling to put themselves in situations where they may look foolish, such as in attempting to speak a foreign language. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, it is important for second language learners to overcome inhibitions in order to acquire a second language successfully. </li></ul>AFFECTIVE FACTORS